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       hunspell - format of Hunspell dictionaries and affix files


       Hunspell(1)  requires two files to define the language that it is spell
       checking.  The first file is a  dictionary  containing  words  for  the
       language,  and  the  second is an "affix" file that defines the meaning
       of special flags in the dictionary.

       A dictionary file (*.dic) contains a list of words, one per line.   The
       first  line of the dictionaries (except personal dictionaries) contains
       the approximate word count (for optimal hash memory  size).  Each  word
       may  optionally  be  followed  by  a slash ("/") and one or more flags,
       which represents affixes or special attributes.  Dictionary  words  can
       contain  also  slashes  with  the  ""  syntax. Default flag format is a
       single (usually alphabetic) character. After the dictionary words there
       are also optional fields separated by tabulators or spaces (spaces only
       work as  morphological  field  separators,  if  they  are  followed  by
       morphological field ids, see also Optional data fields).

       Personal  dictionaries  are  simple  word  lists. Asterisk at the first
       character position signs prohibition.  A second  word  separated  by  a
       slash sets the affixation.


       In  this  example, "foo" and "Foo" are personal words, plus Foo will be
       recognized with affixes of Simpson (Foo’s etc.) and bar is a  forbidden

       An  affix  file  (*.aff) may contain a lot of optional attributes.  For
       example, SET is used for setting the character encodings of affixes and
       dictionary files.  TRY sets the change characters for suggestions.  REP
       sets  a  replacement  table  for  multiple  character  corrections   in
       suggestion  mode.   PFX and SFX defines prefix and suffix classes named
       with affix flags.

       The following affix file  example  defines  UTF-8  character  encoding.
       ‘TRY’ suggestions differ from the bad word with an English letter or an
       apostrophe. With these REP definitions, Hunspell can suggest the  right
       word  form,  when the misspelled word contains f instead of ph and vice

              SET UTF-8
              TRY esianrtolcdugmphbyfvkwzESIANRTOLCDUGMPHBYFVKWZ’

              REP 2
              REP f ph
              REP ph f

              PFX A Y 1
              PFX A 0 re .

              SFX B Y 2
              SFX B 0 ed [^y]
              SFX B y ied y

       There are two affix classes in the dictionary. Class A defines a  ‘re-’
       prefix.  Class  B defines two ‘-ed’ suffixes. First suffix can be added
       to a word if the last character of the word isn’t ‘y’.   Second  suffix
       can  be  added  to  the words terminated with an ‘y’.  (See later.) The
       following dictionary file uses these affix classes.


       All accepted words  with  this  dictionary:  "hello",  "try",  "tried",
       "work", "worked", "rework", "reworked".


       Hunspell  source distribution contains more than 80 examples for option

       SET encoding
              Set character encoding of  words  and  morphemes  in  affix  and
              dictionary   files.    Possible   values:   UTF-8,  ISO8859-1  -
              ISO8859-10, ISO8859-13 - ISO8859-15, KOI8-R, KOI8-U,  microsoft-
              cp1251, ISCII-DEVANAGARI.

       FLAG value
              Set  flag  type.  Default  type  is  the  extended ASCII (8-bit)
              character.   ‘UTF-8’  parameter  sets  UTF-8   encoded   Unicode
              character  flags.   The  ‘long’  value  sets the double extended
              ASCII character flag type, the ‘num’  sets  the  decimal  number
              flag  type.  Decimal flags numbered from 1 to 65000, and in flag
              fields are separated by comma.  BUG:  UTF-8  flag  type  doesn’t
              work on ARM platform.

              Set  twofold  prefix stripping (but single suffix stripping) for
              agglutinative languages with right-to-left writing system.

       LANG langcode
              Set language code. In Hunspell may be  language  specific  codes
              enabled  by  LANG code. At present there are az_AZ, hu_HU, tr_TR
              specific codes in Hunspell (see the source code).

       IGNORE characters
              Ignore characters  from  dictionary  words,  affixes  and  input
              words.   Useful  for  optional characters, as Arabic diacritical
              marks (Harakat).

       AF number_of_flag_vector_aliases

       AF flag_vector
              Hunspell can substitute affix flag sets with ordinal numbers  in
              affix  rules  (alias  compression,  see  makealias  tool). First
              example with alias compression:


       AF definitions in the affix file:

              SET UTF-8
              TRY esianrtolcdugmphbyfvkwzESIANRTOLCDUGMPHBYFVKWZ’
              AF 2
              AF A
              AF AB

       It is equivalent of the following dic file:


       See also tests/alias* examples of the source distribution.

