knews - Karl’s threaded newsreader for X
knews [ options ]
Knews is a threaded newsreader with an X Window interface that uses
NNTP to get news. This manual is intended to explain things that are
not apparent from the interface, so if you just want to get started,
you probably don’t need to read this.
In addition to the standard X Toolkit options knews accepts the
following options, which set various X resources. For an explanation
of what the resources do, see the sections on resources and the config
You don’t have to type out the entire name of the option, as long as it
Sets the resource ’Knews.nntpServer’ to ’hostname’. This will
cause knews to connect to this server on startup.
Sets the resource ’Knews.bell’ to True/False.
Sets the resource ’Knews.separateWindows’ to True/False.
Sets the resource ’Knews.readActiveFile’ to True/False.
Sets the resource ’Knews.retrieveDescriptions’ to True/False.
Sets the resource ’Knews.fillNewsrcFile’ to True/False.
Sets the resource ’Knews.keepThreadInfo’ to True/False.
This will make knews install its own colormap.
These will set the resources ’Knews.visualClass’ and
Will set the resource ’Knews.icaseRegexps’ to True/False.
This will turn on/off inline images and color allocation.
Sets the resource Knews.nCols to ’number’, which is the max
number of colors knews will allocate for inline images.
Prints out the version and compile time to stderr and quits.
THE THREAD TREE
The articles in a thread are displayed as nodes in a tree. A border
inside a node indicates that the article is unread, a border outside a
node indicates that the article is ’tagged’, and a dashed branch in the
tree indicates a change of subject. By default, you can scroll around
in the tree with the middle mouse button. An empty box in the tree
indicates a ’fake’ article, i.e. one that has expired on the server,
has not yet arrived or was posted in a different newsgroup.
Articles in the thread tree can be tagged with the third mouse button.
Clicking on a subject with the third mouse button causes the unread
articles in that thread to be tagged in preorder (depth first). Once
you have tagged the articles, you can mark then read/unread, save or
pipe them in order, and so on.
CLICKING ON URLS
Knews supports a simple form of clicking on URLs. It works by
selecting a piece of text in the article text window and clicking on it
with the middle mouse button. If there is no selection, knews will
make a crude guess as to what the URL might be. The resource
Knews.urlCommand must be set for this to work, see the section on X
resources for details.
DRAG AND DROP
The all groups list and the kill list can be reordered by drag’n’drop.
The default translation is the second mouse button.
You may abort the interaction with the NNTP server at any time. This
causes the connection to be closed, and a new one to be opened. Note
that this puts a certain load on the server.
Knews is capable of threading groups in the background while you are
e.g. reading another group. To do this you click on one or more groups
in the group list with the right mouse button. Knews then opens a
second connection to the server and uses it to thread the selected
groups. The status of the thread ahead is shown in the group list as a
- The group is scheduled for thread ahead.
* The group is being threaded.
+ The group has been threaded.
The regular expressions used by knews are POSIX.2 extended regular
expressions, similar to those used by egrep(1), by default case
insensitive. Note that these are not anchored by default, so that e.g.
the expression ’alt’ will match any string containing the three
character sequence ’alt’. See Henry Spencer’s excellent man-page for
Article heads and bodies may be searched for regular expressions.
Searching applies to read or unread articles as specified with the
’only unread’ toggle, and starts with the ’next’ article. The
newsgroup list may also be searched.
Note: the ’Stop’ button stops the search as soon as the current article
has been retrieved from the server. This is different from ’Abort’
which requires closing and reopening the connection to the server.
It is also possible to use XPAT searching, if the nntp server supports
it. To do this, you fill in the ’Header’ field on the search popup
with the header you’re interested in (e.g. ’Content-Type’) and the
wildcard field with a wildcard expression. Pressing ’Submit’ then
sends this to the server, and after a while it responds with a list of
matching articles. You can then move between those articles with the
’Next’ and ’First’ buttons on the search popup.
FILE NAME EXPANSION
In most places where knews uses file names, such as the save/pipe
popup, the save/pipe action procedures, and the newsrcFile options etc,
~ is expanded to $HOME, and the following %’s are expanded:
%n The name of the current group.
%N The name of the current group, capitalized.
%g The name of the current group, slashed.
%G The name of the current group, capitalized and slashed.
