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       crontab - tables for driving cron


       A  crontab  file  contains  instructions  to  the cron(8) daemon of the
       general form: ``run this command at this time  on  this  date''.   Each
       user  has  their own crontab, and commands in any given crontab will be
       executed as the user who owns the crontab.  Uucp and News will  usually
       have  their  own  crontabs, eliminating the need for explicitly running
       su(1) as part of a cron command.

       Blank lines and leading spaces and tabs are ignored.  Lines whose first
       non-space  character  is a hash-sign (#) are comments, and are ignored.
       Note that comments are not allowed on the same line as  cron  commands,
       since  they  will  be  taken  to  be  part  of the command.  Similarly,
       comments are not allowed on  the  same  line  as  environment  variable

       An  active line in a crontab will be either an environment setting or a
       cron command.  An environment setting is of the form,

           name = value

       where the spaces around  the  equal-sign  (=)  are  optional,  and  any
       subsequent  non-leading  spaces  in  value  will  be  part of the value
       assigned to name.  The value string may be placed in quotes (single  or
       double, but matching) to preserve leading or trailing blanks. To define
       an empty variable, quotes must be used. The value string is not  parsed
       for environmental substitutions or replacement of variables, thus lines

           PATH = $HOME/bin:$PATH

       will not work as you might expect. And neither will this work

           C=$A $B

       There will not be any subsitution for the defined variables in the last

       An  alternative for setting up the commands path is using the fact that
       many shells will treat the tilde(~) as substitution of $HOME, so if you
       use bash for your tasks you can use this:


       Several  environment  variables are set up automatically by the cron(8)
       daemon.  SHELL is set to /bin/sh, and LOGNAME and HOME are set from the
       /etc/passwd   line   of   the   crontab's   owner.   PATH   is  set  to
       "/usr/bin:/bin".  HOME, SHELL, and PATH may be overridden  by  settings
       in  the  crontab; LOGNAME is the user that the job is running from, and
       may not be changed.

       (Another note: the LOGNAME variable is sometimes  called  USER  on  BSD
       systems...  on these systems, USER will be set also.)

       In addition to LOGNAME, HOME, and SHELL, cron(8) will look at MAILTO if
       it has any reason to send mail as  a  result  of  running  commands  in
       ``this''  crontab.   If MAILTO is defined (and non-empty), mail is sent
       to the user so named.  MAILTO may  also  be  used  to  direct  mail  to
       multiple  recipients  by  separating  recipient  users with a comma. If
       MAILTO is  defined  but  empty  (MAILTO=""),  no  mail  will  be  sent.
       Otherwise mail is sent to the owner of the crontab.

       On  the  Debian GNU/Linux system, cron supports the pam_env module, and
       loads   the   environment    specified    by    /etc/environment    and
       /etc/security/pam_env.conf.   It  also  reads  locale  information from
       /etc/default/locale.  However, the PAM settings  do  NOT  override  the
       settings  described  above nor any settings in the crontab file itself.
       Note in particular that if you want a PATH other than  "/usr/bin:/bin",
       you will need to set it in the crontab file.

       By  default,  cron will send mail using the mail "Content-Type:" header
       of "text/plain" with the "charset=" parameter  set  to  the  charmap  /
       codeset  of the locale in which crond(8) is started up - ie. either the
       default system locale, if no LC_* environment variables are set, or the
       locale  specified  by  the LC_* environment variables ( see locale(7)).
       You can use different character encodings for mailed cron job output by
       setting  the  CONTENT_TYPE  and  CONTENT_TRANSFER_ENCODING variables in
       crontabs, to the correct values of the mail headers of those names.

       The format of a cron command is very  much  the  V7  standard,  with  a
       number  of  upward-compatible  extensions.  Each line has five time and
       date fields, followed by a command, followed  by  a  newline  character
       ('\n').  The system crontab (/etc/crontab) uses the same format, except
       that the username for the command is specified after the time and  date
       fields and before the command. The fields may be separated by spaces or

       Commands are executed by cron(8) when the minute, hour,  and  month  of
       year  fields  match  the current time, and when at least one of the two
       day fields (day of month, or day of week) match the current  time  (see
       ``Note'' below).  cron(8) examines cron entries once every minute.  The
       time and date fields are:

              field          allowed values
              -----          --------------
              minute         0-59
              hour           0-23
              day of month   1-31
              month          1-12 (or names, see below)
              day of week    0-7 (0 or 7 is Sun, or use names)

       A field may be an asterisk (*), which always stands for ``first-last''.

       Ranges of numbers are allowed.  Ranges are two numbers separated with a
       hyphen.  The specified range is inclusive.  For example,  8-11  for  an
       ``hours'' entry specifies execution at hours 8, 9, 10 and 11.

       Lists are allowed.  A list is a set of numbers (or ranges) separated by
       commas.  Examples: ``1,2,5,9'', ``0-4,8-12''.