       Note: If affix file contains the FLAG parameter, define it  before  the
       AF definitions.

       Note II: Use makealias utility in Hunspell distribution to compress aff
       and dic files.

       AM number_of_morphological_aliases

       AM morphological_fields
              Hunspell can substitute also  morphological  data  with  ordinal
              numbers  in  affix  rules (alias compression).  See tests/alias*


       Suggestion parameters can optimize the default n-gram,  character  swap
       and  deletion  suggestions  of  Hunspell.  REP  is suggested to fix the
       typical and especially bad language  specific  bugs,  because  the  REP
       suggestions have the highest priority in the suggestion list.  PHONE is
       for languages with not pronunciation based orthography.

       KEY characters_separated_by_vertical_line_optionally
              Hunspell  searches  and  suggests  words  with   one   different
              character  replaced  by  a  neighbor KEY character. Not neighbor
              characters in KEY string separated by vertical line  characters.
              Suggested KEY parameters for QWERTY and Dvorak keyboard layouts:

              KEY qwertyuiop|asdfghjkl|zxcvbnm
              KEY pyfgcrl|aeouidhtns|qjkxbmwvz

       Using the first QWERTY layout, Hunspell suggests "nude" and "node"  for
       "*nide". A character may have more neighbors, too:

              KEY qwertzuop|yxcvbnm|qaw|say|wse|dsx|sy|edr|fdc|dx|rft|gfv|fc|tgz|hgb|gv|zhu|jhn|hb|uji|kjm|jn|iko|lkm

       TRY characters
              Hunspell can suggest right word forms, when they differ from the
              bad input word by one TRY character. The  parameter  of  TRY  is
              case sensitive.

       NOSUGGEST flag
              Words  signed  with  NOSUGGEST  flag are not suggested. Proposed
              flag for vulgar and obscene words (see also SUBSTANDARD).

              Set number of n-gram suggestions. Value 0 switches  off  the  n-
              gram suggestions.

              Disable split-word suggestions.

              Add  dot(s)  to suggestions, if input word terminates in dot(s).
              (Not for dictionaries, because has
              an automatic dot expansion mechanism.)

       REP number_of_replacement_definitions

       REP what replacement
              We  can  define  language-dependent  phonetic information in the
              affix file (.aff)  by a replacement table.   First  REP  is  the
              header of this table and one or more REP data line are following
              it. With this table, Hunspell can suggest the  right  forms  for
              the  typical  faults of spelling when the incorrect form differs
              by more, than 1 letter from  the  right  form.   For  example  a
              possible   English   replacement   table  definition  to  handle
              misspelled consonants:

              REP 8
              REP f ph
              REP ph f
              REP f gh
              REP gh f
              REP j dg
              REP dg j
              REP k ch
              REP ch k

       Note I: It’s very useful to define replacements for  the  most  typical
       one-character  mistakes, too: with REP you can add higher priority to a
       subset of the TRY suggestions (suggestion  list  begins  with  the  REP

       Note  II:  Suggesting  separated  words by REP, you can specify a space
       with an underline:

              REP 1
              REP alot a_lot

       Note III: Replacement table can be used for a  stricter  compound  word
       checking  (forbidding generated compound words, if they are also simple
       words with typical fault, see CHECKCOMPOUNDREP).

       MAP number_of_map_definitions

       MAP string_of_related_chars_or_parenthesized_character_sequences
              We can define language-dependent information on  characters  and
              character  sequences  that  should  be  considered related (i.e.
              nearer than other chars not in the set) in the affix file (.aff)
              by a map table.  With this table, Hunspell can suggest the right
              forms for words, which incorrectly choose the  wrong  letter  or
              letter  groups  from a related set more than once in a word (see

              For example a possible mapping could be for the German  umlauted
              ü  versus  the regular u; the word Frühstück really should be
              written with umlauted u’s and not regular ones

              MAP 1
              MAP uü

       Use parenthesized groups for  character  sequences  (eg.  for  composed
       Unicode characters):

              MAP 3
              MAP Ã(ss)  (character sequence)
              MAP ï¬
              MAP (ọ́)o   (composed Unicode character: ó with bottom dot)

       PHONE number_of_phone_definitions

       PHONE what replacement
              PHONE  uses  a  table-driven  phonetic  transcription  algorithm
              borrowed from Aspell.  It  is  useful  for  languages  with  not
              pronunciation  based  orthography.  You  can add a full alphabet
              conversion and other rules  for  conversion  of  special  letter
              sequences. For detailed documentation see
              html/Phonetic-Code.html.  Note: Multibyte UTF-8 characters  have
              not  worked  with  bracket  expression  yet. Dash expression has
              signed bytes and not UTF-8 characters yet.


