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       hebcal - a Jewish calendar generator


       hebcal [ -8acdDehHiorsStTwy ]
            [ -I input_file ]
            [ -Y yahrtzeit_file ]
            [ -C city ]
            [ -l latitude -L longitude]
            [ -z timezone ]
            [ -Z daylight_savings_scheme ]
            [[ month [ day ]] year ]
       hebcal help
       hebcal info
       hebcal DST
       hebcal cities
       hebcal copying
       hebcal warranty


       With  no arguments, hebcal will print to stdout the dates of the Jewish
       holidays in the current secular year.  Each line  is  prefixed  with  a
       gregorian date of the form mm/dd/yyyy.

       By  specifying  month,  day,  or  year,  output  can  be  limited  to a
       particular month or date in a  particular  year.   Note  that  year  is
       usually  a  four-digit  integer,  So 92 is during the Roman period, not
       the late twentieth century.  In if the hebrew dates  option  is  turned
       on,  this number represents th Jewish calendar year.  month is a number
       from 1..12, or the name of a Jewish calendar month.

       day is a number from 1..31.

       For example, the command
            hebcal 10 1992
       will print out the holidays occurring in October of  1992  C.E.,  while
       the command

            hebcal Tish 5752

       will print dates of interest in the month of Tishrei in Jewish calendar
       year 5752.

       NOTE:  hebcal 92 is not the same as hebcal 1992.  The year  is  assumed
       to  be complete, so the former calendar preceeds the latter by nineteen

       A few other bells and whistles include the weekly sedra as well as  the
       day of the week, the count of the omer, and the Hebrew date.

       Output  from  hebcal  can be used to drive calendar(1).  Day-to-day use
       for hebcal is provided for in the -T and -t switches, which  print  out
       Jewish calendar entries for the current date.

       To get a quick-reference on-line help, type
            hebcal help
       at the command prompt.


       -8     Use 8-bit Hebrew (ISO-8859-8-Logical).

       -a     Use Ashkenazis hebrew.

       -c     Add approximate candle-lighting times.  See below.

       -d     Print the Hebrew date for the entire date range.

       -D     Print the hebrew date for dates with some event.

       -e     Change the output format to European-style dates:

       -h     Suppress  holidays  in output.  User defined calendar events are
              unaffected by this switch.

       -H     When the -H switch is used, all dates specified on  the  command
              line are assumed to be hebrew dates.  So for instance,

                   example% hebcal -H 5754

              will  print  data  for  5754, Starting in Tishrei, and ending in
              Elul.  Hebcal is smart enough to detect a Hebrew month and infer
              that you want a Hebrew date range, so you could type

                   example% hebcal tish 5754

              The  -H  switch  would  be  superfluous  in this case.  Invoking
              hebcal with just the -H switch by itself will print data for the
              current Hebrew year, starting in Tishrei.

       -i     Use the Israeli sedra scheme when used in conjunction with -S or
              -s.  This has no effect if the -S or -s switches are unused.

       -I file
              Read  extra  events  from  file.   These  events   are   printed
              regardless of the -h suppress holidays switch.
              There is one holiday per line in file, each with the format
              month day description
              where month is a string identifying the Jewish month in question
              day is a number from 1 to 30,  and  description  is  a  newline-
              terminated string describing the holiday.  An example might be
                   Adar 1 Start cleaning kitchen for Passover.
                   Adar 1 Start cleaning kitchen for Passover.

       -l deg,min
              Set the latitude for solar calculations to deg degrees and min

       -L deg,min
              Set  the longitude for solar calculations to deg degrees and min
              minutes.  NOTE: Negative values are EAST longitude.

       -o     Add the count of the omer to the output.

       -r     Use  a  tab-delineated  format,  and  somewhat  terser  strings.
              Instead  of  saying  ’  13th day of the omer ’ hebcal will say ’
              Omer: 13 ’

       -s     Add the weekly sedra to the output on Saturdays.  See -i.

       -S     Add the weekly sedra to the output every day.  When this  option
              is  invoked,  every time a day is printed, the torah reading for
              the Saturday on or immediately following that date  is  printed.
              If  there  is  no reading for the next Saturday, then nothing is
              printed.  See -i.

       -t     Print calendar information for today’s date only.  -d and -o are
              asserted with this option.

       -T     Same  as  -t,  only  without the gregorian date.  This option is
              useful in login scripts, just to see what’s happening  today  in
              the Jewish calendar.

       -w     Add the day of the week to the output.

       -y     Print only the last two digits of the year.

       -Y file
              Read  a  table  of  yahrtzeit dates from file.  These events are
              printed regardless of the -h suppress holidays switch.
              There is one death-date per line in file, each with the format
              month day year description
              where month, day and year form the   gregorian  date  of  death.
              description  is a newline-terminated string to be printed on the
              yahrtzeit.  An example might be

                   12 29 1957 Menachem Mendel’s yahrtzeit.
                   5 15 1930 Benjamin’s yahrtzeit.


       Hebcal’s candlelighting times are only  approximations.   If  you  ever
       have   any  doubts  about  it’s  times,  consult  your  local  halachic
       authority.  If you enter geographic coordinates above the artic  circle
       or antarctic circle, the times are guaranteed to be wrong.

