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       gpgsm - CMS encryption and signing tool


       gpgsm [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]


       gpgsm  is  a  tool  similar  to  gpg  to provide digital encryption and
       signing services on X.509 certificates and the  CMS  protocol.   It  is
       mainly  used as a backend for S/MIME mail processing.  gpgsm includes a
       full features  certificate  management  and  complies  with  all  rules
       defined for the German Sphinx project.


       Commands  are  not  distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one command is allowed.

   Commands not specific to the function

              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help, -h
              Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
              options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

              Print warranty information.  Note  that  you  cannot  abbreviate
              this command.

              Print  a  list of all available options and commands.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

              Perform an encryption.  The keys the data is encrypted too  must
              be set using the option --recipient.

              Perform  a  decryption;  the  type  of  input  is  automatically
              determined.  It may either be in binary  form  or  PEM  encoded;
              automatic determination of base-64 encoding is not done.

       --sign Create a digital signature.  The key used is either the fist one
              found in the keybox or those set with the --local-user option.

              Check a signature file for validity.  Depending on the arguments
              a detached signature may also be checked.

              Run in server mode and wait for commands on the stdin.

       --call-dirmngr command [args]
              Behave  as a Dirmngr client issuing the request command with the
              optional list of args.  The output of  the  Dirmngr  is  printed
              stdout.   Please  note that file names given as arguments should
              have an absolute file name (i.e. commencing with / because  they
              are  passed verbatim to the Dirmngr and the working directory of
              the Dirmngr might not be the same as the  one  of  this  client.
              Currently  it  is  not  possible  to  pass data via stdin to the
              Dirmngr.  command should not contain spaces.

              This is command is required for certain maintaining tasks of the
              dirmngr where a dirmngr must be able to call back to gpgsm.  See
              the Dirmngr manual for details.

       --call-protect-tool arguments
              Certain maintenance operations are done by an  external  program
              call  gpg-protect-tool;  this  is  usually  not  installed  in a
              directory listed in the PATH variable.  This command provides  a
              simple  wrapper  to  access  this  tool.   arguments  are passed
              verbatim to  this  command;  use  '--help'  to  get  a  list  of
              supported operations.

   How to manage the certificates and keys

              This  command  allows  the  creation  of  a  certificate signing
              request.  It is commonly used along with the --output option  to
              save  the  created  CSR into a file.  If used with the --batch a
              parameter file is used to create the CSR.


       -k     List  all  available  certificates  stored  in  the  local   key
              database.  Note that the displayed data might be reformatted for
              better human readability and illegal characters are replaced  by
              safe substitutes.


       -K     List  all  available  certificates  for  which a corresponding a
              secret key is available.

       --list-external-keys pattern
              List certificates matching pattern  using  an  external  server.
              This utilizes the dirmngr service.

              Same  as  --list-keys  but  also  prints  all keys making up the


              List all available certificates stored in the local key database
              using a format useful mainly for debugging.

              Same  as  --dump-keys  but  also  prints  all keys making up the

              List all available certificates  for  which  a  corresponding  a
              secret  key  is  available  using  a  format  useful  mainly for

       --dump-external-keys pattern
              List certificates matching pattern  using  an  external  server.
              This  utilizes  the  dirmngr  service.   It uses a format useful
              mainly for debugging.

              This is a debugging aid  to  reset  certain  flags  in  the  key
              database  which are used to cache certain certificate stati.  It
              is especially useful if a  bad  CRL  or  a  weird  running  OCSP
              responder  did  accidentally  revoke  certificate.   There is no
              security issue with this command because gpgsm always make  sure
              that the validity of a certificate is checked right before it is

       --delete-keys pattern
              Delete the keys matching pattern.  Note that there is no command
              to delete the secret part of the key directly.  In case you need
              to do this, you should run the command gpgsm  --dump-secret-keys
              KEYID  before  you delete the key, copy the string of hex-digits
              in the ``keygrip'' line and delete the file consisting of  these
              hex-digits  and  the  suffix  .key  from the 'private-keys-v1.d'
              directory below our GnuPG home directory (usually '~/.gnupg').

       --export [pattern]
              Export all certificates stored in the Keybox or those  specified
              by the optional pattern. Those pattern consist of a list of user
              ids (see: [how-to-specify-a-user-id]).  When used along with the
              --armor  option  a  few informational lines are prepended before
              each block.  There is one limitation: As there  is  no  commonly
              agreed  upon way to pack more than one certificate into an ASN.1
              structure, the binary export (i.e. without  using  armor)  works
              only  for the export of one certificate.  Thus it is required to
              specify  a  pattern  which  yields  exactly   one   certificate.
              Ephemeral certificate are only exported if all pattern are given
              as fingerprints or keygrips.