%s The name of the nntp server.
%p The number of the port the server listens to.
%a The number of the currently selected article.
Slashed means that the dots are replaced with slashes. Note that if
you save an entire thread to a file continaing %a, the number will not
change with the article.
THE KILL FILE
The kill file may be used to ’kill’ (mark read) or ’hot’ (mark
interesting) articles, subjects and threads based on different
Each line in the kill file specifies an entry according to the
(F)(S)(A)[Col] || Group regexp || Field expression
This is a character specifying to which header this entry
applies. Legal values are:
´M’ The ’Message-ID:’ header, by far the most efficient.
´S’ The ’Subject:’ header.
´F’ The ’From:’ header.
´X’ The ’Xref:’ header.
Note that ’X’ only works if the ’Xref:’ header is included in
the overview files from the server. Also note that the ’Re: ’
prefix is not considered part of the subject.
Entries applying to a message-id automatically expire when the
relevant article has expired.
This is a character specifying the scope of the entry, i.e. what
articles are killed/’hotted’ when this entry applies to an
article. Legal values are:
´A’ This article.
´S’ All articles with the same subject.
´T’ The entire thread.
´t’ The subthread starting with this article.
This is a character specifying the action of the entry. Legal
´K’ Kill, which means mark read.
´H’ Hot, which means mark interesting.
In ’hot’ entries, this is the color used to mark the relevant
This two character sequence is used as a separator.
Only newsgroups matching this regular expression will be
affected by this entry. This field is empty in the per-group
If the header field is ’S’, ’F’ or ’X’, this is a regular
expression, and the entry applies to all matching articles. If
the header field is ’M’, this is a message id; this id is
probably the fastest type of kill entry, since it can be checked
with a single hash lookup.
To see what articles were killed: when you have read all unread
articles, or marked them read, use the ’mark unread, killed’ feature on
the misc menu.
When a kill rule is applied, hot articles are not killed. Since the
entries in the kill file are processed in order, it is possible to put
kills at the beginning, so that the articles are killed before they
have a chance to become hot.
There is one global kill file (~/.knews/.kill-%s by default) and one
kill file per group (~/.knews/%s/%g/KILL by default). The rules in the
global kill file are applied before the per-group kill file.
MIME VIEWERS AND MAILCAP FILES
Knews has internal support for content-types text/plain,
message/rfc822, message/partial, multipart/mixed and multipart/digest.
For other types, knews will look for a mailcap entry for that type (see
mailcap(5)). If one is found, a clickable line will be inserted in the
article text window that is used to start the viewer. If there is no
viewer, then if the type is a subtype of text, knews will display it,
if it is a subtype of multipart, knews will treat it as
multipart/mixed, and otherwise knews will give the user opportunity to
’Save or Pipe’.
Mailcap files are found via the environment variable MAILCAPS, which is
a colon separated list of path names. If this variable is not set, a
default list of
will be used. Note that all files found will be merged to produce the
As a hack around miss/over designed mailcap files, knews will ignore
entries for text/plain and multipart/mixed.
The following resources determine how knews will display an article of
type text/plain with a particular charset:
The header, body and quote fonts are used for displaying headers,
ordinary text and quoted text in the article window. Knews also has
some support for encoded 16-bit charsets, this is specified with the
encoding resource. Legal values for this are:
utf-7 The encoding specified for unicode in rfc 1642.
16-bit Straight 16-bit network byte order.
hz-gb-2312 The encoding for chinese described in rfc 1842.
ksc-5601 Also called iso-2022-kr, described in rfc 1557.
big5 Another encoding for chinese.
Note that due to the authors non-existent understanding of asian
languages these encodings have not been extensively tested. Lots of
guess work here.
For every newsgroup it is possible to specify a default charset (see
the section on THE CONFIG FILE). The fonts for this charset will be
used to display articles without proper MIME-headers. Also, the
listFont and treeFont (which may not be encoded) will be used in the
thread list and article tree, respectively.
When specifying an encoded charset as defaultCharset, it may be
desirable to still assume that headers are ascii. This may be
accomplished by setting the ’headEncHack’ resource listed above, and
setting the headerFont to an ascii (superset) font.
