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       xpyraminx - Pyramid X widget


       /usr/games/xpyraminx                                         [-geometry
       [{width}][x{height}][{+-}{xoff}[{+-}{yoff}]]]                 [-display
       [{host}]:[{vs}]]   [-[no]mono]   [-[no]{reverse|rv}]  [-{foreground|fg}
       {color}]   [-{background|bg}    {color}]    [-face{0|1|2|3}    {color}]
       [-{border|bd}   {color}]   [-delay   msecs]   [-[no]sound]  [-moveSound
       {filename}] [-{font|fn} {fontname}] [-{size {int}  |  sticky}]  [-{mode
       {int}  |  both}]  [-[no]orient]  [-[no]practice]  [-userName  {string}]
       [-scoreFile {filename}] [-scores] [-version]


       The original puzzle has 9 triangles per face (size = 3) and has  period
       3  turning (i.e. the face or points turn in 120 degree intervals).  The
       puzzle was designed by Uwe Meffert and called the Pyraminx.   This  has
       2^5*3^8*6!/2 or 75,582,720 different combinations.

       Another  puzzle  Senior  Pyraminx  3x3x3  exists  only on paper, it has
       period 2 turning (i.e.  edges turn with 180 degree intervals)  but  the
       corners  would fall off unless it had some tricky mechanism.  (This may
       be the same  as  the  Master  Pyraminx  which  has  446,965,972,992,000
       different combinations).

       Another  puzzle (which was not widely distributed), the Junior Pyraminx
       (and similarly the Junior Pyraminx Star, a  octahedron  formed  by  two
       tetrahedra, this has 7!*3^6 or 3,674,160 different combinations), has 4
       triangles (size = 2) per face.  This puzzle has been recently  reissued
       by  Meffert  as  Pyramorphix  ( At the
       time I designed this computer puzzle thought that it had only period  2
       turning (i.e the edges rotate).  It turns out the puzzle has a period 4
       turning (edges turn with 90 degree intervals) which makes it  analogous
       to  the  2x2x2 Rubik’s cube.  This puzzle makes various non-tetrahedral
       shapes.  The puzzle contained here has no period 4 turning flexability.

       One  is  able to simulate Halpern’s Tetrahedron or Pyraminx Tetrahedron
       (period 3 turning and sticky mode).   Also one is able to simulate  one
       with variant turning (period 2 turning and sticky mode).


       Press "mouse-left" button to move a piece.  Release "mouse-left" button
       on a piece on the same face and in the same row (but  not  an  adjacent
       piece  or  the  move  is ambiguous).  The pieces will then turn towards
       where the mouse button was released.

       Click "mouse-center", or press "P" or "p" keys to toggle  the  practice
       mode (in practice mode the record should say "practice").  This is good
       for learning moves and experimenting.

       Click "mouse-right", or press "Z" or "z" keys, to randomize the  puzzle
       (this must be done first to set a new record).

       Press "G" or "g" keys to get a saved puzzle.

       Press "W" or "w" keys to save (write) a puzzle.

       Press "U" or "u" keys to undo a move.

       Press "R" or "r" keys to redo a move.

       Press "C" or "c" keys to clear the puzzle.

       Press  "S"  or  "s"  keys  to  start auto-solver.  Only works on 1x1x1,
       2x2x2, and 3x3x3 pyrmaminxs in Period 3 mode.

       Press "O" or "o" keys to toggle the orient mode.  One has to orient the
       faces  in  orient  mode,  besides  getting all the faces to be the same
       color.  To do this one has to get the lines to be oriented in the  same
       direction, this only matters with center pieces, if at all (i.e.  those
       pieces not on a corner or edge).  This does add complexity so there are
       2 sets of records.

       Press  "2", "3", "B", or "b" keys (not the keypad 2, 3) to change modes
       to Period 2, Period 3, or Both.

