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       xfsrestore - XFS filesystem incremental restore utility


       xfsrestore -h
       xfsrestore [ options ] -f source [ -f source ... ] dest
       xfsrestore [ options ] - dest
       xfsrestore -I [ subopt=value ... ]


       xfsrestore restores filesystems from dumps produced by xfsdump(8).  Two
       modes of operation are available: simple and cumulative.

       The  default  is  simple  mode.   xfsrestore  populates  the  specified
       destination  directory,  dest,  with  the  files  contained in the dump

       The -r option specifies the cumulative mode.  Successive invocations of
       xfsrestore  are  used  to  apply  a chronologically ordered sequence of
       delta dumps to a base (level 0) dump.  The contents of  the  filesystem
       at  the  time  each  dump was produced is reproduced.  This can involve
       adding,  deleting,  renaming,  linking,   and   unlinking   files   and

       A  delta  dump  is  defined  as  either an incremental dump (xfsdump -l
       option with level > 0) or a resumed  dump  (xfsdump  -R  option).   The
       deltas  must  be  applied  in the order they were produced.  Each delta
       applied must have been produced with the previously  applied  delta  as
       its base.

       The options to xfsrestore are:

       -a housekeeping
            Each   invocation   of   xfsrestore  creates  a  directory  called
            xfsrestorehousekeepingdir.  This  directory  is  normally  created
            directly  under  the  dest  directory.   The  -a option allows the
            operator to specify an alternate directory, housekeeping, in which
            xfsrestore  creates  the  xfsrestorehousekeeping  directory.  When
            performing a  cumulative  (-r  option)  restore,  each  successive
            invocation   of   xfsrestore   must  specify  the  same  alternate

       -b blocksize
            Specifies the blocksize, in bytes, to be  used  for  the  restore.
            For other drives such as DAT or 8 mm , the same blocksize used for
            the xfsdump operation must be specified to restore the tape.   The
            default block size is 1Mb.

       -c progname
            Use  the  specified  program  to  alert  the operator when a media
            change is required. The alert program is  typically  a  script  to
            send a mail or flash a window to draw the operator’s attention.

       -e   Prevents  xfsrestore  from  overwriting existing files in the dest

       -f source [ -f source ... ]
            Specifies a source of the dump to be restored.  This  can  be  the
            pathname  of  a device (such as a tape drive), a regular file or a
            remote tape drive (see rmt(8)).  This option must  be  omitted  if
            the   standard   input   option  (a  lone  -  preceding  the  dest
            specification) is specified.

       -i   Selects  interactive  operation.   Once  the  on-media   directory
            hierarchy  has  been  read, an interactive dialogue is begun.  The
            operator uses a small set of  commands  to  peruse  the  directory
            hierarchy,  selecting  files  and  subtrees  for  extraction.  The
            available  commands  are  given  below.   Initially   nothing   is
            selected, except for those subtrees specified with -s command line

            ls [arg]       List the entries in the current  directory  or  the
                           specified directory, or the specified non-directory
                           file entry.  Both the entry’s original inode number
                           and   name   are   displayed.    Entries  that  are
                           directories are appended with a ‘/’.  Entries  that
                           have  been  selected  for  extraction are prepended
                           with a ‘*’.

            cd [arg]       Change  the  current  working  directory   to   the
                           specified  argument,  or  to  the  filesystem  root
                           directory if no argument is specified.

            pwd            Print  the  pathname  of  the  current   directory,
                           relative to the filesystem root.

            add [arg]      The   current   directory   or  specified  file  or
                           directory within the current directory is  selected
                           for  extraction.  If a directory is specified, then
                           it and all its descendents are  selected.   Entries
                           that are selected for extraction are prepended with
                           a ‘*’ when they are listed by ls.

            delete [arg]   The  current  directory  or   specified   file   or
                           directory   within   the   current   directory   is
                           deselected  for  extraction.   If  a  directory  is
                           specified,  then  it  and  all  its descendents are
                           deselected.  The most expedient way to extract most
                           of  the  files  from  a  directory is to select the
                           directory and then deselect those  files  that  are
                           not needed.

            extract        Ends  the  interactive  dialogue,  and  causes  all
                           selected subtrees to be restored.

            quit           xfsrestore  ends  the  interactive   dialogue   and
                           immediately  exits,  even  if  there  are  files or
                           subtrees selected for extraction.

            help           List a summary of the available commands.