Unless the config option assemblePartials is False (see the section on
THE CONFIG FILE), when knews encounters an article of type
message/partial, it will be rememberered. When all the parts have been
seen, a notice will be popped up offering to assemble the parts.
There is also an entry on the misc menu that allows a number of
articles to be tagged and processed to look for message/partial
When you post an article containing 8 bit characters that doesn’t have
a Content-Type header, knews will add such a header with charset equal
to the value of the defaultCharset config option. Also, when quoting
articles with Content-Type: text/plain and charset equal to the
defaultCharset, knews will decode the article before quoting. In both
these contexts, the charset iso-8859-1 will be used if defaultCharset
is not set.
READING THE SPOOLDIR
Knews supports a rather obscure mechanism for communicating with an
arbitrary program instead of an nntp server. Using knewsd(1), this can
be used for reading news (in)directly from the spool dir, or even mail
folders if they are in the correct format. This is how it works: If
the nntp server is given as #str, where str is an arbitrary string not
containing white space or the characters ’/’, ’.’ or ’*’, knews finds
the value of the resource Knews.#str and tries to execute that program.
The program has its standard input and output connected to knews. If
you use this resource setting:
Knews.#spool: knewsd -spool /var/spool/news \
with the appropriate paths for your system, you can read the spool
directory by specifying the nntp server as ’#spool’ in e.g. the connect
dialogue. This could easily be used to read mh(1) style mail folders
There are a number of X resources that affect the behaviour and
appearance of knews. Most widgets in the widget hierarchy has
resources named background , foreground , shadowWidth , and so on. For
more information see the application defaults file Knews.ad included in
the distribution. To get a feeling for resources, try editres(1).
Knews contains a small xpm-file to pixmap converter, so it is possible
to use settings like e.g.
If this resource is set, knews automatically connects to this
nntp server on startup. This overrides the NNTPSERVER
environment variable. If the server listens to a non-standard
port, you may specify this e.g as foo.bar:1234. If you don’t
want knews to autoconnect, don’t set this or $NNTPSERVER.
This resource specifies the editor used to edit posts. Possible
Knews.editCommand: xemacs +%i %s
Knews.editCommand: emacs +%i %s
Knews.editCommand: xterm -e vi +%i %s
%s stands for the name of a temporary file, and %i for the line
where editing should begin. The default value of this resource
is a compile time option.
This command is used for clicking on URLs. %s is expanded to
the URL, and the result is passed to the shell. As a simple
security measure, URLs will not be allowed to contain quotes,
parentheses, whitespace or ampersands.
If this resource is set, the misc menu will have a print option
which invokes this command.
These are two shell command templates that will be used for
mailcap viewers that have the needsterminal or the copiousoutput
flag set, respectively. In these, %C will be expanded to the
relevant mailcap command. An example should explain it:
Knews.needsTerminal: exec xterm -e /bin/sh -c ’%C’
Knews.copiousOuptut: exec xterm -e /bin/sh ’(%C) | less’
This should point to a file whose contents maps filename
extensions to mime types. The syntax of this file is
examplified by the following list of compiled in types:
image/jpeg jpg jpeg
This is used to guess the Content-Type of attachments.
Setting this resource to False will turn off the bell.
If this is set to True, knews will keep newsgroups
alphabetically sorted when new groups are subscribed.
Setting this resource to True will make knews use a different
top level window for the article text widget.
When knews starts a pipe or similar, it captures the standard
error output and displays it in a notice popup. This resource
is the time in milliseconds this popup should stay up. The
default is 10000. Setting this to 0 means stay up indefinitely,
and negative means no popups.
If this is True, knews will show the state of the article caches
in a small popup. See the config options cacheAheadSize and
cacheTrailSize for details.
If you have a mail address which isn’t of the form
’email@example.com’, you can set this to the part of the
address that goes before the ’@’, e.g.
Note that your userid will still be used for the ’Sender’ header
If this is set to True (the default), knews will use an icon.
Setting this to True will make knews ask for confirmation before
disconnecting or quitting.
If this is set to True, knews will ask for confirmation before
catching up a group.
If this is set to ’True’, knews will ask for confirmation before
leaving a group. If set to ’tagged’, knews will ask
confirmation when exiting a group if there are tagged articles.
