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       CREATE ROLE - define a new database role


       CREATE ROLE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

       where option can be:

           | INHERIT | NOINHERIT
           | LOGIN | NOLOGIN
           | CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
           | [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD ’password’
           | VALID UNTIL ’timestamp’
           | IN ROLE rolename [, ...]
           | IN GROUP rolename [, ...]
           | ROLE rolename [, ...]
           | ADMIN rolename [, ...]
           | USER rolename [, ...]
           | SYSID uid


       CREATE ROLE adds a new role to a PostgreSQL database cluster. A role is
       an entity that can own database objects and have database privileges; a
       role  can  be  considered a ‘‘user’’, a ‘‘group’’, or both depending on
       how it is used. Refer to in the documentation and in the  documentation
       for  information about managing users and authentication. You must have
       CREATEROLE privilege or be a database superuser to use this command.

       Note that roles are defined at the database cluster level, and  so  are
       valid in all databases in the cluster.


       name   The name of the new role.


              These clauses determine whether the new role is a ‘‘superuser’’,
              who can override all access restrictions  within  the  database.
              Superuser  status  is  dangerous  and  should  be used only when
              really needed. You must yourself be a superuser to create a  new
              superuser.  If not specified, NOSUPERUSER is the default.


              These  clauses  define  a role’s ability to create databases. If
              CREATEDB is specified, the role being defined will be allowed to
              create new databases. Specifying NOCREATEDB will deny a role the
              ability to create databases. If not specified, NOCREATEDB is the


              These  clauses  determine  whether  a  role will be permitted to
              create new roles (that is, execute CREATE ROLE).   A  role  with
              CREATEROLE  privilege  can  also alter and drop other roles.  If
              not specified, NOCREATEROLE is the default.


              These clauses are an obsolete, but still accepted,  spelling  of
              SUPERUSER and NOSUPERUSER.  Note that they are not equivalent to
              CREATEROLE as one might naively expect!


              These  clauses  determine  whether  a  role   ‘‘inherits’’   the
              privileges  of roles it is a member of.  A role with the INHERIT
              attribute can automatically  use  whatever  database  privileges
              have  been  granted  to all roles it is directly or indirectly a
              member of.  Without INHERIT, membership  in  another  role  only
              grants  the  ability  to  SET  ROLE  to  that  other  role;  the
              privileges of the other role are  only  available  after  having
              done so.  If not specified, INHERIT is the default.


              These  clauses  determine  whether  a role is allowed to log in;
              that is, whether the role can be given as  the  initial  session
              authorization  name  during client connection. A role having the
              LOGIN attribute can be thought of as a user.  Roles without this
              attribute  are  useful for managing database privileges, but are
              not users in the usual sense of the  word.   If  not  specified,
              NOLOGIN  is  the  default,  except  when  CREATE ROLE is invoked
              through its alternative spelling CREATE USER.

       CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
              If  role  can  log  in,  this  specifies  how  many   concurrent
              connections  the role can make. -1 (the default) means no limit.

       PASSWORD password
              Sets the role’s password. (A password is only of use  for  roles
              having  the  LOGIN attribute, but you can nonetheless define one
              for roles without it.) If  you  do  not  plan  to  use  password
              authentication  you  can  omit  this  option.  If no password is
              specified, the  password  will  be  set  to  null  and  password
              authentication  will  always fail for that user. A null password
              can optionally be written explicitly as PASSWORD NULL.


              These key words control whether the password is stored encrypted
              in  the  system  catalogs. (If neither is specified, the default
              behavior  is   determined   by   the   configuration   parameter
              password_encryption.)   If  the  presented  password  string  is
              already in MD5-encrypted format, then it is stored encrypted as-
              is,  regardless of whether ENCRYPTED or UNENCRYPTED is specified
              (since  the  system  cannot  decrypt  the  specified   encrypted
              password  string).  This allows reloading of encrypted passwords
              during dump/restore.

              Note  that  older  clients  might  lack  support  for  the   MD5
              authentication  mechanism  that is needed to work with passwords
              that are stored encrypted.

       VALID UNTILtimestamp’
              The VALID UNTIL clause sets a date  and  time  after  which  the
              role’s  password  is  no longer valid. If this clause is omitted
              the password will be valid for all time.

       IN ROLE rolename
              The IN ROLE clause lists one or more existing roles to which the
              new  role  will be immediately added as a new member. (Note that
              there is no option to add the new role as an administrator;  use
              a separate GRANT command to do that.)

       IN GROUP rolename
              IN GROUP is an obsolete spelling of IN ROLE.

       ROLE rolename
              The  ROLE  clause  lists  one  or  more existing roles which are
              automatically added as members of the new role.  (This in effect
              makes the new role a ‘‘group’’.)

