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     bozohttpd - hyper text transfer protocol version 1.1 daemon


     bozohttpd [-HVXbefnrus] [-C suffix cgihandler] [-I port]
               [-M suffix type encoding encoding11] [-S server_software]
               [-c cgibin] [-i address] [-p pubdir] [-t chrootdir]
               [-v virtualroot] [-x index] [-Z cert privkey] slashdir [myname]


     The bozohttpd program reads a HTTP request from the standard input, and
     sends a reply to the standard output.  Besides ~user translation and
     virtual hosting support (see below), all file requests are from slashdir
     directory.  The server uses myname as its name, which defaults to the
     local hostname, obtained from gethostname(3) (but see the -v option for
     virtual hosting.)  bozohttpd writes logs to syslog(3) using the ftp
     facaility (but see the -s option for testing.)  bozohttpd is designed to
     be small, simple and relatively featureless, hopefully increasing its

     The following options are available:

     -b         This option enables daemon mode, where bozohttpd detaches from
                the current terminal, running in the background and servicing
                HTTP requests.

     -C suffix cgihandler
                This option adds a new CGI handler program for a particular
                file type.  The suffix should be any normal file suffix, and
                the cgihandler should be a full path to an interpreter.  This
                option is the only way to enable CGI programs that exist
                outside of the cgibin directory to be executed.  Multiple -C
                options may be passed.

     -c cgibin  This option enables the CGI/1.1 interface.  The cgibin
                directory is expected to contain the CGI programs to be used.
                bozohttpd looks for URL's in the form of /cgi-bin/<scriptname>
                where <scriptname> is a valid CGI program in the cgibin
                directory.  In other words, all CGI URL's must begin with
                /cgi-bin/.  Note that the CGI/1.1 interface is not available
                with ~user translation.

     -e         This option causes bozohttpd to not clear the environment when
                used with either the -t or -U options.

     -f         This option stops the -b flag from bozohttpd detaching from
                the tty and going into the background.

     -H         This option causes directory index mode to hide files and
                directories that start with a period, except for ...  Also see

     -I port    This option is only valid with the -b option.  It causes port
                to use used as the port to bind daemon mode.  The default is
                the ``http'' port.

     -i address
                This option is only valid with the -b option.  It causes
                address to use used as the address to bind daemon mode.  If
                otherwise unspecified, the address used to bind is derived
                from the myname, which defaults to the name returned by
                gethostname(3).  Only the last -i option is used.

     -M suffix type encoding encoding11
                This option adds a new entry to the table that converts file
                suffixes to content type and encoding.  This option takes four
                additional arguments containing the file prefix, its
                ``Content-Type'', ``Content-Encoding'', and
                ``Content-Encoding'' for HTTP/1.1 connections, respectively.
                If any of these are a single dash (``-''), the empty string is
                used instead.  Multiple -M options may be passed.

     -n         This option stops bozohttpd from doing IP address to name
                resolution of hosts for setting the REMOTE_HOST variable
                before running a CGI program.  This option has no effect
                without the -c option.

     -p pubdir  This option changes the default user directory for /~user/
                translations from ``public_html'' to pubdir.

     -r         This option forces pages besides the ``index.html'' (see the
                -X option) page to require that the Referrer: header be
                present and refer to this web server, otherwise a redirect to
                the ``index.html'' page will be returned instead.

     -S server_software
                This option sets the internal server version to

     -s         This option forces logging to be set to stderr always.

     -t chrootdir
                When this option is used, bozohttpd will chroot to the
                specified directory before answering requests.  Every other
                path should be specified relative to the new root, if this
                option is used.  Note that the current environment is normally
                replaced with an empty environment with this option, unless
                the -e option is also used.

     -U username
                This option causes bozohttpd to switch to the user and the
                groups of username after initialization.  This option, like -t
                above, causes bozohttpd to clear the environment unless the -e
                option is given.

     -u         This option enables the transformation of Uniform Resource
                Locators of the form /~user/ into the the directory
                ~user/public_html (but see the -p option above).

     -V         This option sets the default virtual host directory to
                slashdir.  If no directory exists in virtualroot for the
                request, then slashdir will be used.  The default behaviour is
                to return 404 (Not Found.)

     -v virtualroot
                This option enables virtual hosting support.  Directories in
                virtualroot will be searched for a matching virtual host name,
                when parsing the HTML request.  If a matching name is found,
                it will be used as both the server's real name, [myname], and
                as the slashdir.  See the EXAMPLES section for an example of
                using this option.

     -X         This option enables directory indexing.  A directory index
                will be generated only when the default file (i.e.  index.html
                normally) is not present.

     -x index   This option changes the default file read for directories from
                ``index.html'' to index.

     -Z certificate_path privatekey_path
                This option sets the path to the server certificate file and
                the private key file in pem format.  It also causes bozohttpd
                to start SSL mode.

     Note that in bozohttpd versions 20031005 and prior that supported the -C
     and -M options, they took a single space-separated argument that was
     parsed.  since version 20040828, they take multiple options (2 in the
     case of -C and 4 in the case of -M.)

     As bozohttpd uses inetd(8) by default to process incoming TCP connections
     for HTTP requests (but see the -b option), bozohttpd has little internal
     networking knowledge.  (Indeed, you can run it on the command line with
     little change of functionality.)  A typical inetd.conf(5) entry would be:

     http stream tcp  nowait:600 httpd /usr/pkg/libexec/bozohttpd bozohttpd /var/www
     http stream tcp6 nowait:600 httpd /usr/pkg/libexec/bozohttpd bozohttpd /var/www

     This would serve web pages from /var/www on both IPv4 and IPv6 ports.
     The :600 changes the requests per minute to 600, up from the inetd(8)
     default of 40.

