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     makefs - create a file system image from a directory tree


     makefs [-x] [-B byte-order] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask]
            [-F specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size]
            [-N userdb-dir] [-o fs-options] [-S sector-size] [-s image-size]
            [-t fs-type] image-file directory


     The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the
     directory tree directory.  No special devices or privileges are required
     to perform this task.

     The options are as follows:

     -B byte-order
           Set the byte order of the image to byte-order.  Valid byte orders
           are ‘4321’, ‘big’, or ‘be’ for big endian, and ‘1234’, ‘little’, or
           ‘le’ for little endian.  Some file systems may have a fixed byte
           order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -b free-blocks
           Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the
           image.  An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -d debug-mask
           Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are
           set in debug-mask.  XXX: document these

     -F specfile
           Use specfile as an mtree(8) ‘specfile’ specification.

           If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its
           permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically
           overridden by the specfile.  An error will be raised if the type of
           entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

           In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry
           in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the
           specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored.
           Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is
           necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the
           specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in
           the case of block or character devices), and link (in the case of
           symbolic links).  If time isn’t provided, the current time will be
           used.  If flags isn’t provided, the current file flags will be
           used.  Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length

     -f free-files
           Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in
           the image.  An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -M minimum-size
           Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.

     -m maximum-size
           Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size.  An
           error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger
           than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.

     -N dbdir
           Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
           text file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from the
           system’s getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.

     -o fs-options
           Set file system specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated
           list of options.  Valid file system specific options are detailed

     -S sector-size
           Set the file system sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to 512.

     -s image-size
           Set the size of the file system image to image-size.

     -t fs-type
           Create an fs-type file system image.  The following file system
           types are supported:

                 ffs     BSD fast file system (default).

                 cd9660  ISO 9660 file system.

     -x    Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.

     Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected.  Two or
     more numbers may be separated by an “x” to indicate a product.  Each
     number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
           b    Block; multiply by 512
           k    Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
           m    Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
           g    Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
           t    Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
           w    Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific options
     ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (‘=’), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

           avgfilesize   Expected average file size.
           avgfpdir      Expected number of files per directory.
           bsize         Block size.
           density       Bytes per inode.
           fsize         Fragment size.
           maxbpg        Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
           minfree       Minimum % free.
           optimization  Optimization preference; one of ‘space’ or ‘time’.
           extent        Maximum extent size.
           maxbpcg       Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
           version       UFS version.  1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

   CD9660-specific options
     cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be
     provided.  The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal
     sign (‘=’), and a value.  The following keywords are supported:

           allow-deep-trees      Allow the directory structure to exceed the
                                 maximum specified in the spec.
           allow-max-name        Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for
                                 filenames by omitting the version id.
           allow-multidot        Allow multiple dots in a filename.
           applicationid         Application ID of the image.
           archimedes            Use the ‘ARCHIMEDES’ extension to encode RISC
                                 OS metadata.
           boot-info-table       Write a legacy 56-byte table at offset 8 into
                                 the boot image (see below).
           boot-load-segment     Set load segment for the boot image.
           bootimage             Filename of a boot image in the format
                                 “sysid;filename”, where “sysid” is one of
                                 ‘i386’, ‘mac68k’, ‘macppc’, or ‘powerpc’.
           creation-date         Override PVD creation date.
           effective-date        Override PVD effective date.
           expiration-date       Override PVD expiration date.
           generic-bootimage     Load a generic boot image into the first 32K
                                 of the cd9660 image.
           hard-disk-boot        Boot image is a hard disk image.
           hide-rr-moved         Assign the RR_MOVED directory a rock ridge
                                 name of the empty string instead of the
                                 default .rr_moved.
           keep-bad-images       Don’t throw away images whose write was
                                 aborted due to an error.  For debugging
           label                 Label name of the image.
           modification-date     Override PVD modification date.
           no-boot               Boot image is not bootable.
           no-emul-boot          Boot image is a “no emulation” ElTorito
           no-trailing-padding   Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs
                                 the padding).
           omit-trailing-period  Violate the standard, do not append a
                                 trailing period to filenames without an
           preparer              Preparer ID of the image.
           publisher             Publisher ID of the image.
           rockridge             Use RockRidge extensions (for longer
                                 filenames, etc.).
           rr-squash             Force uid 0, gid 0, and rationalised
                                 permission bits for RockRidge entries.
           volumeid              Volume set identifier of the image.

     The boot-info-table currently consists of the following fields (all 7.3.1
     numbers), offsets relative to the boot image:
           0    8 bytes: kept as is, not part of checksum
           8    LBA of PVD
           12   LBA of boot image
           16   Size in bytes of boot image
           20   32-bit additive sum of all 32-bit words of boot image
           24   40 reserved bytes (MBZ)
           64   Begin of checksummed data, kept as is

     Dates (to override) are in format (YYYYmmddHHMMSS00) and
     Universal Time, i.e. with zero offset from Greenwich Mean Time.


     strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8)


     The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     Support for overriding PVD dates and the boot info table was added in
     MirOS 11.


     Luke Mewburn 〈〉 (original program)
     Daniel Watt,
     Walter Deignan,
     Ryan Gabrys,
     Alan Perez-Rathke,
     Ram Vedam (cd9660 support)
     Thorsten Glaser 〈


     makefs may be limited to images less than 2 GiB in size due to internal
     use of the long type.