       --export-secret-key-p12 key-id
              Export the private key and the certificate identified by  key-id
              in  a PKCS#12 format. When using along with the --armor option a
              few informational lines are prepended to the output.  Note, that
              the  PKCS#12  format is not very secure and this command is only
              provided if there is no other way to exchange the  private  key.
              (see: [option --p12-charset])

       --import [files]
              Import  the certificates from the PEM or binary encoded files as
              well as from signed-only messages.  This  command  may  also  be
              used to import a secret key from a PKCS#12 file.

              Read  information  about the private keys from the smartcard and
              import the certificates from there.  This command  utilizes  the
              gpg-agent and in turn the scdaemon.

       --passwd user_id
              Change  the  passphrase  of  the  private  key  belonging to the
              certificate specified  as  user_id.   Note,  that  changing  the
              passphrase/PIN of a smartcard is not yet supported.


       GPGSM  comes features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour
       and to change the default configuration.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change  the  configuration  and  are  usually
       found in the option file.

       --options file
              Reads  configuration  from file instead of from the default per-
              user configuration file.   The  default  configuration  file  is
              named  'gpgsm.conf'  and  expected  in  the  '.gnupg'  directory
              directly below the home directory of the user.

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used,  the  home  directory  defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only
              recognized when given on the command line.   It  also  overrides
              any  home  directory  stated  through  the  environment variable
              'GNUPGHOME' or (on W32 systems) by means of the  Registry  entry


              Outputs  additional information while running.  You can increase
              the verbosity by giving several verbose commands to gpgsm,  such
              as '-vv'.

       --policy-file filename
              Change the default name of the policy file to filename.

       --agent-program file
              Specify  an  agent program to be used for secret key operations.
              The default value is the  '/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent'.   This  is
              only   used   as   a  fallback  when  the  environment  variable
              GPG_AGENT_INFO is not set or a running agent can't be connected.

       --dirmngr-program file
              Specify  a  dirmngr  program  to  be  used  for CRL checks.  The
              default value is '/usr/sbin/dirmngr'.  This is only  used  as  a
              fallback  when  the environment variable DIRMNGR_INFO is not set
              or a running dirmngr can't be connected.

              If a system wide dirmngr is running in daemon mode, first try to
              connect  to  this  one.  Fallback to a pipe based server if this
              does not work.  Under Windows this option is ignored because the
              system dirmngr is always used.

              Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

              Don't  print  a warning when the so called "secure memory" can't
              be used.

       --log-file file
              When running in server mode, append all logging output to  file.

   Certificate related options


              By default policy checks are enabled.  These options may be used
              to change it.


              By default the CRL checks are enabled and the DirMngr is used to
              check  for  revoked  certificates.   The  disable option is most
              useful with an off-line  network  connection  to  suppress  this


              By  default  the  CRL  for trusted root certificates are checked
              like for any other certificates.  This allows a CA to revoke its
              own  certificates voluntary without the need of putting all ever
              issued certificates into a CRL.  The disable option may be  used
              to  switch this extra check off.  Due to the caching done by the
              Dirmngr, there won't be any noticeable performance gain.   Note,
              that  this  also  disables possible OCSP checks for trusted root
              certificates.  A more specific way of disabling this check is by
              adding  the  ``relax''  keyword  to  the  root  CA  line  of the

              Tell the dirmngr to reload the CRL for each request.  For better
              performance,   the   dirmngr  will  actually  optimize  this  by
              suppressing the  loading  for  short  time  intervals  (e.g.  30
              minutes). This option is useful to make sure that a fresh CRL is
              available for certificates hold in the  keybox.   The  suggested
              way  of  doing this is by using it along with the option --with-
              validation for a key listing command.  This option should not be
              used in a configuration file.


              Be  default  OCSP checks are disabled.  The enable option may be
              used to enable OCSP checks via Dirmngr.  If CRL checks are  also
              enabled,  CRLs  will be used as a fallback if for some reason an
              OCSP request won't succeed.  Note, that you have to  allow  OCSP
              requests in Dirmngr's configuration too (option --allow-ocsp and
              configure dirmngr properly.  If you don't do so you will get the
              error code 'Not supported'.

              If  a required certificate is missing while validating the chain
              of certificates, try to load that certificate from  an  external
              location.  This usually means that Dirmngr is employed to search
              for the certificate.  Note that this option makes  a  "web  bug"
              like  behavior  possible.   LDAP  server operators can see which
              keys you request, so by sending you a message signed by a  brand
              new  key  (which  you  naturally  will  not  have  on your local
              keybox), the operator can tell both your IP address and the time
              when you verified the signature.

       --validation-model name
              This  option  changes  the  default  validation model.  The only
              possible values are "shell" (which is the default)  and  "chain"
              which  forces  the  use  of the chain model.  The chain model is
              also used if an option in the 'trustlist.txt' or an attribute of
              the certificate requests it.  However the standard model (shell)
              is in that case always tried first.