       BREAK number_of_break_definitions

       BREAK character_or_character_sequence
              Define new break points for breaking  words  and  checking  word
              parts  separately.  Use  ^ and $ to delete characters at end and
              start of  the  word.  Rationale:  useful  for  compounding  with
              joining character or strings (for example, hyphen in English and
              German or hyphen and n-dash in Hungarian). Dashes are often  bad
              break points for tokenization, because compounds with dashes may
              contain not valid parts, too.)  With BREAK, Hunspell  can  check
              both  side  of these compounds, breaking the words at dashes and

              BREAK 2
              BREAK -
              BREAK --    # n-dash

       Breaking are recursive, so foo-bar, bar-foo and foo-foo--bar-bar  would
       be  valid  compounds.   Note:  The  default  word  break of Hunspell is
       equivalent of the following BREAK definition:

              BREAK 3
              BREAK -
              BREAK ^-
              BREAK -$

       Hunspell doesn’t accept the "-word" and "word-"  forms  by  this  BREAK

              BREAK 1
              BREAK -

       W  Note  II:  COMPOUNDRULE  is  better (or will be better) for handling
       dashes and other  compound joining characters or character strings. Use
       BREAK,  if you want check words with dashes or other joining characters
       and there is no time or possibility to describe precise compound  rules
       with  COMPOUNDRULE  (COMPOUNDRULE has handled only the last suffixation
       of the compound word yet).

       Note  III:  For  command  line  spell  checking  of  words  with  extra
       characters, set WORDCHARS parameters: WORDCHARS --- (see tests/break.*)

       COMPOUNDRULE number_of_compound_definitions

       COMPOUNDRULE compound_pattern
              Define custom compound patterns with a regex-like  syntax.   The
              first  COMPOUNDRULE is a header with the number of the following
              COMPOUNDRULE definitions.  Compound  patterns  consist  compound
              flags,  parentheses,  star  and question mark meta characters. A
              flag followed by a ‘*’ matches a word  sequence  of  0  or  more
              matches  of  words  signed  with  this  compound  flag.   A flag
              followed by a ‘?’ matches a word sequence of 0 or 1 matches of a
              word  signed  with  this  compound  flag.  See tests/compound*.*

              Note: en_US dictionary of uses  COMPOUNDRULE  for
              ordinal  number  recognition (1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th, 22nd, 112th,
              1000122nd etc.).

              Note II: In the case of long and numerical flag types  use  only
              parenthesized flags: (1500)*(2000)?

              Note  III:  COMPOUNDRULE  flags haven’t been compatible with the
              COMPOUNDFLAG, COMPOUNDBEGIN, etc. compound flags yet (use  these
              flags on different words).

       COMPOUNDMIN num
              Minimum  length  of words in compound words.  Default value is 3

       COMPOUNDFLAG flag
              Words signed with COMPOUNDFLAG may be in compound words  (except
              when  word  shorter than COMPOUNDMIN). Affixes with COMPOUNDFLAG
              also permits compounding of affixed words.

              Words signed with COMPOUNDBEGIN (or with a signed affix) may  be
              first elements in compound words.

       COMPOUNDLAST flag
              Words  signed  with COMPOUNDLAST (or with a signed affix) may be
              last elements in compound words.

              Words signed with COMPOUNDMIDDLE (or with a signed affix) may be
              middle elements in compound words.

              Suffixes  signed  with ONLYINCOMPOUND flag may be only inside of
              compounds (Fuge-elements in German, fogemorphemes  in  Swedish).
              ONLYINCOMPOUND    flag    works    also    with    words    (see

              Prefixes are allowed at the beginning of compounds, suffixes are
              allowed  at  the  end  of  compounds  by  default.  Affixes with
              COMPOUNDPERMITFLAG may be inside of compounds.