     Using the NetBSD inetd(8), you can provide multiple IP-address based HTTP
     servers by having multiple listening ports with different configurations.

     This server supports the HTTP/0.9, HTTP/1.0, and HTTP/1.1 standards.
     Support for these protocols is very minimal and many optional features
     are not supported.

     bozohttpd can be compiled without CGI support (NO_CGIBIN_SUPPORT), user
     transformations (NO_USER_SUPPORT), directory index support
     (NO_DIRINDEX_SUPPORT), daemon mode support (NO_DAEMON_MODE), and dynamic
     MIME content (NO_DYNAMIC_CONTENT), and SSL support (NO_SSL_SUPPORT) by
     defining the listed macros when building bozohttpd.

     bozohttpd has support for HTTP Basic Authorisation.  If a file named
     .htpasswd exists in the directory of the current request, bozohttpd will
     restrict access to documents in that directory using the RFC 2617 HTTP
     ``Basic'' authentication scheme.

     Note: This does not recursively protect any sub-directories.

     The .htpasswd file contains lines delimited with a colon containing
     usernames and passwords hashed with crypt(3), for example:


     On NetBSD, the pwhash(1) utility may be used to generate hashed

     While bozohttpd distributed with NetBSD has support for HTTP Basic
     Authorisation enabled by default, in the portable distribution it is
     excluded.  Compile bozohttpd with ``-DDO_HTPASSWD'' on the compiler
     command line to enable this support.  It may require linking with the
     crypt library, using ``-lcrypt''.

     bozohttpd has support for SSLv2, SSLv3, and TLSv1 protocols that is
     included by default.  It requires linking with the crypto and ssl
     library, using ``-lcrypto -lssl''.  To disable SSL SUPPORT compile
     bozohttpd with ``-DNO_SSL_SUPPORT'' on the compiler command line.


     bozohttpd looks for a couple of special files in directories that allow
     certain features to be provided on a per-directory basis.  In addition to
     the .htpasswd used by HTTP basic authorisation, if a .bzdirect file is
     found (contents are irrelevant) bozohttpd will allow direct access even
     with the -r option.  If a .bzredirect symbolic link is found, bozohttpd
     will perform a smart redirect to the target of this symlink.  The target
     is assumed to live on the same server.  If a .bzabsredirect symbolic link
     is found, bozohttpd will redirect to the absolute url pointed to by this
     symlink.  This is useful to redirect to different servers.


     To configure set of virtual hosts, one would use an inetd.conf(5) entry

     http stream tcp  nowait:600 httpd /usr/pkg/libexec/bozohttpd bozohttpd -v /var/vroot /var/www

     and inside /var/vroot create a directory (or a symlink to a directory)
     with the same name as the virtual host, for each virtual host.  Lookups
     for these names are done in a case-insensitive manner.

     To use bozohttpd with PHP, one must use the -C option to specify a CGI
     handler for a particular file type.  Typically this, this will be like:

     bozohttpd -C .php /usr/pkg/bin/php /var/www


     inetd.conf(5), inetd(8)


     The bozohttpd program was first written in perl, based on another perl
     http server called ``tinyhttpd''.  It was then rewritten from scratch in
     perl, and then once again in C.  The focus has always been simplicity and
     security, with minimal features and regular code audits.  This manual
     documents bozohttpd version 20100621.


     bozohttpd was written by Matthew R. Green <>.

     The large list of contributors includes:

     -   Arnaud Lacombe <> provided some clean up for memory

     -   Christoph Badura <> provided Range: header support

     -   Julian Coleman <> provided an IPv6 bugfix

     -   Chuck Cranor <> provided cgi-bin support fixes,
         and more

     -   DEGROOTE Arnaud <> provided a fix for daemon mode

     -   Andrew Doran <> provided directory indexing support

     -   Per Ekman <> provided a fix for a minor (non-security)
         buffer overflow condition

     -   Alistair G. Crooks <> cleaned up many internal
         interfaces, made bozohttpd linkable as a library and provided the lua

     -   Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino, KAME <> provided initial
         IPv6 support

     -   Martin Husemann <> provided .bzabsredirect support

     -   Arto Huusko <> provided fixes cgi-bin

     -   Roland Illig <> provided some off-by-one fixes

     -   Zak Johnson <> provided cgi-bin enhancements

     -   Nicolas Jombart <> provided fixes for HTTP basic
         authorisation support

     -   Thomas Klausner <> provided many fixes
         and enhancements for the man page

     -   Johnny Lam <> provided man page fixes

     -   Luke Mewburn <> provided many various fixes,
         including cgi-bin fixes and enhancements, HTTP basic authorisation
         support and much code clean up

     -   Jeremy C. Reed <> provided several clean up fixes, and
         man page updates

     -   Scott Reynolds <> provided various fixes

     -   Tyler Retzlaff <> provided SSL support, cgi-bin
         fixes and much other random other stuff

     -   Steve Rumble <> provided the -V option.

     -   Joerg Sonnenberger <> implemented If-Modified-Since

     -   ISIHARA Takanori <> provided a man page fix

     -   Holger Weiss <holger@CIS.FU-Berlin.DE> provided http authorisation

     -   <> provided chroot and change-to-user support, and
         other various fixes

     -   Coyote Point provided various CGI fixes

     There are probably others I have forgotten (let me know if you care)

     Please send all updates to bozohttpd to <> for inclusion
     in future releaases.


     bozohttpd does not handled HTTP/1.1 chunked input from the client yet.