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       courierfax - Send faxes via E-mail


       sendmail [5558888@fax]

       sendmail [5558888@fax-lowres]

       sendmail [5558888@fax-ignore]

       sendmail [5558888@fax-cover]


       The courierfax module (if enabled by the system administrator) sends
       E-mail messages by fax. Addressing an E-mail message to the address
       5558888@fax faxes a printed copy of the message to the specified phone

       The ability to send faxes may be restricted, or not available. The
       E-mail message may be a MIME-formatted message. All attachments are
       concatenated and sent together in a single fax transmission.
       courierfax only knows how to handle certain kinds of attached.
       Obviously, trying to fax a voice .mp3 attaching is not going to work.
       courierfax knows how to handle plain text, Postscript, and PDF MIME
       attachments.  courierfax might also know what to do with other kinds of
       attachment, depending on some optional software installed by the system
       administrator.  courierfax may also be able to read GIF, PNG, and JPEG

           Color images are converted to black-and-white.

       Images are faxed with one image per fax page (limiting image sizes to
       about 1600x2200).

       The message will be returned as undeliverable if courierfax doesn´t
       know how to handle a MIME attachment. If the first MIME section in the
       E-mail message is plain text, the text appears on the fax cover page.
       The sender/recipient information for the cover page is taken from the
       message´s headers.

       The default courierfax configuration tries to resend the fax for up to
       eight hours, after which the message is returned as undeliverable. The
       message will also be returned as undeliverable if the fax transmission
       is interrupted. The return bounce will state how many pages were
       successfully transmitted.

       "@fax" may also be followed by additional keywords that specify extra

           Send a low-resolution fax.

           Ignore any attachment types that courierfax doesn´t understand.

           Send a cover page only. This is useful in limited situations, with
           something like this in a dot-courier(5)[1] file:

                ! 5552222@fax-cover
           This .courier file faxes the contents of a message, sans any
           attachments, immediately upon receipt in addition to saving the
           message in the mailbox.


       The sender will receive a fax transmission receipt if the sender
       requests an ESMTP delivery status notification. This is the -N option
       to sendmail(8)[2]:

           sendmail -Nsuccess 5556666@fax <messagefile

       When using other mail software, consult the mail software´s
       documentation for instructions on requesting ESMTP delivery status


       courierfax configurations that are generated by the webadmin tool for
       North American environments usually restrict phone numbers to a
       standardized ten-digit telephone number, so that the fax address is
       always <aaabbbcccc@fax>, and courierfax silently performs any needed
       conversion to dial the number (such as adding “1” or dropping the local

       It is also possible to reconfigure courierfax so that it accepts any
       telephone string and dials it without any preprocessing. If so, the
       address may contain any combination of digits, letters “A”, “B”, “C”,
       and “D”, representing the four extra dialing tones not normally
       accessible from most telephone keypads, the symbols “*” and “#”, or the
       following characters:

           Most faxmodems pause and wait for a secondary dialtone, before
           dialing the rest of the number.

           The dash is replaced by a comma in the dialing string. A comma
           results in most faxmodems pausing for two or three seconds before
           dialing the rest of the number. It is not possible to enter a comma
           directly, because commas are used to separate multiple E-mail
           addresses. Use dashes instead of commas in the dialing string.
           courierfax replaces all dashes with commas before dialing the

           Similarly, courierfax replaces all pluses with “@” characters
           before dialing. An “@” characters results in most faxmodems waiting
           for the line to be silent for five seconds before dialing the rest
           of the number. It is not possible to enter a “@” directly as part
           of the telephone number itself, for the obvious reasons. Use pluses
           instead of “@”s in the dialing string.  courierfax replaces all
           pluses with “@” before dialing the faxmodem.


       The slightly arcane configuration file, /etc/courier/faxrc, sets up
       which dialing strings are valid. The default configuration file
       contains judicious comments that explain all the parameters, and what
       they do. The default configuration file disables courierfax by
       rejecting all telephone numbers. The file must be edited in accordance
       with the embedded instructions, in order to enable faxing.

       Using webadmin is highly recommended. Upon demand, webadmin will
       install a suitable configuration file for the North American numbering
       plan, that receives all telephone numbers as ten-digit numbers, and
       adds any required long distance prefix, or removes the local area code,
       as appropriate. Or, webadmin will install a bare-bones configuration
       file that dials any requested phone number, without any editing or


       There is no good way to sleep until a modem lock is released, so we
       poll every minute.




        1. dot-courier(5)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/dot-courier.html

        2. sendmail(8)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/sendmail.html

        3. courier(8)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/courier.html