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       mysql_table - Postfix MySQL client configuration


       postmap -q "string" mysql:/etc/postfix/filename

       postmap -q - mysql:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile


       The  Postfix  mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
       mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm or db format.

       Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as MySQL  databases.   In
       order  to use MySQL lookups, define a MySQL source as a lookup table in, for example:
           alias_maps = mysql:/etc/

       The file /etc/postfix/  has  the  same  format  as  the
       Postfix file, and can specify the parameters described below.


       For  compatibility  with  other Postfix lookup tables, MySQL parameters
       can also be defined in  In order to do that, specify as  MySQL
       source  a  name  that  doesn’t  begin with a slash or a dot.  The MySQL
       parameters will then be accessible as the name you’ve given the  source
       in  its  definition, an underscore, and the name of the parameter.  For
       example, if the map is specified as  "mysql:mysqlname",  the  parameter
       "hosts" below would be defined in as "mysqlname_hosts".

       Note:  with  this form, the passwords for the MySQL sources are written
       in, which is normally world-readable.  Support  for  this  form
       will be removed in a future Postfix version.

       Postfix  2.2  has  enhanced  query interfaces for MySQL and PostgreSQL;
       these include features previously available only in  the  Postfix  LDAP
       client.  In  the  new interface the SQL query is specified via a single
       query parameter (described in more detail below).  When the  new  query
       parameter  is  not  specified in the map definition, Postfix reverts to
       the  old  interface,  with  the  SQL   query   constructed   from   the
       select_field,  table, where_field and additional_conditions parameters.
       The old interface will be gradually phased out. To migrate to  the  new
       interface set:

           query = SELECT [select_field]
               FROM [table]
               WHERE [where_field] = ’%s’

       Insert the value, not the name, of each legacy parameter. Note that the
       additional_conditions parameter is optional  and  if  not  empty,  will
       always start with AND.


       When  using  SQL  to  store  lists such as $mynetworks, $mydestination,
       $relay_domains,  $local_recipient_maps,  etc.,  it  is   important   to
       understand  that  the  table  must store each list member as a separate
       key. The table lookup verifies the *existence* of the key. See "Postfix
       lists  versus tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.

       Do  NOT  create  tables  that  return  the  full  list  of  domains  in
       $mydestination  or $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses in $mynetworks.

       DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with an arbitrary
       value.  With  SQL databases it is not uncommon to return the key itself
       or a constant value.


       hosts  The hosts that Postfix will try to connect to  and  query  from.
              Specify unix: for UNIX domain sockets, inet: for TCP connections
              (default).  Example:
                  hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain
                  hosts = unix:/file/name

              The hosts are tried in random order, with all  connections  over
              UNIX  domain  sockets  being  tried  before those over TCP.  The
              connections are automatically closed after being idle for  about
              1  minute,  and are re-opened as necessary. Postfix versions 2.0
              and earlier do not randomize the host order.

              NOTE: if you specify localhost as a hostname (even if you prefix
              it  with  inet:),  MySQL will connect to the default UNIX domain
              socket.  In order to instruct MySQL to connect to localhost over
              TCP you have to specify
                  hosts =

       user, password
              The  user  name  and  password  to  log  into  the mysql server.
                  user = someone
                  password = some_password

       dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
                  dbname = customer_database

       query  The SQL query template used to search the database, where %s  is
              a  substitute for the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
                  query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = ’%s’

              This parameter supports the following ’%’ expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal ’%’ character.

              %s     This is replaced by the input key.  SQL quoting  is  used
                     to  make  sure that the input key does not add unexpected

              %u     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %u  is  replaced  by  the  SQL  quoted  local part of the
                     address.  Otherwise, %u is replaced by the entire  search
                     string.    If  the  localpart  is  empty,  the  query  is
                     suppressed and returns no results.

              %d     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %d  is  replaced  by  the  SQL  quoted domain part of the
                     address.  Otherwise, the query is suppressed and  returns
                     no results.