              Suffixes with this flag forbid compounding of the affixed  word.

       COMPOUNDROOT flag
              COMPOUNDROOT  flag signs the compounds in the dictionary (Now it
              is used only in the Hungarian language specific code).

              Set  maximum  word  count  in  a  compound  word.  (Default   is

              Forbid word duplication in compounds (e.g. foofoo).

              Forbid  compounding, if the (usually bad) compound word may be a
              non compound word with a REP fault. Useful  for  languages  with
              ‘compound friendly’ orthography.

              Forbid upper case characters at word bound in compounds.

              Forbid  compounding,  if compound word contains triple repeating
              letters  (e.g.  foo|ox  or  xo|oof).  Bug:  missing   multi-byte
              character  support in UTF-8 encoding (works only for 7-bit ASCII

              Allow simplified 2-letter forms of the  compounds  forbidden  by
              CHECKCOMPOUNDTRIPLE.  It’s useful for Swedish and Norwegian (and
              for the old German orthography: Schiff|fahrt -> Schiffahrt).

       CHECKCOMPOUNDPATTERN number_of_checkcompoundpattern_definitions

       CHECKCOMPOUNDPATTERN endchars[/flag] beginchars[/flag] [replacement]
              Forbid compounding, if the first word in the compound ends  with
              endchars,  and next word begins with beginchars and (optionally)
              they  have  the  requested  flags.   The  optional   replacement
              parameter  allows  simplified  compound form.  Note: COMPOUNDMIN
              doesn’t work correctly with the compound word alternation, so it
              may need to set COMPOUNDMIN to lower value.

       COMPOUNDSYLLABLE max_syllable vowels
              Need   for   special  compounding  rules  in  Hungarian.   First
              parameter is the maximum syllable  number,  that  may  be  in  a
              compound,  if  words in compounds are more than COMPOUNDWORDMAX.
              Second  parameter  is  the  list  of  vowels  (for   calculating

       SYLLABLENUM flags
              Need for special compounding rules in Hungarian.


       PFX flag cross_product number

       PFX flag stripping prefix [condition [morphological_fields...]]

       SFX flag cross_product number

       SFX flag stripping suffix [condition [morphological_fields...]]
              An  affix  is either a prefix or a suffix attached to root words
              to make other words. We can define affix classes with  arbitrary
              number  affix rules.  Affix classes are signed with affix flags.
              The first line of an affix class definition is the  header.  The
              fields of an affix class header:

              (0) Option name (PFX or SFX)

              (1) Flag (name of the affix class)

              (2) Cross product (permission to combine prefixes and suffixes).
              Possible values: Y (yes) or N (no)

              (3) Line count of the following rules.

              Fields of an affix rules:

              (0) Option name

              (1) Flag

              (2) stripping characters from beginning (at prefix rules) or end
              (at suffix rules) of the word

              (3)  affix  (optionally  with  flags  of  continuation  classes,
              separated by a slash)

              (4) condition.

              Zero stripping or affix are indicated by zero. Zero condition is
              indicated   by   dot.    Condition   is  a  simplified,  regular
              expression-like pattern, which must be met before the affix  can
              be  applied.  (Dot  signs  an arbitrary character. Characters in
              braces sign an arbitrary character from  the  character  subset.
              Dash  hasn’t  got  special  meaning, but circumflex (^) next the
              first brace sets the complementer character set.)

              (5)  Optional  morphological  fields  separated  by  spaces   or


       CIRCUMFIX flag
              Affixes  signed  with  CIRCUMFIX flag may be on a word when this
              word also has a prefix with CIRCUMFIX flag and vice versa.

              This flag signs forbidden word form. Because affixed  forms  are
              also  forbidden,  we  can  subtract  a  subset  from  set of the
              accepted affixed and compound words.

              With FULLSTRIP, affix rules can strip full words, not  only  one
              less characters.

              Note: conditions may be word length without FULLSTRIP, too.

       KEEPCASE flag
              Forbid  uppercased  and  capitalized  forms of words signed with
              KEEPCASE flags. Useful for special  orthographies  (measurements
              and  currency  often  keep  their  case in uppercased texts) and
              writing systems (e.g. keeping lower case of IPA characters).