If these are set knews will use a visual of the specified class
and depth. Typical values for depth are 8 or 24. Legal values
for class are ’StaticGray)’, ’GrayScale’, ’StaticColor’,
´PseudoColor’, ’TrueColor’ and ’DirectColor’. The depth will be
ignored if no class is specified.
If this is set to True, knews will create its own colormap.
This boolean resource turns on/off inline images and color
allocation. Knews can show jpeg, gif and png images (if
compiled with support for this).
This is the maximum number of colors knews will allocate for
inline images. The default is 137 (17 greys and a 5x5x5 color
cube minus the 5 greys in that cube).
If this is set to True, knews try to allocate the same colors as
other programs have already allocated, thus increasing the
chances for color sharing. The number of colors is controlled
by the resource Knews.nCols.
The following resources can be used to change various color, font and
These resources specify the number of lines and columns the
grouplist widget will start up with. The default is 14 for lines
and 84 for columns.
These resources specify the number of lines and columns the
article text widget start up with. The default is 32 for lines
and 84 for columns.
The width of the nodes in the article tree in characters. The
default is 16.
The color used for rubberbanding in one or two widgets. The
default is red.
The colors used for headers, ordinary text and quoted text
respectiely in the article window.
The color and line style used for the border of unread articles
in the article tree. The defaults are Red and False.
The color and line style used for the border of tagged articles
in the article tree. The defaults are foreground and False.
The font used in the lists.
The color used for hot entries in the kill file when the
specified color is invalid or cannot be allocated.
Some miscellaneous resources:
Setting this to False will make regular expressions case
sensitive. They are case insensitive by default.
These set the default values for the corresponding configuration
options. Their main purpose is to allow command line arguments.
Read the section on the config file for details.
These set the default values for the configuration options
newsrcFile and oldNewsrcFile, the default values are
~/.newsrc-%s and ~/.oldnewsrc-%s. A value not containing %s
will not be accepted; if you want the traditional ~/.newsrc for
a particular server, see the resource Knews.configNntpServer
This sets the default value of the config option killFile. The
default value is ~/.knews/.kill-%s.
This is the template for the per-group kill file. The default
is ~/.knews/%s/%g/KILL, so that e.g. the newsgroup
news.software.readers will have
~/.knews/%s/news/software/readers/KILL as kill file, where %s is
the name of the server, as usual.
The configuration file used by knews. The default value is
~/.knews/config-%s, a value not containing %s will not be
Setting configNntpServer will make knews Do The Right Thing when
the user first connects to this server, which means setting the
newsrc file for this server to ~/.newsrc when creating the
If the configPostingAgent is set this will be used for the
postingAgent config option for the configNntpServer.
If this is set to True, knews will generate a Path header for
articles. The header will be ’Path: d!u’ where d and u are such
that the From header generated by knews would be ’From: u@d’.
The value of this resource will be used when creating a new
newsrc file. If it starts with a ’/’, it is taken as a pathname
of a file whose contents will be inserted into the new newsrc
file, otherwise the literal value of this resource will be
inserted into the newsrc file. The default value is
When knews checks for new groups, it uses the atime (time of
last access) of the config file. Some filesystems (e.g. AFS)
have no concept of atime, but fakes it with mtime (time of last
modification) instead. Setting this resource to True will make
knews forcibly update the mtime of the config file.
THE CONFIG FILE
When knews connects to an NNTP server it reads a configuration file
that will affect its behavior. This file is by default called
~/.knews/config-%s where %s expands to the name of the server, but this
may be changed with the Knews.configFile resource.
The syntax of the config file is the same as for X resource files.
When knews can’t find the configure file, a new one will be created
containing some default settings and a few examples settings that
should be sufficient to clue you in as to how it works.
It is possible to used #include statements in the config file to
include other files. Relative pathnames are considered relative to the
current working directory, which for knews is always $HOME. ~
pathnames are not handled in #includes (if you want that you have to
The following global (i.e. per server) options exist.
These specify the newsrc file and oldnewsrc file for this
server. ~ pathnames and the same % expansions as for saving are
handled. If oldnewsrc is set to an empty string, no backup of
the newsrc file will be created.
The default values for these are the values of the resources
Knews.newsrcTemplate and Knews.oldNewsrcTemplate, whose default
values are ~/.newsrc-%s and ~/.oldnewsrc-%s, respectively.