       Press "Y" or "y" keys  to  toggle  sticky  mode  (increase/decrease  is
       disabled here if sticky mode is on).
       "Sticky"  and "Period 2" turning allows only the edges to turn, and the
       2 center rows turn together. It is as if the middle cut  of  the  three
       cuts did not exist.
       "Sticky" and "Period 3" turning allows only the faces to turn, it is as
       if the middle cut of the three cuts did not exist.
       Beware, the "Sticky" mode is a hack and much could be done  to  improve
       its look.

       Press "I" or "i" keys to increase the number of pieces.

       Press "D" or "d" keys to decrease the number of pieces.

       Press ">" or "." keys to speed up the movement of pieces.

       Press "<" or "," keys to slow down the movement of pieces.

       Press "@" key to toggle the sound.

       Press "Esc" key to hide program.

       Press "Q", "q", or "CTRL-C" keys to kill program.

       Use the key pad or arrow keys to move without the mouse.
       Key pad is defined for Pyraminx as:
         /     Counterclockwise

         8 9   Up, Upper Right
       4<5>6   Left, Clockwise, Right
       1 2     Lower Left, Down

       Use  the  shift  keys  to  access  "Period  3"  turns from "Both" mode,
       otherwise it assumes "Period 2" turning.   Faces  and  points  turn  in
       "Period 3" and edges (2 points) turn in "Period 2".

       Use the control key and the left mouse button, keypad, or arrow keys to
       move the whole tetrahedron.  This is not recorded as a turn.

       The title is in the following format (non-motif version):
              xpyraminx.{2|3|both<turning                             modes>}:
              {1|2|3|4|5|6|7|sticky<number  of pieces per edge>} @ (<Number of
              moves>/{<Record   number   of    moves>    <user    name>|"NEVER
              noaccess"|"practice"}) - <Comment>
       If  there  is  no  record  of  the  current  puzzle, it displays "NEVER


       -geometry {+|-}X{+|-}Y
               This option sets the initial position of  the  pyraminx  window
               (resource name "geometry").

       -display host:dpy
               This option specifies the X server to contact.

               This  option  allows  you  to  display the pyraminx window on a
               color screen as if it were monochrome (resource name "mono").

               This option allows you to see the pyraminx  window  in  reverse
               video (resource name "reverseVideo").

       -{foreground|fg} color
               This  option  specifies  the  foreground of the pyraminx window
               (resource name "foreground").

       -{background|bg} color
               This option specifies the background  of  the  pyraminx  window
               (resource name "background").

       -face{0|1|2|3} <color>
               This  option allows you to change the color of a face (resource
               name "faceColorN"). In mono-mode, color is represented  as  the
               first  letter  of  the color name. The faces are ordered top to
               bottom and left to right.  If you has  two  colors  that  begin
               with  the  same letter you should have one in uppercase and one
               in lowercase to distinguish them in mono-mode. You  can  change
               the  colors  of  the  faces to make a stupid pyraminx (i.e. all
               White or in mono-mode all "W").   Unfortunately,  it  will  not
               normally  say  its  solved  when its randomized.  This would be

       -{border|bd} color
               This option specifies the border color of  the  pieces  in  the
               pyraminx window (resource name "borderColor").

       -delay msecs
               This  option  specifies  the number of milliseconds it takes to
               move pieces (1-50) (resource name "delay").

               This option specifies if sliding pieces should make a sound  or
               not (resource name "sound").

       -moveSound filename
               This  option  specifies  the  file  for  the move sound for the
               twisting of the puzzle (resource name "moveSound").

       -{font|fn} ontname
               This option specifies the font that will be used (resource name

       -size <int>
               This option allows you to change the number of pieces on a edge
               (resource name "size").

       -sticky This option allows you to set the sticky  mode  (resource  name

       -mode <int>
               This  option  allows you to set the turning mode (resource name

       -both   This option allows you to set the turning mode to both period 2
               and period 3 (resource name "mode" set at 4).