              Note: With CHECKSHARPS  declaration,  words  with  sharp  s  and
              KEEPCASE  flag may be capitalized and uppercased, but uppercased
              forms of these words may not  contain  sharp  s,  only  SS.  See
              germancompounding example in the tests directory of the Hunspell

              Note: Using lot of zero affixes may have  a  big  cost,  because
              every  zero  affix  is  checked  under affix analysis before the
              other affixes.

       ICONV number_of_ICONV_definitions

       ICONV pattern pattern2
              Define input conversion table.

       OCONV number_of_OCONV_definitions

       OCONV pattern pattern2
              Define output conversion table.

       LEMMA_PRESENT flag
              Not  used  in  Hunspell  1.2.  Use  "st:"   field   instead   of

       NEEDAFFIX flag
              This  flag  signs virtual stems in the dictionary.  Only affixed
              forms of these words will be accepted by Hunspell.   Except,  if
              the  dictionary  word  has a homonym or a zero affix.  NEEDAFFIX
              works also with prefixes and prefix + suffix  combinations  (see

       PSEUDOROOT flag
              Deprecated. (Former name of the NEEDAFFIX option.)

       SUBSTANDARD flag
              SUBSTANDARD   flag   signs  affix  rules  and  dictionary  words
              (allomorphs)  not  used  in  morphological  generation  (and  in
              suggestion in the future versions). See also NOSUGGEST.

       WORDCHARS characters
              WORDCHARS  extends  tokenizer of Hunspell command line interface
              with additional word character. For example, dot, dash,  n-dash,
              numbers, percent sign are word character in Hungarian.

              SS  letter  pair  in uppercased (German) words may be upper case
              sharp s (Ã).  Hunspell can handle this special casing  with  the
              CHECKSHARPS    declaration   (see   also   KEEPCASE   flag   and
              tests/germancompounding   example)   in   both   spelling    and

Morphological analysis

       Hunspell’s  dictionary items and affix rules may have optional space or
       tabulator separated  morphological  description  fields,  started  with
       3-character (two letters and a colon) field IDs:

               word/flags po:noun is:nom

       Example: We define a simple resource with morphological informations, a
       derivative suffix (ds:) and a part of speech category (po:):

       Affix file:

               SFX X Y 1
               SFX X 0 able . ds:able

       Dictionary file:

               drink/X po:verb

       Test file:



               $ analyze test.aff test.dic test.txt
               > drink
               analyze(drink) = po:verb
               stem(drink) = po:verb
               > drinkable
               analyze(drinkable) = po:verb ds:able
               stem(drinkable) = drinkable

       You can  see  in  the  example,  that  the  analyzer  concatenates  the
       morphological fields in item and arrangement style.

Optional data fields

       Default  morphological  and other IDs (used in suggestion, stemming and
       morphological generation):

       ph:    Alternative transliteration for better suggestion.  It’s  useful
              for words with foreign pronunciation. (Dictionary based phonetic
              suggestion.)  For example:

              Marseille ph:maarsayl

       st:    Stem.  Optional:  default  stem  is  the  dictionary   item   in
              morphological  analysis.  Stem field is useful for virtual stems
              (dictionary  words  with  NEEDAFFIX  flag)   and   morphological
              exceptions instead of new, single used morphological rules.

              feet  st:foot  is:plural
              mice  st:mouse is:plural
              teeth st:tooth is:plural

       Word forms with multiple stems need multiple dictionary items:

              lay po:verb st:lie is:past_2
              lay po:verb is:present
              lay po:noun

       al:    Allomorph(s).  A  dictionary item is the stem of its allomorphs.
              Morphological generation needs stem, allomorph and affix fields.

              sing al:sang al:sung
              sang st:sing
              sung st:sing

       po:    Part of speech category.

       ds:    Derivational  suffix(es).   Stemming doesn’t remove derivational
              suffixes.  Morphological generation depends on the order of  the
              suffix fields.

              In affix rules:

              SFX Y Y 1
              SFX Y 0 ly . ds:ly_adj

       In the dictionary:

              ably st:able ds:ly_adj
              able al:ably

       is:    Inflectional  suffix(es).  All inflectional suffixes are removed
              by stemming.  Morphological generation depends on the  order  of
              the suffix fields.

              feet st:foot is:plural

       ts:    Terminal  suffix(es).   Terminal  suffix fields are inflectional
              suffix fields "removed" by additional (not terminal) suffixes.