For a way of automatically using the standard file ~/.newsrc for
a specific server, see the resource Knews.configNntpServer
The kill file. The default value is the value of the resource
Knews.killFileTemplate, whose default value is ~/.kill-%s.
This directory is used for storing cached articles and thread
data for groups. The default is ~/.knews/cache-%s.
Setting this to False will stop knews from reading the active
file when connecting, using the groups in the newsrc file
instead. This will speed up connection on slow lines if you
don’t have too many subscribed groups. The default is the value
of the resource Knews.readActiveFile, whose default is True.
A boolean option indicating whether to retrieve newsgroup
descriptions from the server. The default is the value of the
resource Knews.retrieveDescriptions, whose default is True.
Setting this to False may slightly speed up connection time.
If this is set, the given file will be used to cache group
descriptions: when retrieveDescriptions is True, knews saves the
descriptions to this file and when retrieveDescriptions is
False, knews reads descriptions from this file instead of from
Setting this to True will make knews write all groups it knows
about to the newsrc file, which may be a good idea if the option
readActiveFile is set to False. The default is the value of the
resource Knews.fillNewsrcFile, whose default is False, which
means only put information in the newsrc file.
When this is True (the default) and readActiveFile is False,
knews will try the "LIST ACTIVE wildmat" nntp extension. If
this fails knews will complain and fall back to the old "GROUP"
This is a boolean option indicating whether to check for new
groups when connecting to this server. The default is True. The
atime (time of last access) of the config file will be used for
This is a white-space separated list of groups to be
automatically scheduled for thread ahead when connecting. The
special values ’all’ and ’All’ may be used to designate all
subscribed groups with unread articles and all subscribed
Setting this to True will allow ’thread ahead’ data to be saved
between sessions: knews will not remove the files with this data
when quitting, and when connecting knews will check for these
files for all subscribed groups. If this is set, the options
threadAheadGroups and keepThreadInfo will be ignored.
This indicates the time in minutes between automatic rescans.
The default is 60 minutes, 0 means no automatic rescans.
Regardless of this, rescans will only be performed at special
points, to prevent a ’rescan-idle-rescan’ loop.
The width of the group name in the group list, default is 42.
Setting this to True will make knews ask at which article the
threading of a group should start. A hack.
If this is specified, knews will use this for posting, instead
of posting via NNTP. If your server requires some kind of
authentication that only inews understands, you could set this
to ’inews -h’. Note that inews appends the signature, so you
don’t want knews to add one too.
Also see the resource Knews.configPostingAgent above.
These are used to implement the NNTP AUTHINFO USER/PASS protocol
if required by the server. These exist mostly for backward
compatibility; authentication is usually only required when
posting, and then it is better to use inews for postingAgent,
since presumably inews knows all about the required
Here is an example of some settings that will improve things over a
slow network connection:
but note that you will probably want to read the active file and group
descriptions at least the first time you connect to a server.
The following resources may be set on a per group basis; they should be
prefixed with the name of the group they apply to.
This tells knews whether to keep thread information in memory
after the group is exited. This will make reentering the group
fast. Legal values are: True, Subscribed and False. ’Subscribed’
means only do it if the group is subscribed, and exists to allow
settings such as:
to keep thread info for all subscribed groups. The default
value for this option is ’Subscribed’ if the resource
Knews.keepThreadInfo is set to True and ’False’ otherwise.
These two set the sizes of the two article caches, the defaults
are 0. The ’ahead cache’ is used to prefetch articles from the
server in the background using a second connection. The ’trail
cache’ is used to keep articles that you have already read, so
that going back, saving or uudecoding will be faster. The
maximum values for these are 32.
This indicates how the threads should be sorted. A thread
consists of several subjects. These are sorted within the
thread according to the order they occur. Then the threads are
sorted according to the setting of this option. The legal
values and their meanings are:
subject Alphabetically by the first subject in the thread.
size Number of unread articles in the thread.
full-size Number of articles in the thread.
hot Number of hot articles in the thread.
date The date of the first unread article.
average-date The average date of unread articles in the thread.
author Alphabetically by the first From: line in the thread.
none No sorting.
All these values may be prefixed with a minus sign to indicate a
reversal of the order, or a plus sign which is a no-op. The
default value is none.