              %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above expansions behave
                     in the query parameter identically  to  their  lower-case
                     counter-parts.   With  the  result_format  parameter (see
                     below), they expand the input key rather than the  result

              %[1-9] The   patterns  %1,  %2,  ...  %9  are  replaced  by  the
                     corresponding most significant  component  of  the  input
                     key’s  domain. If the input key is,
                     then %1 is com, %2 is example and  %3  is  mail.  If  the
                     input  key  is unqualified or does not have enough domain
                     components to satisfy all  the  specified  patterns,  the
                     query is suppressed and returns no results.

              The  domain  parameter  described below limits the input keys to
              addresses in matching domains. When the domain parameter is non-
              empty,  SQL  queries  for  unqualified addresses or addresses in
              non-matching domains are suppressed and return no results.

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2. In prior  releases
              the   SQL   query   was  built  from  the  separate  parameters:
              select_field, table, where_field and additional_conditions.  The
              mapping from the old parameters to the equivalent query is:

                  SELECT [select_field]
                  FROM [table]
                  WHERE [where_field] = ’%s’

              The  ’%s’  in  the  WHERE  clause  expands to the escaped search
              string.  With Postfix 2.2 these legacy parameters  are  used  if
              the query parameter is not specified.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.

       result_format (default: %s)
              Format template applied to result attributes. Most commonly used
              to append (or  prepend)  text  to  the  result.  This  parameter
              supports the following ’%’ expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal ’%’ character.

              %s     This  is  replaced  by the value of the result attribute.
                     When result is empty it is skipped.

              %u     When the result attribute value is an address of the form
                     user@domain,  %u  is  replaced  by  the local part of the
                     address. When the result has an  empty  localpart  it  is

              %d     When  a  result attribute value is an address of the form
                     user@domain, %d is replaced by the  domain  part  of  the
                     attribute  value.  When  the  result is unqualified it is

                     The upper-case and decimal digit  expansions  interpolate
                     the  parts of the input key rather than the result. Their
                     behavior is identical to that described with  query,  and
                     in  fact  because  the  input  key  is  known in advance,
                     queries whose key does not contain  all  the  information
                     specified  in  the  result  template  are  suppressed and
                     return no results.

              For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]" allows one to use
              a mailHost attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After
              applying the result format, multiple values are concatenated  as
              comma  separated  strings.  The  expansion_limit  and  parameter
              explained below allows one to restrict the number of  values  in
              the result, which is especially useful for maps that must return
              at most one value.

              The default value %s specifies that each result value should  be
              used as is.

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!

       domain (default: no domain list)
              This is a list of domain names, paths to files, or dictionaries.
              When specified, only fully qualified search keys  with  a  *non-
              empty*  localpart and a matching domain are eligible for lookup:
              ’user’ lookups, bare domain lookups and  "@domain"  lookups  are
              not  performed.  This can significantly reduce the query load on
              the MySQL server.
                  domain =, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains

              It is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for  SQL

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
              the input keys are always unqualified.

       expansion_limit (default: 0)
              A limit on the total number of result elements  returned  (as  a
              comma separated list) by a lookup against the map.  A setting of
              zero disables the limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error  if
              the  limit  is  exceeded.   Setting  the limit to 1 ensures that
              lookups do not return multiple values.


       This section describes an interface that is deprecated  as  of  Postfix
       2.2.  It  is  replaced  by  the  more general query interface described
       above.  If the  query  parameter  is  defined,  the  legacy  parameters
       described  here  ignored.   Please  migrate to the new interface as the
       legacy interface may be removed in a future release.

       The following parameters can be used  to  fill  in  a  SELECT  template
       statement of the form:

           SELECT [select_field]
           FROM [table]
           WHERE [where_field] = ’%s’

       The specifier %s is replaced by the search string, and is escaped so if
       it contains single quotes or other odd characters, it will not cause  a
       parse error, or worse, a security problem.

              The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
                  select_field = forw_addr

       table  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
                  table = mxaliases

              The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
                  where_field = alias

              Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
                  additional_conditions = AND status = ’paid’


       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table maintenance
       postconf(5), configuration parameters
       ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
       pgsql_table(5), PostgreSQL lookup tables


       Use  "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate
       this information.
       DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
       MYSQL_README, Postfix MYSQL client guide


       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.


       MySQL support was introduced with Postfix version 1.0.


       Original implementation by:
       Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
       IC Group, Inc.

       Further enhancements by:
       Liviu Daia
       Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
       P.O. BOX 1-764
       RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA