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       full_backup - run a full backup with the afbackup package


       full_backup  [  -daGy  ] [ {+-}LBx ] [ <files> <directories> ... ] [ -C
       <root-directory> ]  [  -F  [  -D  [  -c  <configuration-file>  ]  [  -W
       <identity>  ]  [  -h  <backuphosts>  ]  [  -P  <backup-ports>  ]  [  -I
       <indexfile-part> ] [ { -N <num-indexes-to-store> ]  |  -O  <max-age-of-
       indexes-to-store-in-days> } ] [ -z <process-cmd> <unprocess-cmd> ] [ -Z
       <built-in-compress-level> ] [  -s  [  -X  <exclude-list-file>  ]  [  -l
       <logfile>  ]  [  -i <startup-info-program> ] [ -b <init-program> ] [ -e
       <exit-program> ] [ -k <encryption-key-file> ] [ -f <filesystem-types> ]
       [  -V  <var-directory>  ] [ -S <cartridge-sets> ] [ -M <server-message-
       config> ]


       This  program  reads  the  client-side  configuration  file  and   runs
       (eventually  a  part  of)  a  full  backup of all files and directories
       specified in the configuration  file  or  on  the  commandline.  It  is
       recommended  to setup everything in the configuration file and run this
       command without any arguments (same applies for incr_backup).  If files
       and/or  directories are supplied on the commandline, those specified in
       the configuration file are overridden.  Furthermore  the  program  then
       behaves  slightly  different:  If backup parts are configured, they are
       ignored. The timestamp, that is evaluated during incremental backup  to
       determine,  whether  files  have  been  modified,  is not changed. This
       behaviour reflects the assumption, that supplying files or  directories
       on  the  commandline  is  done for testing or other temporary purposes.
       Modifying the timestamp would  confuse  the  normal  regularly  running
       backup  mechanism.  In  these temporary cases the -a option should make
       sense, see below for details. Be also aware of the -C option’s meaning.
       If  the name of a file is preceded with -r, the contents of the file is
       stored, but not the characteristics of the inode. This  is  useful  for
       saving raw devices. By default, processing is always turned off.  Using
       -R forces processing of the contents. Preceding a directory  name  with
       -m  the  recursive  descent  into  this  directory  is  limited  to the
       filesystem, where the directory resides.  The names of  the  files  and
       directories,  that are stored, are written into logfiles, that comprise
       of the indexfile-part (-I) and the current total backup  counter.  This
       counter  is  incremented  each  time  a  full backup (part 1) starts. A
       minimum information required to restore after a hard crash having  lost
       everything is piped into the startup-info-program (-i).  Whether only a
       part of a full backup is run depends on the setting  of  the  parameter
       NumBackupParts  (See:  afclient.conf(8)).  If the configuration file is
       not supplied explicitly, then it is searched for in  the  /etc/afbackup
       and    /usr/client/lib,    and   if   not   found   there   the   files
       /etc/buclient.conf,   /etc/afbuclient.conf,   /etc/afclient.conf    and
       /etc/afbackup/client.conf  are  tried.   Commandline  options generally
       override configuration file settings.   Every  option  described  below
       (except  -c)  has  a corresponding entry in the configuration file, but
       there are more possible settings in the config file.

       -a     Append mode. Do not increment the total backup counter. (See -N)

       {+-}B  Perform per-file processing on the stored files (+B) or not (-B)
              (See: -F)

       -b <initprog>
              Run the given  program  before  attempting  a  backup.   If  the
              command  returns  an  exit  status  unequal  to  0, no backup is
              performed (see: -e). Not to be mixed up with option -i

       -C <rootdir>
              Change  to  the  given  directory  before  starting  the  backup
              climbing down into the directories to be stored

       -c <configfile>
              A different configuration file to use

       -D <skip-dirs>
              A  list  of  directory  name patterns separated by whitespace to
              ignore for backup. Several must be put into quotes (See: -F  and

       -d     Detach from the terminal when starting

       -e <exitprog>
              Run  the  specified  program  after  finishing.  If  the command
              comprises of several words separated by whitespace, it  must  be
              put into quotes (See: -i)

       -F <skip-files>
              A  list  of  filename patterns separated by whitespace to ignore
              for backup. Several must be put into quotes (See: -D and -X)

       -f <fs-types>
              A list of  filesystem  types,  separated  by  whitespace  and/or
              commas.  The  type  names  can  be prefixed with a plus, what is
              identical with no prefix, with a dash - or a slash / . No prefix
              or  a  plus  means,  that only files in filesystems of the given
              type are saved, no others. A minus means, files in a  filesystem
              of  the  named  type are not saved, nonetheless such filesystems
              are traversed to search for filesystems of other types  probably
              mounted  underneath.  The slash means, that such filesystems are
              not even entered or traversed. If the - or + prefix is used,  no
              space  is  allowed between option -f and it’s argument, e.g. -f-

       -G     To request a new cartridge. If the current writing  position  is
              already  at  the  beginning  of  a  new  or reused tape, nothing

       -h <backuphosts>
              The names of the hosts, where a backup server  side  lives.  The
              list can be separated by commas and/or whitespace. If whitespace
              is present, quotes are  necessary.  The  hosts  are  tested  for
              service availability.  If a backup server is not ready, the next
              one is tried. If all are busy, the program waits  for  a  minute
              and tries again

       -I <idx-prefix>
              The  first  part  of the filename, the names of the stored files
              and directories are written to. The current total backup  number
              is  appended  (that  increments each start of a full backup). If
              these files undergo processing, .z is appended

       -i <info-prog>
              The command to save startup information. A  minimum  information
              to  recover  from  a  hard  crash is piped into this program (at
              stdin). If the command comprises of several words,  it  must  be
              put into quotes. Not to be mixed up with option -b

       -k <file>
              Use  the  contents  of  the  given  file  as  encryption key for
              authenticating to the server

       {+-}L  Process the filename list files (+L) or not (-L) (See: -I)

       -l <logfile>
              Write loggings into the  given  logfile.  A  dash  -  means:  no
              logging, only write to stderr

       -M <server-message-config>
              The  configuration  to  output  messages  from  the server, that
              normally are sent only via mail to a maintainer.  The first word
              consisting  of  the letters b r v and c tells, whether to output
              messages  during  backup,   restore,   verify   and   copy-tape,
              respecively.  The  next words must name the service name or port
              number of the single stream servers, related to the option -P  .
              For  each  multi  stream  service  configured  with -P or in the
              configuration file, the respective single stream service must be
              given here

       -N <num-idxes>
              The  number  of filename list files, that is stored over time. A
              new list is begun at each start of a full backup (except  -a  is

       -O <maxidxage>
              The  maximum  age of the filename list files (== index files) in
              days, that is stored. See also option  -N  .  A  floating  point
              number is allowed here

       -P <portnos>
              The port numbers, that are tried to connect at the servers. They
              must be supplied positionally according  to  the  configured  or
              (with  the  -h  option)  given  backup  servers. The list may be
              separated by whitespace and/or commas. If whitespace is present,
              quotes are necessary

       -S <cartsets>
              The  cartridge  sets  to  use, where <cartsets> is a number of a
              valid cartridge set on the appropriate server side.  Default  is
              1.   These  must  be  supplied  positionally  according  to  the
              configured or (with the -h option)  given  backup  servers.  The
              list may be separated by whitespace and/or commas. If whitespace
              is present, quotes are necessary

       -s <noproc>
              A list of filename patterns, that no processing is attempted on,
              what  can  save  time  significantly.  The list should always be
              enclosed in quotes

       -V <var-dir>
              The directory, where varying files are put

       -W <identity>
              Identify as <id> to the server. This is needed when connecting a
              multi-stream  server to distinguish between the clients. Default
              is the official hostname of the client.  If  the  client  should
              fake  to be a different one than it is in fact, this option must
              be used. This flag can also be useful e.g. to  explicitly  store
              the  serverside  var-directory,  that is crucial for restore and
              should be saved seperately after all other  backup  clients  are

       -X <excl-file>
              The name of a file, that may exist in any directory containing a
              list  of  filename  patterns,  one  per  line.  All  files   and
              directories  in  that directory matching one of the patterns are
              exluded from backup (See: -D and -F)

       {+-}x  Write CRC32 checksums for each file to tape  (+x)  or  don’t  do
              this  (-x).  This  option is ignored, if built-in compression is
              selected, cause then CRC32 checksumming is already performed

       -y     Write the current progress to the file progress in the directory
              with  the varying files (see: -V). The first number in this file
              is the sum of file sizes currently written  to  backup  plus  an
              estimate for the packer overhead. The second number is the total
              sum of file  sizes  to  be  written  to  backup  plus  estimated
              overhead,  determined  in  advance before doing the real backup.
              The third number is the percentage of backup volume  written  up
              to now. All the numbers do NOT include the volume of any command
              output to be written to backup, because it would be necessary to
              run  the  command(s)  twice  then, what is normally not desired.
              Using this option requires the backup client  to  run  over  all
              configured  directories  to  be  saved  to  determine the backup
              volume in advance before doing the real backup,  what  might  be
              considered a waste of time and/or fileserver load.

       -Z <built-in-compress-level>
              If  built-in  compression  should  be  used,  the  level  can be
              supplied here. If commands to process  and  unprocess  are  also
              supplied  with  option  -z,  then data is first processed by the
              process command, then by built-in compression. During uncompress
              it works the other way round

       -z <proccmd> <unproccmd>
              The  commands  to  use  for  process and unprocess. If a command
              comprises of several words, it must be put in quotes

       A table of corresponding command line options  and  configuration  file
       entries,  (subsets)  accepted  by  full_backup,  incr_backup,  restore,