Setting this to False will stop expirations from the kill file.
The default is True, which means that Message-id kills will
expire when you enter a group where the kill entry would have
been applicable, but the article with that message-id was not
This string is used to attribute quotations when you post a
followup. The default is
In article %m,\n %f writes:
where \n is a newline. The following %’s are expanded:
%d The date of the quoted article in the form 01 Jan.
%f The From: line of the article replied to.
%i The initials of the previous poster.
%I The initials of the previous poster, capitalized.
%m The message-id of the article replied to.
%n The current newsgroup.
%r The real name of the previous poster.
%s The subject of the quoted article.
%t The time of the quoted article in the form 18:24:02.
%w The week day of the quoted article.
%y The year of the quoted article.
Thus ’%w, %d %y %t GMT’ will give the date in standard rfc822
This is the full name used in the ’From:’ header in the articles
you post. The default is $NAME, if set, otherwise the gecos
field from the password file, suitably truncated.
A colon and white-space separated list specifying which headers
to show in the article window, and in what order. The default is
If the name of the header starts with a captial letter (From: as
opposed to from:), knews will decode rfc1522 encoded words
encountered in this header. (Those are the weird things that
look like =?iso-8859-1?q?stuff_here?=.) Encoded 16-bit charsets
are not decoded in headers yet.
This boolean tells whether message/partial articles will be
remembered and offered for assembly.
Lines in an article matching this regular expression will be
considered quoted lines, and may be marked with a different
color and font. The default is
which matches lines beginning with an arbitrary amount of white
space (the \t denotes a tab, note that \t won’t actually work)
followed by a >, : or | character.
You will probably want to have this expression anchored...
The fonts for this charset will be used to display articles that
lack MIME-headers. If this is not set, us-ascii will be
Also, rfc1522 encodings of this charset in the From and Subject
header will be decoded when displayed in the article tree and
the thread list. In this case, iso-8859-1 is the default.
A boolean option indicating whether to show the number of lines
in articles in the thread tree. The default is the value of the
resource Knews.showNumberLines, whose default is False.
The contents of this file will be used to sign the articles you
post (before editing). The default is ~/.signature.
The width of the subject in the thread list, default is 56.
These strings are used for quoting when posting a followup
article; the first one are used to quote lines that were not
quoted in the original article, and the second one is used for
lines that were already quoted. What lines are considered
quoted is determined by the quoteRegexp. The defaults are "> "
and ">" respectively. In these strings, %i is expanded to the
initials of the previous author and %I to the initials,
This string will be instered into articles that are also mailed
to the previous author. The default is "[posted and mailed]".
If this is set, it will be used as the content of a
’Distribution’ header. The default value is the value of the
environment variable DEFNEWSDIS if set, otherwise empty.
A boolean specifying whether to show all headers in the article
window. It also means turn off all MIME transformations. The
default is False.
A string used to construct the ’Reply-To:’ header in the
articles you post. The default is the value of the environment
variable REPLYTO if set, otherwise empty.
A string used to construct the ’Organization:’ header in the
articles you post. The default is $NEWSORG if set, otherwise
$ORGANIZATION if set, otherwise nothing.
If this boolean is True, as it is by default, articles that are
crossposted will be marked read in all groups when you read
them, mark them read, kill them or catch them up.
Note that this only applies to subscribed groups, and will only
work if the server’s overview file contains the Xref: headers.
This string is inserted into the head of all articles you post
(before editing). The default is empty. This could be used to
put in Mime headers, like this:
*extraHeaders: Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
This is a combination of extraHeaders and attribution: it is
inserted in the headers of replies and followups and the same
%’s as in attribution are expanded. An example:
*followupHeaders: X-Comment-To: %r
Uudecoded files will end up in this directory. Or rather, the
forked off uudecoding process will be given this as its current
working directory. The default is ~/News.
This program will be used to uudecode files: it will be given
the bodies of the relevant articles on standard input. The
default is NULL, which means that knews will do its best to
filter out garbage and then pipe the rest to ’uudecode’.
Here is an example of how to set different signatures for different
The first sets the file ~/.signature-svensk for all groups in the swnet
hierarchy, the second one sets the file ~/.signature-deutsch for the de
hierarchy, and the last one sets the file ~/.signature-linux for any
group containing linux as a component (not merely a substring). The
file ~/.signature will be used for all other groups.