               This option allows you to access the orient mode (resource name

               This option allows you to access the  practice  mode  (resource
               name "practice").

       -userName string
               This  option  specifies  the  user name for any records made or
               else it will get your login name (resource name "userName").

       -scoreFile filename
               Specify an alternative score file (resource name  "scoreFile").

       -scores This option lists all the recorded scores and then exits.

               This option tells you what version of xpyraminx you have.


       You  must  randomize  the  puzzle  before a record is set, otherwise an
       assumption of cheating is made if it is solved after a get or an  auto-


       Here  is the format for the xpyraminx configuration, starting position,
       and the movement of its pieces.   The  format  is  not  standard.   The
       reason  for  this  is  that  this is simple to produce and the standard
       notation is not easily scalable  for  variable  number  of  pieces  and
       turning modes.

       Pyraminx with default colors, not randomized:
       0     B     Blue
         1     R   Red
       2     Y     Yellow
         3     G   Green

              size:  1-7  <number  of triangles in the same orientation as the
              face per row>
              mode: 2-4 <period 2 turning, period 3 turning, or both (4)>
              orient: 0-1 <0 false, 1 true; if 1 then lines on  pieces  to  be
              sticky:  0-1  <0  false,  1  true;  if  1  then some pieces move
              practice: 0-1 <0 false, 1 true>
              moves: 0-MAXINT <total number of moves>

              startingPosition: <2 dimensional array of face  piece  position,
              each   face  has  size  *  size  pieces,  if  orient  mode  then
              orientation number follows face number: 0 up, 1 upper  right,  2
              right, 3 down, 4 lower left, and 5 left>

       This is then followed by the moves, starting from 1.
              move #: <face> <position> <direction> <control>
       Each turn is with respect to a face and position.
       Position  is 0 to size * size - 1.  Position 0 is the triangle furthest
       from the center, increasing clockwise.
       Direction is represented 0 up, 1 upper right, 2 right, 3 down, 4  lower
       left, 5 left, 9 clockwise, and 15 counterclockwise.
       Control  is  represented as 0 or 1, 1 if the whole tetrahedron is moved
       at once (here position does not  matter),  0  if  not.   The  xpyraminx
       record  keeper does not count a control move as a move, but here we do.

       If you have a Pyraminx you can not solve (2x2x2 or 3x3x3), enter it  in
       pyraminx.log  file.  Have size = 2 or 3, mode = 3, orient = 0, practice
       = 0, randomized = 1, and moves = 0 and the  number  representation  for
       the  color  of  the  pieces  (usually  0=B,  1=R,  2=Y, 3=G).  Bring up
       xpyraminx, hit ’g’ so it will get your configuration and  then  ’s’  to
       solve  your pyraminx and then ’w’ to write out the steps.  Then examine
       your pyraminx.log file.


       James G Nourse, The Simple Solutions to Cubic  Puzzles,  Bantam  Books,
       New York, November 1981, pp 8-15.

       Mastering  the  Magic  Pyramid  by Tom Werneck, Evans Brothers Limited,
       London, 1981. pp 109-111.

       Douglas  R.  Hofstadter,  Beyond  Rubik’s  Cube:   spheres,   pyramids,
       dodecahedrons  and God knows what else, Scientific American, July 1982,
       pp 16-31.

       John Ewing & Czes Kosniowski, Puzzle it Out: Cubes, Groups and Puzzles,
       Cambridge University Press, New York, 1982, pp 60-61.

       Magic Cubes 1996 Catalog of Dr. Christoph Bandelow.


       X(1),  xcubes(6),  xtriangles(6),  xhexagons(6), xmlink(6), xbarrel(6),
       xpanex(6),  xmball(6),   xoct(6),   xrubik(6),   xskewb(6),   xdino(6),


       ® Copyright 1994-2008, David A. Bagley


       Send bugs (or their reports, or fixes) to the author:
              David A. Bagley, <>

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