       Option Client configuration file parameter name

       +B -B  ProcessBackupedFiles

       -C     RootDirectory

       -D     DirsToSkip

       -e     ExitProgram

       -F     FilesToSkip

       -f     FilesystemTypes

       -h     BackupHost

       -I     IndexFilePart

       -i     StartupInfoProgram

       -k     EncryptionKeyFile

       -l     LoggingFile

       +L -L  ProcessLogfiles

       -N     NumIndexesToStore

       -P     BackupPort

       -S     CartridgeSet

       -s     DoNotProcess

       -V     VarDirectory

       -W     ClientIdentifier

       -X     ExcludeListFile

       -x     WriteChecksums

       -y     ReportProgress

       -z     ProcessCmd UnprocessCmd

       -Z     Built-inCompressLevel


       When receiving SIGHUP or a single SIGINT (i.e.  keyboard  Ctrl-C)  this
       program  tries  to  process  all  pending  writes  to the server before
       terminating. That is, if the server is currently not ready  to  process
       requests, this program will wait until the server is done or terminates
       unexpectedly, what will  break  the  connection  to  all  clients.  Any
       connection  breakdown  will  cause  a  SIGPIPE  and  thus make a client
       terminate prematurely. If this program should not wait for  the  server
       to  terminate properly, but shut down as soon as a consistent status of
       the client’s local persistent data can be achieved, SIGQUIT (== Ctrl-\)
       or  SIGABRT  must be sent (once) or SIGINT (== Ctrl-C) 3 times within 2
       seconds. Pressing Ctrl-C the second time a respective hint  is  written
       to  the user. The same can be achieved by sending SIGTERM, which is the
       default using the kill(1) command. This signal is typically sent to all
       processes,  when a Unix-system goes down in a controlled manner without
       crashing or fast halt. When SIGINT is received and  standard  input  of
       this  program  is not a TTY, the immediate shutdown without waiting for
       the server is attempted as well. A shutdown like this can  be  expected
       to finish quite surely within one second.


              Client configuration file

              The directory for logging the client backups

              Some internal state information of the client backups.

              Here  the  current total number of backups is stored.  The total
              number of  backups  is  incremented  each  time  a  full  backup
              finishes  successfully,  if  not  the append mode (option -a) is
              selected or files and directories  are  explicitly  supplied  as
              arguments.  This  case  is  considered an exceptional storing of
              files, that should not affect counters or timestamps

              If present, it contains the number of the backup part  that  has
              recently  started.  Full  backups  can  be  split in pieces if a
              complete run would take too much time.  This can  be  configured
              with the parameters NumBackupParts, DirsToBackup1, ...

              The  Modification  time  of this empty file serves as memory for
              the timestamp, when any full or incremental backup  has  started
              before.  This  should be handled in the file explained next, but
              due to backward compati- bility issues i will  not  change  this
              (historical  error  coming  from  the  earlier  used scripts for
              backup and the use of the find-command with option -newer)

              During backup  a  file  holding  the  timestamp  of  the  backup
              starting  time.  The  reason,  why this timestamp is kept in the
              filesystem is safety against program crashes

              This file contains the timestamps for the  backup  levels.  Each
              line has the following format:
               <backup-level>:   <incr-backup-starting-time>   For  each  used
              backup level and the full backup a line will  be  maintained  in
              this file

              This  file  holds  the  patterns of all configuration entries in
              DirsToBackup, DirsToBackup1, ...  for use in subsequent backups.
              If   new  entries  will  be  configured,  this  file  allows  to
              automatically switch to full  backup  from  incremental  backup,
              when a new entry in the configuration file is found

              This  file  contains  a list of tapes needed for full restore of
              all files listed in existing filename list files  (i.e.  index).
              The  number  of  these files depends on the clientside parameter
              NumIndexesToStore. After each backup (full or incremental or  X-
              level)  a  line  is  added  to  this  file or an existing one is
              extended to contain the current backup counter  and  a  list  of
              backup  levels  with  the  cartridge  numbers  used during write
              associated. The format is:
               <backup-counter>:   <backup-level>><tape-list>    [    <backup-
              level>><tape-list>   ...   ]  When  running  an  incremental  or
              differential backup supplying the  option  -H,  entries  with  a
              level  lower than the current one (or in differential mode equal
              to the previous) are removed from this list. Thus the tapes from
              these  entries  are  permitted to be written again (often called

              Here for each  full  or  incremental  backup  within  the  range
              required  by  the parameter NumIndexesToStore the information to
              retrieve all the data is stored.  Each line has the format
               <backup-counter>: <backup-server> <backup-service>  <cartridge-
              number>  <file-number> Having this information everything can be
              restored in case all other data is lost

              The information, which server network address has which  server-
              ID  assiciated.  The  first two columns contain the hostname and
              port number, the third the server-ID

              For each existing index file, this file contains a line with the
              index  number  in  the  beginning,  followed  by a colon and the
              timestamp of the last modification  of  that  index  in  seconds
              since  epoch  (1.1.1970  0:00).   This file is evaluated, if the
              client side parameter DaysToStoreIndexes is set.


       afclientconfig(8), xafclientconfig(8), full_backup(8),  incr_backup(8),
       afverify(8),     afrestore(8),     xafrestore(8),    update_indexes(8),
       copy_tape(8), tar(1)


       afbackup was written by Albert Fluegel (  This  manpage  was
       extracted  from  the  text  docs  by  Christian  Meder  (meder@isr.uni-