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       srec_mos_tech - MOS Technology file format


       The  MOS  Technology  format  allows  binary  files  to be uploaded and
       downloaded between between a computer system (such as a PC,  Macintosh,
       or   workstation)   and   an   emulator   or   evaluation   board   for
       microcontrollers and microprocessors.

   The Lines
       Each line consists of 5 fields.  These are the  length  field,  address
       field,  data  field,  and  the checksum.  The lines always start with a
       semicolon (;) character.

   The Fields
                   |; | Length | Address | Data | Checksum | CRLF |
       Length  The record length field is a 2 character (1  byte)  field  that
               specifies  the  number  of data bytes in the record.  Typically
               this is 24 or less.

       Address This is a 2‐byte address that specifies where the data  in  the
               record is to be loaded into memory, big‐endian.

       Data    The  data  field  contains the executable code, memory‐loadable
               data or descriptive information to be transferred.

               The checksum is an  2‐byte  field  that  represents  the  least
               significant  two bytes of the the sum of the values represented
               by the pairs of  characters  making  up  the  record’s  length,
               address, and data fields, big‐endian.

   End of File
       The  final  line  should  have a data length of zero, and the data line
       count in the address field.  The checksum is not the usual checksum, it
       is instead a repeat of the data line count.

   Size Multiplier
       In  general,  binary  data  will  expand in sized by approximately 2.54
       times when represented with this format.


       Here is an example MOS Technology format file.  It  contains  the  data
       “Hello, World” to be loaded at address 0.


       srec_cat version 1.55
       Copyright  (C)  1998,  1999,  2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
       2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Peter Miller

       The srec_cat program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details use
       the ’srec_cat -VERSion License’ command.  This is free software and you
       are welcome to redistribute it under certain  conditions;  for  details
       use the ’srec_cat -VERSion License’ command.


       Peter Miller   E‐Mail:
       /\/\*             WWW:

KIM1 User Manual - Appendix F - Paper Tape Format
       (The       following      information      is      reproduced      from just  in  case  it
       vanishes from the Web.)

       The  paper  tape  LOAD  and  DUMP routines store and retrieve data in a
       specific format designed to insure error free recovery.  Each  byte  of
       data  to  be  stored  is  converted  to two half bytes.  The half bytes
       (whose possible values are 0 to F HEX) are translated into their  ASCII
       equivalents and written out onto paper tape in this form.

       Each  record  outputted  begins with a “;” character (ASCII 3B) to mark
       the start of a valid record.  The next byte transmitted (18HEX) or  (24
       decimal)  is  the  number  of  data bytes contained in the record.  The
       record’s starting address High (1 byte, 2 characters), starting address
       Lo  (1  byte, 2 characters), and data (24 bytes, 48 characters) follow.
       Each record is  terminated  by  the  record’s  check‐sum  (2  bytes,  4
       characters),  a  carriage  return (ASCII 0D), line feed (ASCII 0A), and
       six “NULL” characters (ASCII 00).  (NULL characters cause a blank  area
       on the paper tape.)

       The  last record transmitted has zero data bytes (indicated by ;00) The
       starting  address  field  is  replaced  by  a  four  digit  Hex  number
       representing  the  total  number  of  data  records  contained  in  the
       transmission, followed by  the  records  usual  check‐sum  digits.   An
       “XOFF” character ends the transmission.
       During  a  “LOAD” all incoming data is ignored until a “;” character is
       received.  The receipt of non  ASCII  data  or  a  mismatch  between  a
       records  calculated  check‐sum  and  the  check‐sum read from tape will
       cause an error condition to be recognized by  KIM.   The  check‐sum  is
       calculated by adding all data in the record except the “;” character.

       The  paper  tape  format  described  is  compatible  with all other MOS
       Technology, Inc. software support programs.