       ADMIN rolename
              The  ADMIN clause is like ROLE, but the named roles are added to
              the new role WITH ADMIN OPTION, giving them the right  to  grant
              membership in this role to others.

       USER rolename
              The USER clause is an obsolete spelling of the ROLE clause.

       SYSID uid
              The  SYSID  clause  is  ignored,  but  is accepted for backwards


       Use ALTER ROLE [alter_role(7)] to change the attributes of a role,  and
       DROP ROLE [drop_role(7)] to remove a role. All the attributes specified
       by CREATE ROLE can be modified by later ALTER ROLE commands.

       The preferred way to add and remove members of  roles  that  are  being
       used as groups is to use GRANT [grant(7)] and REVOKE [revoke(7)].

       The  VALID UNTIL clause defines an expiration time for a password only,
       not for the role per se. In particular,  the  expiration  time  is  not
       enforced  when  logging  in  using  a non-password-based authentication

       The INHERIT attribute governs inheritance of grantable privileges (that
       is,  access  privileges  for database objects and role memberships). It
       does not apply to the special role attributes set by  CREATE  ROLE  and
       ALTER  ROLE.  For  example,  being  a  member  of  a role with CREATEDB
       privilege does not immediately grant the ability to  create  databases,
       even  if  INHERIT is set; it would be necessary to become that role via
       SET ROLE [set_role(7)] before creating a database.

       The  INHERIT  attribute  is  the  default  for  reasons  of   backwards
       compatibility: in prior releases of PostgreSQL, users always had access
       to all privileges of groups they were members of.   However,  NOINHERIT
       provides a closer match to the semantics specified in the SQL standard.

       Be careful with the  CREATEROLE  privilege.  There  is  no  concept  of
       inheritance  for  the  privileges of a CREATEROLE-role. That means that
       even if a role does not have a certain  privilege  but  is  allowed  to
       create  other  roles,  it can easily create another role with different
       privileges than its own  (except  for  creating  roles  with  superuser
       privileges).  For  example,  if  the  role  ‘‘user’’ has the CREATEROLE
       privilege but not the CREATEDB privilege, nonetheless it can  create  a
       new role with the CREATEDB privilege. Therefore, regard roles that have
       the CREATEROLE privilege as almost-superuser-roles.

       PostgreSQL includes a program createuser [createuser(1)] that  has  the
       same  functionality as CREATE ROLE (in fact, it calls this command) but
       can be run from the command shell.

       The CONNECTION LIMIT option is only enforced approximately; if two  new
       sessions start at about the same time when just one connection ‘‘slot’’
       remains for the role, it is possible that both  will  fail.  Also,  the
       limit is never enforced for superusers.

       Caution  must be exercised when specifying an unencrypted password with
       this command. The  password  will  be  transmitted  to  the  server  in
       cleartext,  and it might also be logged in the client’s command history
       or the server log. The  command  createuser  [createuser(1)],  however,
       transmits  the  password  encrypted.  Also,  psql  [psql(1)] contains a
       command \password that can be used to safely change the password later.


       Create a role that can log in, but don’t give it a password:

       CREATE ROLE jonathan LOGIN;

       Create a role with a password:

       CREATE USER davide WITH PASSWORD ’jw8s0F4’;

       (CREATE  USER is the same as CREATE ROLE except that it implies LOGIN.)

       Create a role with a password that is valid  until  the  end  of  2004.
       After one second has ticked in 2005, the password is no longer valid.

       CREATE ROLE miriam WITH LOGIN PASSWORD ’jw8s0F4’ VALID UNTIL ’2005-01-01’;

       Create a role that can create databases and manage roles:



       The CREATE ROLE statement is in the SQL standard, but the standard only
       requires the syntax

       CREATE ROLE name [ WITH ADMIN rolename ]

       Multiple initial administrators, and all the other  options  of  CREATE
       ROLE, are PostgreSQL extensions.

       The  SQL  standard  defines  the  concepts  of  users and roles, but it
       regards them as distinct concepts  and  leaves  all  commands  defining
       users to be specified by each database implementation. In PostgreSQL we
       have chosen to unify users and roles into  a  single  kind  of  entity.
       Roles  therefore have many more optional attributes than they do in the

       The behavior specified by the SQL standard is most closely approximated
       by  giving  users  the  NOINHERIT  attribute, while roles are given the
       INHERIT attribute.


       SET  ROLE  [set_role(7)],  ALTER  ROLE   [alter_role(7)],   DROP   ROLE
       [drop_role(7)], GRANT [grant(7)], REVOKE [revoke(7)], createuser(1)