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       sane-epson - SANE backend for EPSON scanners


       The  sane-epson  library  implements  a  SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy)
       backend that provides access to Epson flatbed scanners.  Some functions
       of  this  backend  should  be  considered  beta-quality  software! Most
       functions have  been  stable  for  a  long  time,  but  of  course  new
       development can not and often times will not function properly from the
       very first day. Please report any strange behavior to the maintainer of
       the backend.

       At present, the following scanners are known to work with this backend:

              Model:                       Connection Type
              ---------------------------  -------------------
              GT-5000                      SCSI, parallel
              GT-6000                      parallel
              GT-6500                      SCSI (use only the line "scsi" in epson.conf)
              ActionScanner II             SCSI, parallel
              GT-7000                      SCSI
              Perfection 636               SCSI
              Perfection 636U              USB
              Perfection 610               USB
              Perfection 640               USB
              Perfection 1200S             SCSI
              Perfection 1200U             USB
              Perfection 1240              USB, SCSI
              Perfection 1640              USB, SCSI
              Perfection 1650              USB
              Perfection 1660              USB
              Perfection 2400              USB
              Perfection 2450              USB, IEEE-1394
              Expression 636 / GT-9500     SCSI
              Expression 1600              USB, SCSI, IEEE-1394
              Expression 1680              USB, SCSI, IEEE-1394
              CX-3200                      USB
              CX-5200                      USB
              and many more. The official list is on the Sane web site.

       For other scanners the software  may or may not work.  Please send mail
       to the backend author ( to report success with scanners not
       on the list or problems with scanners that are listed.


       The options the backend supports can either be selected through command
       line  options  to  programs  like  scanimage or through GUI elements in
       programs like xscanimage or xsane.

       Valid command line options and their syntax can be listed by using
              scanimage --help -d epson
       Not all devices support all options.

       Scan Mode
              The --mode switch selects the basic mode  of  operation  of  the
              scanner.  Valid  choices are Binary, Gray and Color.  The Binary
              mode is black and white only, Gray will produce  256  levels  of
              gray  or  more  depending  on the scanner and Color means 24 bit
              color mode or more depending on the scanner.  Some scanners will
              internally  use  36  bit color, their external interface however
              may only support 24 bits.

              The --depth option selects the bit depth the scanner  is  using.
              This  option  is  only  available for scanners that support more
              than one bit depth. Older  scanners  will  always  transfer  the
              image  in  8bit  mode.  Newer  scanners allow to select either 8
              bits, 12 or 14 bits per color channel. For  a  color  scan  this
              means  an  effective color depth of 36 or 42 bits over all three
              channels. The valid choices depend on the scanner model.

              The --halftoning switch selects the mode that is used in  Binary
              mode.  Valid  options  are  "None",  "Halftone  A  (Hard Tone)",
              "Halftone B (Soft Tone)", "Halftone C (Net Screen)",  "Dither  A
              (4x4  Bayer)",  "Dither  B  (4x4  Spiral)",  "Dither  C (4x4 Net
              Screen)",  "Dither  D  (8x4   Net   Screen)",   "Text   Enhanced
              Technology", "Download pattern A", and "Download pattern B".

              The  --dropout  switch selects the so called dropout color. Vald
              options are None, Red, Green and Blue. The default is None.  The
              dropout  color  is  used for monochrome scanning and selects the
              color that is not scanned. This can be  used  to  e.g.  scan  an
              original with a colored background.

              The  --brightness  switch  controls  the brightness of the scan.
              Valid options are integer values from -3 to 3. The default is 0.
              The larger the brightness value, the brighter the image gets. If
              a user defined table for the gamma correction is  selected,  the
              brightness parameter is not available.

              The  --sharpness  switch  sets  the sharpness of the image data.
              Valid options are integer values from -2 to 2, with  -2  meaning
              "Defocus",   -1  "Defocus  slightly",  0  "Normal",  1  "Sharpen
              slightly" and 2 "Sharpen".

              The --gamma-correction switch controls  the  scanner’s  internal
              gamma  correction.  Valid options are "Default", "User defined",
              "High  density  printing"  "Low  density  printing"  and   "High
              contrast printing".

              The  --color-correction  switch  controls the scanner’s internal
              color correction function. Valid options  are  "No  Correction",
              "Impact-dot  printers",  "Thermal  printers", "Ink-jet printers"
              and "CRT monitors". The default is "CRT monitors".

              The --resolution switch selects the resolution for a scan.  Some
              EPSON  scanners  will  scan in any resolution between the lowest
              and highest possible value. The list reported by the scanner can
              be   displayed   using  the  "--help  -d  epson"  parameters  to

              The --mirror option controls the way the image  is  scanned.  By
              reading the image data from right to left the image is mirrored.
              Valid options are "yes" and "no". The default is "no".

              The --speed option can improve  the  scan  speed  in  monochrome
              mode.  Valid  options  are  "yes" or "no", the "yes" option will
              speed up the scan if this option is supported.

              The --auto-area-segmentation switch activates the automatic area
              segmentation  for  monochrome  scans.  The  scanner  will try to
              determine which areas are text and  which  contain  images.  The
              image  areas  will  be halftoned, and the text will be improved.
              Valid options are "yes" and "no". The default is "yes".