       -m   Use the minimal tape protocol.  This option cannot be used without
            specifying a blocksize to be used (see -b option above).

       -n file
            Allows  xfsrestore  to  restore  only  files newer than file.  The
            modification time of file (i.e.,  as  displayed  with  the  ls  -l
            command)  is  compared to the inode modification time of each file
            on the source media (i.e., as displayed with the ls -lc  command).
            A  file is restored from media only if its inode modification time
            is greater than or equal to the modification time of file.

       -o   Restore file and directory owner/group even if not root.  When run
            with  an  effective user id of root, xfsrestore restores owner and
            group of each  file  and  directory.   When  run  with  any  other
            effective user id it does not, unless this option is specified.

       -p interval
            Causes  progress  reports  to  be printed at intervals of interval
            seconds.  The interval value is approximate, xfsrestore will delay
            progress reports to avoid undue processing overhead.

       -q   Source  tape  drive  is a QIC tape.  QIC tapes only use a 512 byte
            blocksize, for which xfsrestore must make special allowances.

       -r   Selects the cumulative mode of operation.

       -s subtree
            Specifies a subtree to restore.  Any  number  of  -s  options  are
            allowed.   The restore is constrained to the union of all subtrees
            specified.  Each subtree is specified as a  pathname  relative  to
            the  restore dest.  If a directory is specified, the directory and
            all files beneath that directory are restored.

       -t   Displays the contents of the dump, but does not create  or  modify
            any  files  or  directories.   It  may  be  desirable  to  set the
            verbosity level to silent when using this option.

       -v verbosity
       -v subsys=verbosity[,subsys=verbosity,...]
            Specifies the level of detail used for messages  displayed  during
            the course of the restore. The verbosity argument can be passed as
            either a string or an integer. If passed as a string the following
            values  may  be used: silent, verbose, trace, debug, or nitty.  If
            passed as an integer, values from 0-5 may be used. The values  0-4
            correspond  to the strings already listed. The value 5 can be used
            to produce even more verbose debug output.

            The first form of this option activates message logging across all
            restore  subsystems.  The  second  form allows the message logging
            level to be controlled on a per-subsystem basis. The two forms can
            be  combined (see the example below). The argument subsys can take
            one  of  the  following  values:  general,  proc,  drive,   media,
            inventory, and tree.

            For example, to restore the root filesystem with tracing activated
            for all subsystems:

                 # xfsrestore -v trace -f /dev/tape /

            To enable debug-level tracing for drive and media operations:

                 # xfsrestore -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /

            To enable tracing for all subsystems, and debug level tracing  for
            drive operations only:

                 # xfsrestore -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /

       -A   Do  not  restore  extended  file  attributes.   When  restoring  a
            filesystem managed within a DMF environment this option should not
            be   used.  DMF  stores  file  migration  status  within  extended
            attributes associated with each file. If these attributes are  not
            preserved  when the filesystem is restored, files that had been in
            migrated state will not be recallable by DMF. Note that dumping of
            extended file attributes is also optional.

       -B   Change  the ownership and permissions of the destination directory
            to match those of the root directory of the dump.

       -D   Restore DMAPI (Data Management Application Programming  Interface)
            event  settings. If the restored filesystem will be managed within
            the same DMF environment as the original dump it is essential that
            the  -D  option  be used. Otherwise it is not usually desirable to
            restore these settings.

       -E   Prevents xfsrestore from overwriting newer versions of files.  The
            inode  modification  time  of the on-media file is compared to the
            inode  modification  time  of  corresponding  file  in  the   dest
            directory.   The  file is restored only if the on-media version is
            newer  than  the  version  in  the  dest  directory.   The   inode
            modification  time  of  a  file  can  be displayed with the ls -lc

       -F   Inhibit  interactive  operator  prompts.   This  option   inhibits
            xfsrestore  from  prompting  the  operator for verification of the
            selected dump as the restore target and  from  prompting  for  any
            media change.

       -I   Causes  the  xfsdump  inventory  to  be  displayed  (no restore is
            performed).  Each time xfsdump is used,  an  online  inventory  in
            /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory  is updated.  This is used to determine
            the base for incremental dumps.  It is also  useful  for  manually
            identifying  a  dump  session  to  be  restored (see the -L and -S
            options).   Suboptions  to  filter  the  inventory   display   are
            described later.

