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       salvager - Initializes the Salvager component of the fs process


       salvager [initcmd] [-partition <name of partition to salvage>]
           [-volumeid <volume id to salvage>] [-debug] [-nowrite]
           [-inodes] [-force] [-oktozap] [-rootinodes]
           [-salvagedirs] [-blockreads]
           [-parallel <# of max parallel partition salvaging>]
           [-tmpdir <name of dir to place tmp files>]
           [-showlog] [-showsuid] [-showmounts]
           [-orphans (ignore | remove | attach)] [-help]


       The salvager command initializes the Salvager component of the "fs"
       process. In the conventional configuration, its binary file is located
       in the /usr/lib/openafs directory on a file server machine.

       The Salvager restores internal consistency to corrupted read/write
       volumes on the local file server machine where possible. For read-only
       or backup volumes, it inspects only the volume header:

       ·   If the volume header is corrupted, the Salvager removes the volume
           completely and records the removal in its log file,
           /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog. Issue the vos release or vos backup
           command to create the read-only or backup volume again.

       ·   If the volume header is intact, the Salvager skips the volume (does
           not check for corruption in the contents). However, if the File
           Server notices corruption as it initializes, it sometimes refuses
           to attach the volume or bring it online. In this case, it is
           simplest to remove the volume by issuing the vos remove or vos zap
           command. Then issue the vos release or vos backup command to create
           it again.

       Unlike other server process initialization commands, the salvager
       command is designed to be issued at the command shell prompt, as well
       as being placed into a file server machine’s /etc/openafs/BosConfig
       file with the bos create command. It is also possible to invoke the
       Salvager remotely by issuing the bos salvage command.

       Combine the command’s options as indicated to salvage different numbers
       of read/write volumes:

       ·   To salvage all volumes on the file server machine, provide no
           arguments.  No volumes on the machine are accessible to Cache
           Managers during the salvage, because the BOS Server stops the File
           Server and Volume Server processes while the Salvager runs.

       ·   To salvage all of the volumes on one partition, provide the
           -partition argument. As for a salvage of all volumes on the
           machine, no volumes on the machine are accessible to Cache Managers
           during the salvage operation.

       ·   To salvage only one volume, combine the -partition and -volumeid
           arguments. Only that volume is inaccessible to Cache Managers,
           because the BOS Server does not shutdown the File Server and Volume
           Server processes.

       The Salvager normally salvages only those read/write volumes that are
       marked as having been active when a crash occurred. To have it salvage
       all relevant read/write volumes, add the -force flag.

       The Salvager normally creates new inodes as it repairs damage. If the
       partition is so full that there is no room for new inodes, use the
       -nowrite argument to bringing undamaged volumes online without
       attempting to salvage damaged volumes. Then use the vos move command to
       move one or more of the undamaged volumes to other partitions, freeing
       up the space that the Salvager needs to create new inodes.

       By default, multiple Salvager subprocesses run in parallel: one for
       each partition up to four, and four subprocesses for four or more
       partitions. To increase or decrease the number of subprocesses running
       in parallel, provide a positive integer value for the -parallel

       If there is more than one server partition on a physical disk, the
       Salvager by default salvages them serially to avoid the inefficiency of
       constantly moving the disk head from one partition to another. However,
       this strategy is often not ideal if the partitions are configured as
       logical volumes that span multiple disks. To force the Salvager to
       salvage logical volumes in parallel as if they were on separate disks,
       provide the string "all" as the value for the -parallel argument.

       To set both parameters at the same time, append the number of Salvager
       processes to the string "all". For example, "-parallel all5" treats
       each partition as a separate disk and runs five Salvager processes,
       thus salvaging five partitions at a time.

       The Salvager creates temporary files as it runs, by default writing
       them to the partition it is salvaging. The number of files can be quite
       large, and if the partition is too full to accommodate them, the
       Salvager terminates without completing the salvage operation (it always
       removes the temporary files before exiting). Other Salvager
       subprocesses running at the same time continue until they finish
       salvaging all other partitions where there is enough disk space for
       temporary files. To complete the interrupted salvage, reissue the
       command against the appropriate partitions, adding the -tmpdir argument
       to redirect the temporary files to a local disk directory that has
       enough space.

       The -orphans argument controls how the Salvager handles orphaned files
       and directories that it finds on server partitions it is salvaging. An
       orphaned element is completely inaccessible because it is not
       referenced by the vnode of any directory that can act as its parent (is
       higher in the filespace). Orphaned objects occupy space on the server
       partition, but do not count against the volume’s quota.

       To generate a list of all mount points that reside in one or more
       volumes, rather than actually salvaging them, include the -showmounts

       This command does not use the syntax conventions of the AFS command
       suites. Provide the command name and all option names in full.