       Step values can be used in conjunction with ranges.  Following a  range
       with  ``/<number>''  specifies  skips of the number's value through the
       range.  For example, ``0-23/2'' can be  used  in  the  hours  field  to
       specify  command  execution every other hour (the alternative in the V7
       standard  is  ``0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22'').   Steps   are   also
       permitted after an asterisk, so if you want to say ``every two hours'',
       just use ``*/2''.

       Names can also be used for the ``month'' and ``day  of  week''  fields.
       Use  the  first  three  letters  of  the  particular day or month (case
       doesn't matter).  Ranges or lists of names are not allowed.

       The ``sixth'' field (the rest of the line) specifies the command to  be
       run.   The  entire  command  portion  of the line, up to a newline or %
       character, will be executed by /bin/sh or by the shell specified in the
       SHELL  variable of the crontab file.  Percent-signs (%) in the command,
       unless escaped  with  backslash  (\),  will  be  changed  into  newline
       characters,  and all data after the first % will be sent to the command
       as standard input. There is no way to split a single command line  onto
       multiple lines, like the shell's trailing "\".

       Note:  The  day of a command's execution can be specified by two fields
       -- day of month, and day of week.  If both fields are restricted (i.e.,
       aren't  *),  the  command  will  be  run  when either field matches the
       current time.  For example,
       ``30 4 1,15 * 5'' would cause a command to be run at 4:30 am on the 1st
       and  15th  of  each month, plus every Friday. One can, however, achieve
       the desired result by adding a  test  to  the  command  (see  the  last
       example in EXAMPLE CRON FILE below).

       Instead  of  the  first  five  fields, one of eight special strings may

              string         meaning
              ------         -------
              @reboot        Run once, at startup.
              @yearly        Run once a year, "0 0 1 1 *".
              @annually      (same as @yearly)
              @monthly       Run once a month, "0 0 1 * *".
              @weekly        Run once a week, "0 0 * * 0".
              @daily         Run once a day, "0 0 * * *".
              @midnight      (same as @daily)
              @hourly        Run once an hour, "0 * * * *".


       # use /bin/bash to run commands, instead of the default /bin/sh
       # mail any output to `paul', no matter whose crontab this is
       # run five minutes after midnight, every day
       5 0 * * *       $HOME/bin/daily.job >> $HOME/tmp/out 2>&1
       # run at 2:15pm on the first of every month -- output mailed to paul
       15 14 1 * *     $HOME/bin/monthly
       # run at 10 pm on weekdays, annoy Joe
       0 22 * * 1-5    mail -s "It's 10pm" joe%Joe,%%Where are your kids?%
       23 0-23/2 * * * echo "run 23 minutes after midn, 2am, 4am ..., everyday"
       5 4 * * sun     echo "run at 5 after 4 every sunday"
       # Run on every second Saturday of the month
       0 4 8-15 * *    test $(date +u) -eq 6 && echo "2nd Saturday"


       This has the username field, as used by /etc/crontab.
       # /etc/crontab: system-wide crontab
       # Unlike any other crontab you don't have to run the `crontab'
       # command to install the new version when you edit this file
       # and files in /etc/cron.d. These files also have username fields,
       # that none of other the crontabs do.


       # m h dom mon dow user    command
       42 6 * * *        root    run-parts --report /etc/cron.daily
       47 6 * * 7        root    run-parts --report /etc/cron.weekly
       52 6 1 * *        root    run-parts --report /etc/cron.monthly
       # Removed invocation of anacron, as this is now handled by a
       # /etc/cron.d file


       cron(8), crontab(1)


       When specifying day of week, both day 0 and day 7  will  be  considered
       Sunday.  BSD and AT&T seem to disagree about this.

       Lists  and ranges are allowed to co-exist in the same field.  "1-3,7-9"
       would be rejected by AT&T or BSD cron -- they  want  to  see  "1-3"  or
       "7,8,9" ONLY.

       Ranges can include "steps", so "1-9/2" is the same as "1,3,5,7,9".

       Months or days of the week can be specified by name.

       Environment  variables  can be set in the crontab.  In BSD or AT&T, the
       environment handed  to  child  processes  is  basically  the  one  from

       Command  output is mailed to the crontab owner (BSD can't do this), can
       be mailed to a person other than  the  crontab  owner  (SysV  can't  do
       this), or the feature can be turned off and no mail will be sent at all
       (SysV can't do this either).

       All of the `@' commands that can appear in  place  of  the  first  five
       fields are extensions.


       The  cron  daemon  runs  with a defined timezone. It currently does not
       support per-user timezones. All the tasks: system's and user's will  be
       run  based  on the configured timezone. Even if a user specifies the TZ
       environment variable in his crontab this will affect only the  commands
       executed  in  the  crontab,  not  the  execution  of  the crontab tasks


       cron requires that each entry in a crontab end in a newline  character.
       If  the last entry in a crontab is missing a newline (ie, terminated by
       EOF), cron will consider the crontab (at  least  partially)  broken.  A
       warning will be written to syslog.


       Paul Vixie <>