       -J   Inhibits   inventory   update   when  on-media  session  inventory
            encountered during restore.  xfsrestore opportunistically  updates
            the  online  inventory  when  it  encounters  an  on-media session
            inventory, but only if run with an effective user id of  root  and
            only if this option is not given.

       -L session_label
            Specifies  the  label  of  the  dump  session to be restored.  The
            source media is searched for this  label.   It  is  any  arbitrary
            string  up  to 255 characters long.  The label of the desired dump
            session can be copied from the inventory display produced  by  the
            -I option.

       -O options_file
            Insert the options contained in options_file into the beginning of
            the command line.  The options are specified just  as  they  would
            appear  if  typed  into  the  command  line.  In addition, newline
            characters (\n) can be used as whitespace.  The options are placed
            before  all options actually given on the command line, just after
            the command name.  Only one -O option can be used.  Recursive  use
            is  ignored.   The  destination  directory  cannot be specified in

       -Q   Force completion of an interrupted restore session.   This  option
            is  required  to  work  around one specific pathological scenario.
            When restoring a dump session which was interrupted due to an  EOM
            condition and no online session inventory is available, xfsrestore
            cannot know when the restore of that  dump  session  is  complete.
            The  operator is forced to interrupt the restore session.  In that
            case, if the operator tries to subsequently apply a  resumed  dump
            (using  the -r option), xfsrestore refuses to do so.  The operator
            must tell xfsrestore to consider  the  base  restore  complete  by
            using this option when applying the resumed dump.

       -R   Resume  a  previously  interrupted  restore.   xfsrestore  can  be
            interrupted  at  any  time  by  pressing  the  terminal  interrupt
            character  (see  stty(1)).  Use this option to resume the restore.
            The -a and destination options must be the same.

       -S session_id
            Specifies the session UUID of the dump  session  to  be  restored.
            The  source  media  is  searched  for  this UUID.  The UUID of the
            desired dump session can be  copied  from  the  inventory  display
            produced by the -I option.

       -T   Inhibits  interactive  dialogue  timeouts.  xfsrestore prompts the
            operator for media changes.  This dialogue normally times  out  if
            no response is supplied.  This option prevents the timeout.

       -X subtree
            Specifies  a  subtree  to exclude.  This is the converse of the -s
            option.  Any number of -X options are allowed.   Each  subtree  is
            specified  as  a  pathname  relative  to  the  restore dest.  If a
            directory is specified, the directory and all files  beneath  that
            directory are excluded.

       -Y io_ring_length
            Specify  I/O  buffer ring length.  xfsrestore uses a ring of input
            buffers to achieve maximum throughput  when  restoring  from  tape
            drives.   The  default  ring  length  is 3.  However, this is only
            supported when running multi-threaded which has not been done  for
            Linux yet - making this option benign.

       -    A lone - causes the standard input to be read as the source of the
            dump to be restored.  Standard input can be a  pipe  from  another
            utility  (such  as  xfsdump(8)) or a redirected file.  This option
            cannot be used with the -f option.  The - must  follow  all  other
            options, and precede the dest specification.

       The dumped filesystem is restored into the dest directory.  There is no
       default; the dest must be specified.


   Cumulative Restoration
       A base (level 0) dump  and  an  ordered  set  of  delta  dumps  can  be
       sequentially  restored,  each  on top of the previous, to reproduce the
       contents of the original filesystem at the  time  the  last  delta  was
       produced.   The operator invokes xfsrestore once for each dump.  The -r
       option must be specified.  The dest directory must be the same for  all
       invocations.     Each    invocation    leaves    a    directory   named
       xfsrestorehousekeeping in the  dest  directory  (however,  see  the  -a
       option above).  This directory contains the state information that must
       be communicated between invocations.  The  operator  must  remove  this
       directory after the last delta has been applied.

       xfsrestore  also  generates  a  directory  named  orphanage in the dest
       directory.  xfsrestore removes this directory after completing a simple
       restore.   However, if orphanage is not empty, it is not removed.  This
       can happen if files present on the dump media are not referenced by any
       of  the restored directories.  The orphanage has an entry for each such
       file.  The entry name is the file’s original inode number, a  ".",  and
       the  file’s generation count modulo 4096 (only the lower 12 bits of the
       generation count are used).

       xfsrestore does not remove the  orphanage  after  cumulative  restores.
       Like  the xfsrestorehousekeeping directory, the operator must remove it
       after applying all delta dumps.

   Media Management
       A dump consists of one or more media files contained  on  one  or  more
       media  objects.   A  media  file  contains  all  or  a  portion  of the
       filesystem dump.  Large filesystems are broken up into  multiple  media
       files  to  minimize  the  impact  of media dropouts, and to accommodate
       media object boundaries (end-of-media).

       A media object is any storage medium: a tape cartridge, a  remote  tape
       device  (see  rmt(8)), a regular file, or the standard input (currently
       other removable media drives are not supported).  Tape  cartridges  can
       contain multiple media files, which are typically separated by (in tape
       parlance) file marks.  If a dump  spans  multiple  media  objects,  the
       restore  must  begin  with  the media object containing the first media
       file dumped.  The operator is prompted when the next  media  object  is

       Media  objects can contain more than one dump.  The operator can select
       the desired dump by specifying  the  dump  label  (-L  option),  or  by
       specifying  the  dump  UUID  (-S  option).   If  neither  is specified,
       xfsrestore scans the entire media object,  prompting  the  operator  as
       each dump session is encountered.

       The  inventory  display (-I option) is useful for identifying the media
       objects required.  It is also useful for identifying  a  dump  session.
       The  session  UUID  can  be copied from the inventory display to the -S
       option  argument  to  unambiguously  identify  a  dump  session  to  be

       Dumps  placed  in  regular  files  or  the  standard output do not span
       multiple media objects, nor do they contain multiple dumps.

       Each    dump    session    updates    an    inventory    database    in
       /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.  This database can be displayed by invoking
       xfsrestore with the -I option.  The display uses tabbed indentation  to
       present  the  inventory hierarchically.  The first level is filesystem.
       The  second  level  is  session.   The  third  level  is  media  stream
       (currently  only  one stream is supported).  The fourth level lists the
       media files sequentially composing the stream.

       The following suboptions are available to filter the display.

       -I depth=n
            (where n is 1, 2, or 3)  limits  the  hierarchical  depth  of  the
            display.  When  n  is  1, only the filesystem information from the
            inventory is displayed. When n is 2, only filesystem  and  session
            information  are  displayed. When n is 3, only filesystem, session
            and stream information are displayed.

       -I level=n
            (where n is the dump level) limits the display to  dumps  of  that
            particular dump level.

       The  display  may  be restricted to media files contained in a specific
       media object.

       -I mobjid=value
            (where value is a media ID) specifies  the  media  object  by  its
            media ID.

       -I mobjlabel=value
            (where  value  is a media label) specifies the media object by its
            media label.

       Similarly, the display can be restricted to a specific filesystem.

       -I mnt=mount_point
            (that  is,  [hostname:]pathname),  identifies  the  filesystem  by
            mountpoint.   Specifying  the  hostname  is  optional,  but may be
            useful in a clustered environment where more than one host can  be
            responsible for dumping a filesystem.

       -I fsid=filesystem_id
            identifies the filesystem by filesystem ID.

       -I dev=device_pathname
            (that is, [hostname:]device_pathname) identifies the filesystem by
            device.  As with  the  mnt  filter,  specifying  the  hostname  is

       More  than  one  of  these  suboptions,  separated  by  commas,  may be
       specified at the same time to limit the display  of  the  inventory  to
       those  dumps  of  interest.   However,  at  most four suboptions can be
       specified at once: one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one to
       constrain the dump level, one to constrain the media object, and one to
       constrain the filesystem.

       For example, -I  depth=1,mobjlabel="tape  1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt  would
       display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those filesystems
       that were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the dump, and  only
       those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled "tape 1".

       Dump  records  may  be  removed  (pruned)  from the inventory using the
       xfsinvutil program.

