xfs_repair - repair an XFS filesystem
xfs_repair [ -dfLnPv ] [ -m maxmem ] [ -c subopt=value ] [ -o
subopt[=value] ] [ -t interval ] [ -l logdev ] [ -r rtdev ] device
xfs_repair repairs corrupt or damaged XFS filesystems (see xfs(5)).
The filesystem is specified using the device argument which should be
the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the
filesystem. If given the name of a block device, xfs_repair will
attempt to find the raw device associated with the specified block
device and will use the raw device instead.
Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted, otherwise,
the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt.
-f Specifies that the filesystem image to be processed is stored in
a regular file at device (see the mkfs.xfs -d file option). This
might happen if an image copy of a filesystem has been copied or
written into an ordinary file. This option implies that any
external log or realtime section is also in an ordinary file.
-L Force Log Zeroing. Forces xfs_repair to zero the log even if it
is dirty (contains metadata changes). When using this option
the filesystem will likely appear to be corrupt, and can cause
the loss of user files and/or data.
Specifies the device special file where the filesystem’s
external log resides. Only for those filesystems which use an
external log. See the mkfs.xfs -l option, and refer to xfs(5)
for a detailed description of the XFS log.
Specifies the device special file where the filesystem’s
realtime section resides. Only for those filesystems which use a
realtime section. See the mkfs.xfs -r option, and refer to
xfs(5) for a detailed description of the XFS realtime section.
-n No modify mode. Specifies that xfs_repair should not modify the
filesystem but should only scan the filesystem and indicate what
repairs would have been made.
-P Disable prefetching of inode and directory blocks. Use this
option if you find xfs_repair gets stuck and stops proceeding.
Interrupting a stuck xfs_repair is safe.
Specifies the approximate maximum amount of memory, in
megabytes, to use for xfs_repair. xfs_repair has its own
internal block cache which will scale out up to the lesser of
the process’s virtual address limit or about 75% of the system’s
physical RAM. This option overrides these limits.
NOTE: These memory limits are only approximate and may use more
than the specified limit.
Change filesystem parameters. Refer to xfs_admin(8) for
information on changing filesystem parameters.
Override what the program might conclude about the filesystem if
left to its own devices.
The suboptions supported are:
overrides the default inode cache hash size. The total
number of inode cache entries are limited to 8 times
this amount. The default ihashsize is 1024 (for a
total of 8192 entries).
overrides the default buffer cache hash size. The
total number of buffer cache entries are limited to 8
times this amount. The default size is set to use up
the remainder of 75% of the system’s physical RAM
This creates additional processing threads to parallel
process AGs that span multiple concat units. This can
significantly reduce repair times on concat based
Check the filesystem even if geometry information
could not be validated. Geometry information can not
be validated if only a single allocation group and
exist and thus we do not have a backup superblock
available, or if there are two allocation groups and
the two superblocks do not agree on the filesystem
geometry. Only use this option if you validated the
geometry yourself and know what you are doing. If In
doubt run in no modify mode first.
Modify reporting interval. During long runs xfs_repair outputs
its progress every 15 minutes. Reporting is only activated when
ag_stride is enabled.
-v Verbose output.
-d Repair dangerously. Allow xfs_repair to repair an XFS filesystem
mounted read only. This is typically done on a root fileystem
from single user mode, immediately followed by a reboot.
-V Prints out the current version number and exits.
Inconsistencies corrected include the following:
1. Inode and inode blockmap (addressing) checks: bad magic number
in inode, bad magic numbers in inode blockmap blocks, extents
out of order, incorrect number of records in inode blockmap
blocks, blocks claimed that are not in a legal data area of the
filesystem, blocks that are claimed by more than one inode.
2. Inode allocation map checks: bad magic number in inode map
blocks, inode state as indicated by map (free or in-use)
inconsistent with state indicated by the inode, inodes
referenced by the filesystem that do not appear in the inode
allocation map, inode allocation map referencing blocks that do
not appear to contain inodes.
3. Size checks: number of blocks claimed by inode inconsistent with
inode size, directory size not block aligned, inode size not
consistent with inode format.
4. Directory checks: bad magic numbers in directory blocks,
incorrect number of entries in a directory block, bad freespace
information in a directory leaf block, entry pointing to an
unallocated (free) or out of range inode, overlapping entries,
missing or incorrect dot and dotdot entries, entries out of
hashvalue order, incorrect internal directory pointers,
directory type not consistent with inode format and size.
5. Pathname checks: files or directories not referenced by a
pathname starting from the filesystem root, illegal pathname
6. Link count checks: link counts that do not agree with the number
of directory references to the inode.
7. Freemap checks: blocks claimed free by the freemap but also
claimed by an inode, blocks unclaimed by any inode but not
appearing in the freemap.
8. Super Block checks: total free block and/or free i-node count
incorrect, filesystem geometry inconsistent, secondary and
primary superblocks contradictory.
Orphaned files and directories (allocated, in-use but unreferenced) are
reconnected by placing them in the lost+found directory. The name
assigned is the inode number.
xfs_repair aborts on most disk I/O errors. Therefore, if you are trying
to repair a filesystem that was damaged due to a disk drive failure,
steps should be taken to ensure that all blocks in the filesystem are
readable and writeable before attempting to use xfs_repair to repair
the filesystem. A possible method is using dd(8) to copy the data onto
a good disk.
The directory lost+found does not have to already exist in the
filesystem being repaired. If the directory does not exist, it is
automatically created if required. If it already exists, it will be
checked for consistency and if valid will be used for additional
orphaned files. Invalid lost+found directories are removed and
recreated. Existing files in a valid lost+found are not removed or
XFS has both primary and secondary superblocks. xfs_repair uses
information in the primary superblock to automatically find and
validate the primary superblock against the secondary superblocks
before proceeding. Should the primary be too corrupted to be useful in
locating the secondary superblocks, the program scans the filesystem
until it finds and validates some secondary superblocks. At that
point, it generates a primary superblock.
If quotas are in use, it is possible that xfs_repair will clear some or
all of the filesystem quota information. If so, the program issues a
warning just before it terminates. If all quota information is lost,
quotas are disabled and the program issues a warning to that effect.
Note that xfs_repair does not check the validity of quota limits. It is
recommended that you check the quota limit information manually after
xfs_repair. Also, space usage information is automatically regenerated
the next time the filesystem is mounted with quotas turned on, so the
next quota mount of the filesystem may take some time.
xfs_repair issues informative messages as it proceeds indicating what
it has found that is abnormal or any corrective action that it has
taken. Most of the messages are completely understandable only to
those who are knowledgeable about the structure of the filesystem.
Some of the more common messages are explained here. Note that the
language of the messages is slightly different if xfs_repair is run in
no-modify mode because the program is not changing anything on disk.
No-modify mode indicates what it would do to repair the filesystem if
run without the no-modify flag.
disconnected inode ino, moving to lost+found
An inode numbered ino was not connected to the filesystem
directory tree and was reconnected to the lost+found directory.
The inode is assigned the name of its inode number (ino). If a
lost+found directory does not exist, it is automatically
disconnected dir inode ino, moving to lost+found
As above only the inode is a directory inode. If a directory
inode is attached to lost+found, all of its children (if any)
stay attached to the directory and therefore get automatically
reconnected when the directory is reconnected.
imap claims in-use inode ino is free, correcting imap
The inode allocation map thinks that inode ino is free whereas
examination of the inode indicates that the inode may be in use
(although it may be disconnected). The program updates the
inode allocation map.
imap claims free inode ino is in use, correcting imap
The inode allocation map thinks that inode ino is in use whereas
examination of the inode indicates that the inode is not in use
and therefore is free. The program updates the inode allocation
resetting inode ino nlinks from x to y
The program detected a mismatch between the number of valid
directory entries referencing inode ino and the number of
references recorded in the inode and corrected the the number in
fork-type fork in ino ino claims used block bno
Inode ino claims a block bno that is used (claimed) by either
another inode or the filesystem itself for metadata storage. The
fork-type is either data or attr indicating whether the problem
lies in the portion of the inode that tracks regular data or the
portion of the inode that stores XFS attributes. If the inode
is a real-time (rt) inode, the message says so. Any inode that
claims blocks used by the filesystem is deleted. If two or more
inodes claim the same block, they are both deleted.
fork-type fork in ino ino claims dup extent ...