              Useful for zero  morphemes  and  affixes  removed  by  splitting

              work/D ts:present

              SFX D Y 2
              SFX D   0 ed . is:past_1
              SFX D   0 ed . is:past_2

       Typical  example  of  the  terminal  suffix is the zero morpheme of the
       nominative case.

       sp:    Surface prefix. Temporary solution for adding  prefixes  to  the
              stems and generated word forms. See tests/morph.* example.

       pa:    Parts  of  the  compound  words.  Output fields of morphological
              analysis for stemming.

       dp:    Planned: derivational prefix.

       ip:    Planned: inflectional prefix.

       tp:    Planned: terminal prefix.

Twofold suffix stripping

       Ispell’s original algorithm strips only one suffix. Hunspell can  strip
       another one yet (or a plus prefix in COMPLEXPREFIXES mode).

       The  twofold  suffix stripping is a significant improvement in handling
       of  immense  number  of  suffixes,  that   characterize   agglutinative

       A  second  ‘s’ suffix (affix class Y) will be the continuation class of
       the suffix ‘able’ in the following example:

               SFX Y Y 1
               SFX Y 0 s .

               SFX X Y 1
               SFX X 0 able/Y .

       Dictionary file:


       Test file:



               $ hunspell -m -d test <test.txt
               drink st:drink
               drinkable st:drink fl:X
               drinkables st:drink fl:X fl:Y

       Theoretically with the twofold suffix stripping needs only  the  square
       root   of  the  number  of  suffix  rules,  compared  with  a  Hunspell
       implementation. In our practice, we could have elaborated the Hungarian
       inflectional morphology with twofold suffix stripping.

Extended affix classes

       Hunspell can handle more than 65000 affix classes.  There are three new
       syntax for giving flags in affix and dictionary files.

       FLAG long command sets 2-character flags:

                FLAG long
                SFX Y1 Y 1
                SFX Y1 0 s 1

       Dictionary record with the Y1, Z3, F? flags:


       FLAG num command sets numerical flags separated by comma:

                FLAG num
                SFX 65000 Y 1
                SFX 65000 0 s 1

       Dictionary example:


       The third one is the Unicode character flags.


       Hunspell’s dictionary can contain repeating elements that are homonyms:

               work/A    po:verb
               work/B    po:noun

       An affix file:

               SFX A Y 1
               SFX A 0 s . sf:sg3

               SFX B Y 1
               SFX B 0 s . is:plur

       Test file:



               $ hunspell -d test -m <testwords
               work st:work po:verb is:sg3
               work st:work po:noun is:plur

       This   feature  also  gives  a  way  to  forbid  illegal  prefix/suffix

Prefix--suffix dependencies

       An  interesting  side-effect  of  multi-step  stripping  is,  that  the
       appropriate treatment of circumfixes now comes for free.  For instance,
       in Hungarian, superlatives are formed by  simultaneous  prefixation  of
       leg-  and suffixation of -bb to the adjective base.  A problem with the
       one-level architecture is that  there  is  no  way  to  render  lexical
       licensing  of  particular  prefixes  and  suffixes  interdependent, and
       therefore incorrect forms are recognized as valid, i.e. *legvn =  leg
       +  vn  ‘old’. Until the introduction of clusters, a special treatment
       of the superlative had to be hardwired in the  earlier  HunSpell  code.
       This  may  have  been  legitimate  for  a  single  case,  but  in  fact
       prefix--suffix  dependences   are   ubiquitous   in   category-changing
       derivational patterns (cf. English payable, non-payable but *non-pay or
       drinkable, undrinkable but *undrink). In simple words, here, the prefix
       un-  is  legitimate  only  if the base drink is suffixed with -able. If
       both these patters are handled by on-line affix rules and  affix  rules
       are  checked  against  the  base  only, there is no way to express this
       dependency and the system will necessarily over- or undergenerate.

       In next example, suffix class R have got a prefix ‘continuation’  class
       (class P).

              PFX P Y 1
              PFX P   0 un . [prefix_un]+

              SFX S Y 1
              SFX S   0 s . +PL

              SFX Q Y 1
              SFX Q   0 s . +3SGV

              SFX R Y 1
              SFX R   0 able/PS . +DER_V_ADJ_ABLE


              drink/RQ  [verb]
              drink/S   [noun]

       Morphological analysis:

              > drink
              > drinks
              > drinkable
              > drinkables
              > undrinkable
              > undrinkables
              > undrink
              Unknown word.
              > undrinks
              Unknown word.