       An additional media file is placed at the  end  of  each  dump  stream.
       This media file contains the inventory information for the current dump
       session.  If the online inventory files  in  /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory
       are  missing  information  for  the  current  dump  session,  then  the
       inventory information in the media file is automatically added  to  the
       files  in  /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.   If you wish to incorporate the
       inventory information from the media file without restoring  any  data,
       you may do so using the -t option:

            # xfsrestore -t -f /dev/tape

       This  is useful to rebuild the inventory database if it is ever lost or
       corrupted.  The only caveat is that xfsrestore needs  to  read  through
       the entire dump in order to reach the inventory media file.  This could
       become time consuming for dump sessions with large media files.

   Media Errors
       xfsdump is tolerant of media errors, but cannot  do  error  correction.
       If  a  media  error  occurs in the body of a media file, the filesystem
       file represented at that point is lost.  The bad portion of  the  media
       is  skipped,  and  the  restoration resumes at the next filesystem file
       after the bad portion of the media.

       If a media error occurs in the beginning of the media file, the  entire
       media  file  is  lost.   For this reason, large dumps are broken into a
       number of reasonably sized media files.  The restore resumes  with  the
       next media file.

       When  xfsdump dumps a filesystem with user quotas, it creates a file in
       the root of the dump called  xfsdump_quotas.   xfsrestore  can  restore
       this  file  like any other file included in the dump.  This file can be
       processed by the restore command  of  xfs_quota(8)  to  reactivate  the
       quotas.   However,  the  xfsdump_quotas file contains information which
       may first require modification; specifically the  filesystem  name  and
       the  user  ids.   If you are restoring the quotas for the same users on
       the same filesystem from which the dump was taken, then no modification
       will  be  necessary.   However,  if  you  are  restoring  the dump to a
       different filesystem, you will need to:

       - ensure the new filesystem is mounted with the quota option

       - modify the xfsdump_quotas file to contain the new filesystem name

       - ensure the uids in the xfsdump_quotas file are correct

       Once the quota information has been verified, the  restore  command  of
       xfs_quota  (8) can be used to apply the quota limits to the filesystem.

       Group and project quotas are handled in a similar fashion and  will  be
       restored  in files called xfsdump_quotas_group and xfsdump_quotas_proj,


       To restore the root filesystem from a locally mounted tape:

            # xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /

       To restore from a remote tape, specifying the dump session id:

            # xfsrestore -L session_1 -f otherhost:/dev/tape /new

       To restore the contents a of a dump to another subdirectory:

            # xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /newdir

       To copy  the  contents  of  a  filesystem  to  another  directory  (see

            # xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore -J - /new


                                dump inventory database


       rmt(8), xfsdump(8), xfsinvutil(8), xfs_quota(8), attr_set(2).


       The  exit  code  is  0  on  normal completion, and non-zero if an error
       occurred or the restore was terminated by the operator.

       For all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final line of  the
       output shows the exit status of the restore. It is of the form:

            xfsdump: Restore Status: code

       Where   code  takes  one  of  the  following  values:  SUCCESS  (normal
       completion), INTERRUPT (interrupted), QUIT (media  no  longer  usable),
       INCOMPLETE  (restore  incomplete),  FAULT  (software  error), and ERROR
       (resource error).  Every attempt will be made to keep both  the  syntax
       and  the  semantics of this log message unchanged in future versions of
       xfsrestore.  However, it may be necessary to refine or expand  the  set
       of exit codes, or their interpretation at some point in the future.


       Pathnames  of  restored  non-directory  files  (relative  to  the  dest
       directory) must  be  1023  characters  (MAXPATHLEN)  or  less.   Longer
       pathnames are discarded and a warning message displayed.

       There is no verify option to xfsrestore.  This would allow the operator
       to compare  a  filesystem  dump  to  an  existing  filesystem,  without
       actually doing a restore.

       The   interactive  commands  (-i  option)  do  not  understand  regular

       When the minimal rmt option is specified, xfsrestore applies it to  all
       remote tape sources. The same blocksize (specified by the -b option) is
       used for all these remote drives.

       xfsrestore uses the alert program only when a media change is required.

       Cumulative   mode   (-r  option)  requires  that  the  operator  invoke
       xfsrestore for the base and for each delta to be applied in sequence to
       the  base.   It  would  be better to allow the operator to identify the
       last delta in  the  sequence  of  interest,  and  let  xfsrestore  work
       backwards  from  that  delta to identify and apply the preceding deltas
       and base dump, all in one invocation.