Knews defines a number of actions that can be tied to keys and buttons
via translations. For the default translations, see the application
Does the right thing.
kill-append(field, scope [, color])
kill-prepend(field, scope [, color])
These action procedures append and prepend respectively entries
to the kill file for the current group according to the
currently selected article.
Valid values for the ’field’ parameter are "From", "Subject" and
"Message-Id", and valid values for ’scope’ are "Thread",
"Subthread" and "Subject". If the color parameter is present,
the entry added is a hot-entry with that color, otherwise it is
It is probably a good idea to use these with field = "message-
id", since message-id kills are very efficient and expire with
the corresponding article.
This will popup a kill file editor for the supplied group. If
no group is given, the editor for the global kill file is popped
This action procedure reloads the current article, pretending it
had the specified Content-Type and Content-Transfer-Encoding
headers. For example mime-hack(image/jpeg, uue) reloads the
current article pretending it has Content-Type image/jpeg and is
uuencoded, thus makeing knews display it as an inline image.
The default key-bindings have the following:
ctrl-J mime-hack(image/jpeg, uue)
ctrl-G mime-hack(image/gif, uue)
ctrl-P mime-hack(image/png, uue)
These move around in the thread tree. If the arg is ’read’, they
will also read in the relevant article, if arg is ’fake’, they
will also try to read ’fake’ articles.
These move up and down in the lists. If arg is given, it is the
number of steps, or if it contains a ’.’, the fraction of the
window to move.
These two actions moves between modes.
These are combination actions. E.g. tree-or-list-up(arg) does
tree-up or list-up(1), depending on which is relevant.
This rereads the current article. If arg is given, the article
is displayed with full header and no MIME transformations.
This moves between the subject list and the thread tree. If arg
is ’toggle’, it toggles, if arg is ’yes’ it goes to the tree,
and if arg is ’no’, it goes to the subject list.
These correspond to the options on the post menu. If arg is
given as ’yes’ or ’no’, it indicates whether to include quoted
These perform the corresponding functions on the misc menu.
pipe(command, parts [, scope])
save(filename, parts [, scope])
Pipe and save actions. The argument ’parts’ is a combination of
the characters ’f’, ’s’, ’h’, ’b’, ’e’, corresponding to the
’bogus from’, ’bogus subject’, ’head’, ’body’ and ’empty line’
options on the save popup window. The ’scope’ parameter is
optional, and is one of ’window’, ’article’, ’subject’,
’thread’, ’subthread’ and ’tagged’, corresponding to those
options on the save popup.
These tag the unread articles in a thread or subject. If ’all’
is specified, they tag all articles in the thread or subject.
These untag the tagged articles in a thread or subject.
This action tags all unread hot articles, same as on the misc
Changes the size of the upper portion of the main window by the
specified number of pixels.
Causes a group to be scheduled for ’thread ahead’.
Popups the ’find group’ popup, same as the ’find group’ option
on the misc menu.
The X interface of knews is built with its own widget set plus the
Layout Widget. You are welcome to use it if you like. Unfortunately
there is no documentation.
This software is Copyright 1995, 1996 by Karl-Johan Johnsson.
The threading algorithm was inspired from trn. Thanks to Wayne Davison.
Knews uses Keith Packard’s Layout Widget.
The distribution includes Henry Spencer’s regex package for
environments that do not have the POSIX.2 regular expression functions.
Thanks to Mattias Jonsson for ardent testing.
From the gif89a spec:
"The Graphics Interchange Format(c) is the Copyright property of
CompuServe Incorporated. GIF(sm) is a Service Mark property of
Any problems are of course entirely due to me.
egrep(1), knewsd(1), trn(1), uudecode(1), mailcap(5), newsrc(5),
If the server doesn’t support XOVER, threading will be very slow.
The uudecode function may not recognize or correctly handle all cases.
The dithering algorithm used for grayscale images and color gifs
(essentially ’closest match’) is very poor.
AUTHINFO SIMPLE doesn’t work for the second connection.
When the last article in a group has been cancelled, the number of
unread articles may be incorrect.
Send bug reports to firstname.lastname@example.org