Inode ino claims a block in an extent known to be claimed more
than once. The offset in the inode, start and length of the
extent is given. The message is slightly different if the inode
is a real-time (rt) inode and the extent is therefore a real-
time (rt) extent.
inode ino - bad extent ...
An extent record in the blockmap of inode ino claims blocks that
are out of the legal range of the filesystem. The message
supplies the start, end, and file offset of the extent. The
message is slightly different if the extent is a real-time (rt)
bad fork-type fork in inode ino
There was something structurally wrong or inconsistent with the
data structures that map offsets to filesystem blocks.
cleared inode ino
There was something wrong with the inode that was uncorrectable
so the program freed the inode. This usually happens because
the inode claims blocks that are used by something else or the
inode itself is badly corrupted. Typically, this message is
preceded by one or more messages indicating why the inode needed
to be cleared.
bad attribute fork in inode ino, clearing attr fork
There was something wrong with the portion of the inode that
stores XFS attributes (the attribute fork) so the program reset
the attribute fork. As a result of this, all attributes on that
inode are lost.
correcting nextents for inode ino, was x - counted y
The program found that the number of extents used to store the
data in the inode is wrong and corrected the number. The
message refers to nextents if the count is wrong on the number
of extents used to store attribute information.
entry name in dir dir_ino not consistent with .. value (xxxx) in dir
ino ino, junking entry name in directory inode dir_ino
The entry name in directory inode dir_ino references a directory
inode ino. However, the .. entry in directory ino does not
point back to directory dir_ino, so the program deletes the
entry name in directory inode dir_ino. If the directory inode
ino winds up becoming a disconnected inode as a result of this,
it is moved to lost+found later.
entry name in dir dir_ino references already connected dir ino ino,
junking entry name in directory inode dir_ino
The entry name in directory inode dir_ino points to a directory
inode ino that is known to be a child of another directory.
Therefore, the entry is invalid and is deleted. This message
refers to an entry in a small directory. If this were a large
directory, the last phrase would read "will clear entry".
entry references free inode ino in directory dir_ino, will clear entry
An entry in directory inode dir_ino references an inode ino that
is known to be free. The entry is therefore invalid and is
deleted. This message refers to a large directory. If the
directory were small, the message would read "junking entry
xfs_repair -n (no modify node) will return a status of 1 if filesystem
corruption was detected and 0 if no filesystem corruption was detected.
xfs_repair run without the -n option will always return a status code
The filesystem to be checked and repaired must have been unmounted
cleanly using normal system administration procedures (the umount(8)
command or system shutdown), not as a result of a crash or system
reset. If the filesystem has not been unmounted cleanly, mount it and
unmount it cleanly before running xfs_repair.
xfs_repair does not do a thorough job on XFS extended attributes. The
structure of the attribute fork will be consistent, but only the
contents of attribute forks that will fit into an inode are checked.
This limitation will be fixed in the future.
The no-modify mode (-n option) is not completely accurate. It does not
catch inconsistencies in the freespace and inode maps, particularly
lost blocks or subtly corrupted maps (trees).
The no-modify mode can generate repeated warnings about the same
problems because it cannot fix the problems as they are encountered.
If a filesystem fails to be repaired, a metadump image can be generated
with xfs_metadump(8) and be sent to an XFS maintainer to be analysed
and xfs_repair fixed and/or improved.
dd(1), mkfs.xfs(8), umount(8), xfs_admin(8), xfs_check(8),