       Hebcal  contains  a  small  database  of  cities  with their associated
       geographic information and time-zone information.  The  geographic  and
       time  information  necessary  to  calculate  sundown  times can come to
       hebcal any of three ways:

       1) The default: the system manager sets a default city when the program
       is compiled.
       2) Hebcal looks in the environment variable HEBCAL_CITY for the name of
       a city in hebcal’s database, and if it finds one, hebcal will make that
       the new default city.
       3) 1 and 2 may be overridden by command line arguments, including those
       specified in the HEBCAL_OPTS environment variable.   The  most  natural
       way  to  do  this  is  to  use the -c city command.  This will localize
       hebcal to city.  A list  of  the  cities  hebcal  knows  about  can  be
       obtained by typing
            hebcal cities
       at  the  command  prompt.  If the city you want isn’t on that list, you
       can directly control hebcal’s geographic information with the -l, -L -z
       and  -Z  DST  switches.   Note that changing the geographic coordinates
       causes the timezone to default to Zulu and the  daylight  savings  time
       processor  to  default  to ’none.’ To get a list of possible values for
       DST, type
            hebcal DST
       at the command prompt.

       For a status report on customizations, type type
            hebcal info
       at the command prompt.


       To find the days of the omer in 1997, printing the days of the week:
              example% hebcal -how 1997
              4/23/97 Wed, 1st day of the Omer
              4/24/97 Thu, 2nd day of the Omer
              4/25/97 Fri, 3rd day of the Omer
              6/9/97 Mon, 48th day of the Omer
              6/10/97 Tue, 49th day of the Omer

       To print only the weekly sedrot of Nisan 5770
              example% hebcal -hs Nisan 5770
              3/20/2010 Parashat Vayikra
              3/27/2010 Parashat Tzav
              4/10/2010 Parashat Shmini

       To find out what’s happening in the Jewish calendar today , use
              example% hebcal -TS
              19 of Nisan, 5752
              Parshat Achrei Mot
              Pesach V (CH"M)
              4th day of the Omer


       Hebcal uses two environment variables:

              Hebcal  uses  this  value  as  the  default  city   for   sunset
              calculations.  A list of available cities is available with from
              hebcal with the command:
              hebcal cities

              The value of this variable is automatically processed as  if  it
              were   typed  at  the  command  line  before  any  other  actual


       Danny Sadinoff


       calendar(1), emacs(1), hcal(1), hdate(1), omer(1), remind(1), rise(1)

       The   latest   version   of   the   code   will   be   available   from

       The  original motivation for the algorithms in this program was the Tur
       Shulchan Aruch.

       For version 3, much of the  program  was  rewritten  using  Emacs  19’s
       calendar  routines  by Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz.  Their
       program is extremely clear and provides many  instructive  examples  of
       fine calendar code in emacs-LISP.

       A  well  written treatment of the Jewish calendar for the layman can be
       found in Understanding the Jewish Calendar by Rabbi Nathan Bushwick.  A
       more  complete bibliography on the topic can be found there, as well as
       in the Encyclopedia Judaica entry on the calendar.


       hebcal help
              Prints a shorter version of this manpage, with comments on  each

       hebcal info
              Prints the version number and default values of the program.

       hebcal DST
              Prints  a  list  of  available  daylight  savings  time schemes,
              suitable as arguments to the -Z DST option.

       hebcal cities
              Prints a list of cities which hebcal knows  about,  suitable  as
              arguments  to  the -C city option.  If your city does not appear
              on this list, put  the  necessary  defaults  in  the  DST_OPTS
              environment variable.

       hebcal copying
              Prints  the  GNU  license,  with  information  about copying the
              program.  See below.

       hebcal warranty
              Tells you how there’s NO WARRANTY for hebcal.


       This is just a program I wrote during summer school and while  avoiding
       my senior project.  It should not be invested with any sort of halachic


       Hebrew dates are only valid before sundown on that  secular  date.   An
       option to control this will be added in a later release.

       Negative longitudes are EAST of Greenwich.

       Some combinations of options produce weird results, e.g.
       hebcal -dH nisan 5744
       hebcal -dH 5744
       This comes into play when you use the ENV_OPT environment variable.

       The  sunup/sundown  routines  aren’t  accurate  enough.   If  you enter
       geographic coordinates above the artic circle or antarctic circle,  the
       times are guaranteed to be wrong.

       Hebcal  only  translates  between the Gregorian calendar and the Jewish
       calendar. This means that the results will be at least  partly  useless
       where  and  when  the  gregorian calendar was not used, i.e. before the
       1752 in Britain and before circa 1918 in  Russia.   See  the  wikipedia
       entry  for  a  splendid  chart of the changeover from the Julian to the
       Gregorian calendars in various places.

       Hebcal cannot handle date computations before 2 C.E.  sorry.

       Daylight-Savings time rules  are  as  up-to-date  as  a  nonpaying  job
       allows.  US DST rules are correct only back to 1966.

       Hebcal  assumes  that  the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which changes the
       DST rules in the US will go into effect, even though congress may still
       revert it.


       Danny Sadinoff


       Copyright (c) 1994-2004 Danny Sadinoff
       Portions Copyright (c) 2002 Michael J. Radwin. All Rights Reserved.

       Permission  is  granted  to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and  this  permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim  copying,  provided  that  the
       entire  resulting  derived  work  is  distributed  under the terms of a
       permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to  copy  and  distribute  translations  of  this
       manual  into  another language, under the above conditions for modified
       versions, except  that  this  permission  notice  may  be  included  in
       translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the
       original English.

       For a full text of the copyright and lack of warranty information, type
       hebcal copying
       hebcal warranty
       at the command line.