           Accommodates the command’s use of the AFS command parser, and is

       -partition <name of partition to salvage>
           Specifies the name of the partition to salvage. Specify the full
           partition name using the form /vicepx or /vicepxx. Omit this
           argument to salvage every partition on the file server machine.

       -volumeid <volume id to salvage>
           Specifies the volume ID of a specific read/write volume to salvage.
           The -partition argument must be provided along with this one and
           specify the volume’s actual site.

           Allows only one Salvager subprocess to run at a time, regardless of
           the setting of the -parallel option. Include it when running the
           Salvager in a debugger to make the trace easier to interpret.

           Brings all undamaged volumes online without attempting to salvage
           any damaged volumes.

           Records in the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file a list of all AFS
           inodes that the Salvager modified.

           Inspects all volumes for corruption, not just those that are marked
           as having been active when a crash occurred.

           Removes a volume that is so damaged that even issuing the vos zap
           command with the -force flag is ineffective. Use this argument only
           in consultation with AFS Development or Product Support. Combine it
           with the -partition and -volumeid arguments to identify the volume
           to remove.

           Records in the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file a list of all AFS
           inodes owned by the local superuser "root".

           Salvages entire directory structures, even if they do not appear to
           be damaged. By default, the Salvager salvages a directory only if
           it is flagged as corrupted.

           Forces the Salvager to read a partition one disk block (512 bytes)
           at a time and to skip any blocks that are too badly damaged to be
           salvaged.  This allows it to salvage as many volumes as possible.
           By default, the Salvager reads large disk blocks, which can cause
           it to exit prematurely if it encounters disk errors. Use this flag
           if the partition to be salvaged has disk errors.

       -parallel <# of max parallel partition salvaging>
           Specifies the maximum number of Salvager subprocesses to run in
           parallel.  Provide one of three values:

           ·   An integer from the range 1 to 32. A value of 1 means that a
               single Salvager process salvages the partitions sequentially.

           ·   The string "all" to run up to four Salvager subprocesses in
               parallel on partitions formatted as logical volumes that span
               multiple physical disks. Use this value only with such logical

           ·   The string "all" followed immediately (with no intervening
               space) by an integer from the range 1 to 32, to run the
               specified number of Salvager subprocesses in parallel on
               partitions formatted as logical volumes. Use this value only
               with such logical volumes.

           The BOS Server never starts more Salvager subprocesses than there
           are partitions, and always starts only one process to salvage a
           single volume. If this argument is omitted, up to four Salvager
           subprocesses run in parallel but partitions on the same device are
           salvaged serially.

       -tmpdir <name of dir to place tmp files>
           Names a local disk directory in which the Salvager places the
           temporary files it creates during a salvage operation, instead of
           writing them to the partition being salvaged (the default). If the
           Salvager cannot write to the specified directory, it attempts to
           write to the partition being salvaged.

           Displays on the standard output stream all log data that is being
           written to the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file.

           Displays a list of the pathnames for all files that have the setuid
           or setgid mode bit set.

           Records in the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file all mount points
           found in each volume. The Salvager does not repair corruption in
           the volumes, if any exists.

       -orphans (ignore | remove | attach)
           Controls how the Salvager handles orphaned files and directories.
           Choose one of the following three values:

               Leaves the orphaned objects on the disk, but prints a message
               to the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file reporting how many
               orphans were found and the approximate number of kilobytes they
               are consuming. This is the default if the -orphans argument is

               Removes the orphaned objects, and prints a message to the
               /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file reporting how many orphans
               were removed and the approximate number of kilobytes they were

               Attaches the orphaned objects by creating a reference to them
               in the vnode of the volume’s root directory. Since each
               object’s actual name is now lost, the Salvager assigns each one
               a name of the following form:

               "__ORPHANFILE__.index" for files.
               "__ORPHANDIR__.index" for directories.

               where index is a two-digit number that uniquely identifies each
               object. The orphans are charged against the volume’s quota and
               appear in the output of the ls command issued against the
               volume’s root directory.

           Prints the online help for this command. All other valid options
           are ignored.


       The following command instructs the Salvager to attempt to salvage the
       volume with volume ID 258347486 on /vicepg on the local machine.

          % /usr/lib/openafs/salvager -partition /vicepg -volumeid 258347486


       To issue the command at the shell prompt, the issuer must be logged in
       as the local superuser "root".


       BosConfig(5), SalvageLog(5), bos_create(8), bos_getlog(8),
       bos_salvage(8), vos_move(1)


       IBM Corporation 2000. <> All Rights Reserved.

       This documentation is covered by the IBM Public License Version 1.0.
       It was converted from HTML to POD by software written by Chas Williams
       and Russ Allbery, based on work by Alf Wachsmann and Elizabeth Cassell.