              The --gamma-table parameter can  be  used  to  download  a  user
              defined  gamma table. The option takes 256 values from the range
              0-255. In color mode this option equally affects the red, green,
              and blue channel.

              The  --red-gamma-table  parameter can be used to download a user
              defined gamma table for the red channel. The valid  options  are
              the same as for --gamma-table.

              The --green-gamma-table parameter can be used to download a user
              defined gamma table for the green channel. The valid options are
              the same as for --gamma-table.

              The  --blue-gamma-table parameter can be used to download a user
              defined gamma table for the blue channel. The valid options  are
              the same as for --gamma-table.

              The  color  correction  coefficients --cct-1 --cct-2 --cct-3 ...
              --cct-9 will install color correction coefficients for the  user
              defined  color  correction.  Values are specified as integers in
              the range -127..127.

              The --preview option  requests  a  preview  scan.  The  frontend
              software  automatically  selects a low resolution. Valid options
              are "yes" and "no". The default is "no".

              The --preview-speed options will increase the scan speed if this
              is  supported  by the scanner. Valid options are "yes" and "no",
              the default is "no".

              The geometry options -l -t -x -y control the scan area: -l  sets
              the  top  left  x  coordinate,  -t the top left y coordinate, -x
              selects the width and -y  the  height  of  the  scan  area.  All
              parameters are specified in millimeters.

              The  --quick-format option lets the user select a scan area with
              predefined sizes. Valid parameters are "CD", "A5 portrait",  "A5
              landscape",  "Letter",  "A4"  and  "max".  The default is "max",
              which selects the largest possible area.

              The --source option  selects  the  scan  source.  Valid  options
              depend on the installed options. The default is "Flatbed".

              The  --auto-eject  option  will eject a page after scanning from
              the document feeder.

              The --film-type option will select the film type for scans  with
              the  transparency unit. This option is only activated if the TPU
              is selected as scan source. Valid options  are  "Negative  Film"
              and "Positive Film".

              The  --focus-position  option selects the focus position for all
              scans. Valid options are "Focus 2.5mm above glass" and "Focus on
              glass".  The  focus  on  the  2.5mm  point  above  the  glass is
              necessary for scans with the  transparency  unit,  so  that  the
              scanner  can  focus  on  the  film if one of the film holders is
              used.  This option is only functional for selected scanners, all
              other scanners will ignore this option.


       The  configuration  file /etc/sane.d/epson.conf specifies the device(s)
       that the backend will use. Possible connection types are:

       SCSI   This is the default,  and  if  nothing  else  is  specified  the
              backend  software  will  open  a given path as SCSI device. More
              information about valid syntax for SCSI devices can be found  in
              Usually SCSI scanners are configured with a line "scsi EPSON" in
              this file. In some cases it may be necessary  to  only  use  the
              string "scsi" (e.g. for the GT-6500).

       PIO - Parallel Interface
              The parallel interface can be configured in two ways: An integer
              value starting at the beginning of a line will be interpreted as
              the  IO  address of the parallel port. To make it clearer that a
              configured IO address is a parallel port the port address can be
              preceded  by the string "PIO". The PIO connection does not use a
              special device file in the /dev directory. The IO address can be
              specified in hex mode (prefixed with "0x").

       USB    A device file that is preceded by the string "USB" is treated as
              a scanner connected via the Universal Serial  Bus.  The  correct
              special  device  file  has  to be created prior to using it with
              Sane. See the USB documentation for more information  about  how
              to set up the USB subsystem and the required device files.


              The static library implementing this backend.

              The shared library implementing this backend (present on systems
              that support dynamic loading).


              If the library was compiled with  debug  support  enabled,  this
              environment  variable controls the debug level for this backend.
              E.g., a value of 128 requests all debug output  to  be  printed.
              Smaller levels reduce verbosity.

              If  the  library  was  compiled with debug support enabled, this
              environment variable controls the SCSI related debug  level  for
              this backend.  Only a value of 2 is supported.

              This  allows  to override the function or command level that the
              backend uses to communicate with the scanner. The function level
              a  scanner  supports  is determined during the initialization of
              the device. If the backend does not recognize the function level
              reported  by  the  scanner it will default to function level B3.
              Valid function levels are A1, A2, B1, B2, B3, B4,  B5,  B6,  B7,
              B8,  D1  and  F5. Use this feature only if you know what you are


       sane-scsi(5), scanimage(1), xscanimage(1), xsane(1)


       None :-) At least none are currently known.


       The backend may be used with Epson scanners that  are  not  yet  listed
       under  the  list of supported devices. A scanner that is not recognized
       may default to  the  function  level  B3,  which  means  that  not  all
       functions that the scanner may be capable of are accessible.

       If  the  scanner  is  not  even  recognized as an Epson scanner this is
       probably because the device name reported by the scanner is not in  the
       correct  format. Please send this information to the backend maintainer
       (email address is in the AUTHOR section of this  man  page  or  in  the
       AUTHORS file of the SANE distribution).

       The Perfection 600, Perfection 650, Perfection 660, Perfection 1250 and
       Perfection 1260 are not supported by this backend.


       The package is actively maintained by Karl Heinz Kremer  (
       The software is based on work by Christian Bucher and Kazuhiro Sasayama

                                  11 Jul 2008                    sane-epson(5)