       Conditional  affixes implemented by a continuation class are not enough
       for circumfixes, because a circumfix is one  affix  in  morphology.  We
       also need CIRCUMFIX option for correct morphological analysis.

              # circumfixes: ~ obligate prefix/suffix combinations
              # superlative in Hungarian: leg- (prefix) AND -bb (suffix)
              # nagy, nagyobb, legnagyobb, legeslegnagyobb
              # (great, greater, greatest, most greatest)

              CIRCUMFIX X

              PFX A Y 1
              PFX A 0 leg/X .

              PFX B Y 1
              PFX B 0 legesleg/X .

              SFX C Y 3
              SFX C 0 obb . +COMPARATIVE
              SFX C 0 obb/AX . +SUPERLATIVE
              SFX C 0 obb/BX . +SUPERSUPERLATIVE


              nagy/C    [MN]


              > nagy
              > nagyobb
              > legnagyobb
              > legeslegnagyobb


       Allowing  free compounding yields decrease in precision of recognition,
       not to mention stemming and morphological analysis.   Although  lexical
       switches are introduced to license compounding of bases by Ispell, this
       proves not to be restrictive enough. For example:

              # affix file
              COMPOUNDFLAG X


       With this resource, foobar and barfoo also are accepted words.

       This has  been  improved  upon  with  the  introduction  of  direction-
       sensitive  compounding,  i.e.,  lexical features can specify separately
       whether a base can  occur  as  leftmost  or  rightmost  constituent  in
       compounds.    This,  however,  is  still  insufficient  to  handle  the
       intricate patterns of compounding, not to  mention  idiosyncratic  (and
       language specific) norms of hyphenation.

       The  Hunspell  algorithm  currently  allows  any affixed form of words,
       which are lexically marked as potential members of compounds.  Hunspell
       improved  this,  and  its  recursive  compound  checking rules makes it
       possible to implement the intricate spelling conventions  of  Hungarian
       compounds.   For   example,  using  COMPOUNDWORDMAX,  COMPOUNDSYLLABLE,
       COMPOUNDROOT, SYLLABLENUM options can be set the  noteworthy  Hungarian
       ‘6-3’  rule.   Further  example  in  Hungarian, derivate suffixes often
       modify compounding properties. Hunspell allows the compounding flags on
       the  affixes,  and  there are two special flags (COMPOUNDPERMITFLAG and
       (COMPOUNDFORBIDFLAG)  to  permit  or  prohibit   compounding   of   the

       Suffixes with this flag forbid compounding of the affixed word.

       We also need several Hunspell features for handling German compounding:

              # German compounding

              # set language to handle special casing of German sharp s

              LANG de_DE

              # compound flags

              COMPOUNDBEGIN U
              COMPOUNDMIDDLE V
              COMPOUNDEND W

              # Prefixes are allowed at the beginning of compounds,
              # suffixes are allowed at the end of compounds by default:
              # (prefix)?(root)+(affix)?
              # Affixes with COMPOUNDPERMITFLAG may be inside of compounds.

              # for German fogemorphemes (Fuge-element)
              # Hint: ONLYINCOMPOUND is not required everywhere, but the
              # checking will be a little faster with it.

              ONLYINCOMPOUND X

              # forbid uppercase characters at compound word bounds

              # for handling Fuge-elements with dashes (Arbeits-)
              # dash will be a special word

              COMPOUNDMIN 1
              WORDCHARS -

              # compound settings and fogemorpheme for ‘Arbeit’

              SFX A Y 3
              SFX A 0 s/UPX .
              SFX A 0 s/VPDX .
              SFX A 0 0/WXD .

              SFX B Y 2
              SFX B 0 0/UPX .
              SFX B 0 0/VWXDP .

              # a suffix for ‘Computer’

              SFX C Y 1
              SFX C 0 n/WD .

              # for forbid exceptions (*Arbeitsnehmer)

              FORBIDDENWORD Z

              # dash prefix for compounds with dash (Arbeits-Computer)

              PFX - Y 1
              PFX - 0 -/P .

