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       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect - bitmap generator for a circular conductor
       inside a rectangular conductor (part of atlc)


       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect [options... ] d W H x y Er outfile.bmp


       This man page is not a complete set of documentation -  the  complexity
       of  the  atlc  project makes man pages not an ideal way to document it,
       although out  of  completeness,  man  pages  are  produced.   The  best
       documentation  that  was  current  at the time the version was produced
       should be found on your hard drive, usually at
       although it might be elsewhere if your system  administrator  chose  to
       install  the  package elsewhere. Sometimes, errors are corrected in the
       documentation and placed at before  a  new
       release  of atlc is released.  Please, if you notice a problem with the
       documentation - even spelling errors and typos, please let me know.


       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect is a pre-processor  for  atlc,  the  finite
       difference  program  that is used to calculate the properties of a two-
       conductor electrical transmission line of arbitrary cross section.  The
       program create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect is used as a fast way of generating
       bitmaps (there is no need to use a graphics program),  for  a  circular
       conductor inside a rectangular conductor, like this:

       --------------------------------------------------------  ^
       |                                                      |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |           Dielectric, permittivity=Er                |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       |         <------x------> ^                            |  H
       |       *****             |                            |  |
       |    ***********          y                            |  |
       |   *************         |                            |  |
       |   **************        |                            |  |
       |   <-----d------>        v                            |  |
       |   **************                                     |  |
       |   *************                                      |  |
       |    ***********                                       |  |
       |        ***                                           |  |
       |                                                      |  |
       -------------------------------------------------------   v

       The  parameters  ’W’  and  ’H’  and  the  inner dimensions of the outer
       conductor.  The inner conductor has a diameter of  ’d’  and  is  offset
       from  the  centre  of the outer conductor by an amount ’x’ horizontally
       and ’y’ vertically.  The space between the inner and  outer  conductors
       is  a  dielectric  of  relative  permittivity  ’Er’. If there is just a
       vacuum dielectric, then ’Er’ should be set to 1.0

       The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be re-directed  to
       either a file in one of the following two ways.

       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect  d W H x y Er > filename.bmp OR
       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect -f filename.bmp d W H x y Er

       The  bitmaps  produced  by  create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect  are 24-bit bit
       colour bitmaps, as are required by atlc.

       The permittivities of the bitmap, set by ’Er’, determine the colours in
       the bitmap. If Er1 is 1.0, 1.006, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33, 2.5, 3.3, 3.335, 3.7,
       4.8, 10.2 or 100 then the colour  corresponding  to  that  permittivity
       will be set according to the colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er is
       not one of those permittivities, the region of permittivity Er will  be
       set  to  the colour 0xCAFF00. The program atlc does not know what these
       permittivites are, so atlc, must be  told  with  the  -d  command  line
       option, as in example 4 below.


       -b bitmapsize
       is  used  to  set  the size of the bitmap, and so the accuracy to which
       atlc is able to  calculate  the  transmission  line’s  properties.  The
       default  value  for ’bitmapsize’ is normally 4, although this is set at
       compile time. The value can be set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than
       8 is probably not sensible.

       -f outfile

       Causes  create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect to print some data to stderr. Note,
       nothing extra goes to standard  output,  as  that  is  expected  to  be
       redirected to a bitmap file.


       The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8 bits assigned to represent
       the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for  green.  Hence  there  are  256
       levels  of  red, green and blue, making a total of 256*256*256=16777216
       colours.  Every one of the possible 16777216  colours  can  be  defined
       precisely  by  the  stating the exact amount of red, green and blue, as

       red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
       green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
       blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
       black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
       white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
       Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
       gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

       Some colours, such as pink, turquoise, sandy, brown, gray etc may  mean
       slightly  different  things  to  different  people. This is not so with
       atlc, as the program expects the colours below to be EXACTLY defined as
       given. Whether you feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up to you, but
       if you use it in your bitmap, then it  either  needs  to  be  a  colour
       recognised  by  atlc,  or you must define it with a command line option
       (see OPTIONS and example 5 below).
       The following conductors are recognised by atlc:
       red    = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000 is the live conductor.
       green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00 is the grounded conductor.
       black  = 000,000,000 or 0x000000 is the negative conductor

       All bitmaps must have the live (red) and  grounded  (green)  conductor.
       The  black conductor is not currently supported, but it will be used to
       indicate a negative conductor, which will be needed if/when the program
       gets extended to analyse directional couplers.

       The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so are produced by

       white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0   (vacuum)
       white     255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
       blue      000,000,255 or 0x0000FF as Er=2.1   (PTFE)
       Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2   (duroid 5880)
       mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
       yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5   (polystyrene)
       sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3   (PVC)
       brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335 (epoxy resin)
       Turquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8   (glass PCB)
       Dark gray 142,142,142 or ox696969 as Er=6.15  (duroid 6006)
       L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
       D. Orange 213,160,077 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100   (for testing)
       If the permittivity is one not in the above list, then those  parts  of
       the image with Er1 will be set to 0xCAFF00, and those parts with Er2 to


       Here are a few examples  of  the  use  of  create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect.
       Again, see the html documentation in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs for more

       In the first example, there is just an air dielectric, so  Er1=Er2=1.0.
       The  inner  of  1x1 inches (or mm, miles etc) is placed centrally in an
       outer with dimensions 3 x 3 inches.

       The exact place where the dielectric starts (a) and its width  (d)  are
       unimportant, but they must still be entered.

       % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 > ex1.bmp
       % atlc ex1.bmp

       In  this  second example, an inner of 15.0 mm x 0.5 mm is surrounded by
       an outer with internal dimensions  of  61.5  x  20.1  mm.  There  is  a
       material  with permittivity 2.1 (Er of PTFE) below the inner conductor.
       The output from create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect is sent to a file  ex1.bmp,
       which is then processed by atlc

       %  create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect  61.5  20.1  5  22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0 2.1 >
       % atlc ex2.bmp

       In example 3, the bitmap is made  larger,  to  increase  accuracy,  but
       otherwise    this    is   identical   to   the   second   example.    %
       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect -b7 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5  1.0  2.1  >
       % atlc ex3.bmp

       In      the     fourth     example,     instead     of     re-directing
       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rects output to a file with the > sign,  it  is
       done using the -f option.
       % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect -f ex4.bmp 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0
       % atlc ex4.bmp

       In the fifth example, materials with permittivites 2.78  and  7.89  are
       used.    While    there    is    no    change    in    how    to    use
       create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect, since these permittivities are not  known,
       we must tell atlc what they are.  % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect 61 20 1
       4 22 0.5 50 15  5  2.78  7.89  >  ex5.bmp  %  atlc  -d  CAFF00=2.78  -d
       AC82AC=7.89  ex5.bmp  In  the sixth and final example, the -v option is
       used    to    print    some    extra    data     to     stderr     from


       atlc(1)                                  create_bmp_for_circ_in_circ(1)
       create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler(1) create_bmp_for_rect_cen_in_rect(1)
       create_bmp_for_rect_in_circ(1)           create_bmp_for_rect_in_rect(1)
       create_bmp_for_symmetrical_stripline(1)               design_coupler(1)
       find_optimal_dimensions_for_microstrip_coupler(1) readbin(1)                - Home page       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples

Dr. David Kirkby              atlc-4.4.2 10/09/0create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect(1)