              # decapitalizing prefix
              # circumfix for positioning in compounds

              PFX D Y 29
              PFX D A a/PX A
              PFX D à ä/PX à .
              PFX D Y y/PX Y
              PFX D Z z/PX Z

       Example dictionary:


       Accepted compound compound words with the previous resource:


       Not accepted compoundings:


       This solution is still not ideal, however, and will be  replaced  by  a
       pattern-based  compound-checking  algorithm which is closely integrated
       with input buffer tokenization. Patterns describing compounds come as a
       separate  input  resource  that  can  refer to high-level properties of
       constituent parts (e.g. the  number  of  syllables,  affix  flags,  and
       containment  of  hyphens).  The  patterns are matched against potential
       segmentations of compounds to assess wellformedness.

Unicode character encoding

       Both Ispell and Myspell use 8-bit ASCII character encoding, which is  a
       major  deficiency  when  it  comes to scalability.  Although a language
       like Hungarian has a standard ASCII  character  set  (ISO  8859-2),  it
       fails   to  allow  a  full  implementation  of  Hungarian  orthographic
       conventions.  For instance, the ’--’ symbol (n-dash)  is  missing  from
       this  character  set  contrary  to  the  fact  that  it is not only the
       official symbol to delimit parenthetic clauses in the language, but  it
       can be in compound words as a special ’big’ hyphen.

       MySpell  has  got  some  8-bit encoding tables, but there are languages
       without standard 8-bit encoding, too. For example,  a  lot  of  African
       languages have non-latin or extended latin characters.

       Similarly,  using  the  original spelling of certain foreign names like
       ngstrm or Molire is encouraged by  the  Hungarian  spelling  norm,
       and,  since  characters  ’Ã’  and ’è’ are not part of ISO 8859-2, when
       they combine with inflections containing characters only in  ISO 8859-2
       (like  elative -bl, allative -tl or delative -rl with double acute),
       these result in words (like ngstrmrl or Molire-tl.) that can not
       be encoded using any single ASCII encoding scheme.

       The  problems raised in relation to 8-bit ASCII encoding have long been
       recognized  by  proponents  of  Unicode.  It  is  clear  that   trading
       efficiency for encoding-independence has its advantages when it comes a
       truly multi-lingual application. There is implemented a memory and time
       efficient   Unicode   handling  in  Hunspell.  In  non-UTF-8  character
       encodings Hunspell works with the  original  8-bit  strings.  In  UTF-8
       encoding,  affixes  and  words are stored in UTF-8, during the analysis
       are handled in mostly UTF-8, under condition  checking  and  suggestion
       are  converted to UTF-16. Unicode text analysis and spell checking have
       a minimal (0-20%)  time  overhead  and  minimal  or  reasonable  memory
       overhead depends from the language (its UTF-8 encoding and affixation).

Conversion of aspell dictionaries

       Aspell dictionaries can be easily converted into  hunspell.  Conversion

       dictionary (xx.cwl -> xx.wl):

       preunzip xx.cwl
       wc -l < xx.wl > xx.dic
       cat xx.wl >> xx.dic

       affix file

       If the affix file exists, copy it:
       cp xx_affix.dat xx.aff
       If not, create it with the suitable character encoding (see xx.dat)
       echo "SET ISO8859-x" > xx.aff
       echo "SET UTF-8" > xx.aff

       It’s  useful  to add a TRY option with the characters of the dictionary
       with frequency order to set edit distance suggestions:
       echo "TRY qwertzuiopasdfghjklyxcvbnmQWERTZUIOPASDFGHJKLYXCVBNM" >>xx.aff

Conversion of aspell dictionaries

       Aspell dictionaries can be easily converted into  hunspell.  Conversion

       dictionary (xx.cwl -> xx.wl):

       preunzip xx.cwl
       wc -l < xx.wl > xx.dic
       cat xx.wl >> xx.dic

       affix file

       If the affix file exists, copy it:
       cp xx_affix.dat xx.aff
       If not, create it with the suitable character encoding (see xx.dat)
       echo "SET ISO8859-x" > xx.aff
       echo "SET UTF-8" > xx.aff

       It’s  useful  to add a TRY option with the characters of the dictionary
       with frequency order to set edit distance suggestions:
       echo "TRY qwertzuiopasdfghjklyxcvbnmQWERTZUIOPASDFGHJKLYXCVBNM" >>xx.aff


       hunspell (1), ispell (1), ispell (4)

                                  2010-03-03                       hunspell(4)