       --ignore-cert-extension oid
              Add oid to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The  oid
              is  expected  to be in dotted decimal form, like  This
              option may used more than once.   Critical  flagged  certificate
              extensions  matching  one of the OIDs in the list are treated as
              if they are actually handled and thus the certificate  won't  be
              rejected  due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option
              with care because extensions are usually flagged as critical for
              a reason.

   Input and Output


       -a     Create PEM encoded output.  Default is binary output.

              Create  Base-64  encoded  output;  i.e.  PEM  without the header

              Assume the input data is PEM encoded.  Default is to  autodetect
              the encoding but this is may fail.

              Assume the input data is plain base-64 encoded.

              Assume the input data is binary encoded.

       --p12-charset name
              gpgsm  uses  the  UTF-8  encoding  when encoding passphrases for
              PKCS#12 files.  This option may be used to force the  passphrase
              to be encoded in the specified encoding name.  This is useful if
              the application used to import the key uses a different encoding
              and  thus  won't  be  able  to import a file generated by gpgsm.
              Commonly used values for name are Latin1 and CP850.   Note  that
              gpgsm  itself  automagically  imports any file with a passphrase
              encoded to the most commonly used encodings.

       --default-key user_id
              Use user_id as the standard key for signing.  This key  is  used
              if  no  other key has been defined as a signing key.  Note, that
              the first --local-users option also sets this key if it has  not
              yet been set; however --default-key always overrides this.

       --local-user user_id

       -u user_id
              Set  the  user(s)  to  be  used for signing.  The default is the
              first secret key found in the database.

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt to the user id name.  There are several ways a  user  id
              may be given (see: [how-to-specify-a-user-id]).

       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.  The default is to write it to stdout.

              Displays   extra  information  with  the  --list-keys  commands.
              Especially a line tagged grp is  printed  which  tells  you  the
              keygrip  of  a key.  This string is for example used as the file
              name of the secret key.

              When doing a key listing, do a full validation  check  for  each
              key  and  print  the  result.   This is usually a slow operation
              because it requires a CRL lookup and other operations.

              When used along with --import, a validation of  the  certificate
              to  import  is  done  and only imported if it succeeds the test.
              Note that this does not affect an already available  certificate
              in  the  DB.  This option is therefore useful to simply verify a

              For standard key listings, also print the MD5 fingerprint of the

   How to change how the CMS is created.

       --include-certs n
              Using n of -2 includes all certificate except for the root cert,
              -1 includes all certs, 0 does not include any certs, 1  includes
              only  the  signers  cert  (this  is  the  default) and all other
              positive values include up to n certificates starting  with  the
              signer cert.  The default is -2.

       --cipher-algo oid
              Use  the  cipher  algorithm with the ASN.1 object identifier oid
              for encryption.  For  convenience  the  strings  3DES,  AES  and
              AES256  may  be used instead of their OIDs.  The default is 3DES

       --digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  message  digest  algorithm.   Usually   this
              algorithm  is  deduced  from the respective signing certificate.
              This option forces the use of the given algorithm and  may  lead
              to severe interoperability problems.

   Doing things one usually don't want to do.

       --extra-digest-algo name
              Sometimes   signatures  are  broken  in  that  they  announce  a
              different digest algorithm than actually  used.   gpgsm  uses  a
              one-pass  data  processing  model  and thus needs to rely on the
              announced digest algorithms to properly hash  the  data.   As  a
              workaround  this option may be used to tell gpg to also hash the
              data using the algorithm name;  this  slows  processing  down  a
              little  bit  but  allows  to  verify such broken signatures.  If
              gpgsm prints  an  error  like  ``digest  algo  8  has  not  been
              enabled''  you  may  want  to try this option, with 'SHA256' for

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
              back  or  forth  to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
              since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full
              ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

              Include  ephemeral  flagged  keys in the output of key listings.
              Note that they are included anyway if the key specification  for
              a listing is given as fingerprint or keygrip.

       --debug-level level
              Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:

              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be  used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All of the debug messages you can get.  A  value  greater
                     than  8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
                     of hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual debugging flags is not
       specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              This  option  is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may
              change at any time without notice; using --debug-levels  is  the
              preferred  method  to select the debug verbosity.  FLAGS are bit
              encoded and may  be  given  in  usual  C-Syntax.  The  currently
              defined bits are:

              0 (1)  X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

              1 (2)  values of big number integers

              2 (4)  low level crypto operations

              5 (32) memory allocation

              6 (64) caching

              7 (128)
                     show memory statistics.

              9 (512)
                     write hashed data to files named dbgmd-000*

              10 (1024)
                     trace Assuan protocol

       Note,  that  all  flags  set  using  this  option may get overridden by

              Same as --debug=0xffffffff

              Usually gpgsm tries to avoid dumping core by well  written  code
              and by disabling core dumps for security reasons.  However, bugs
              are pretty durable beasts and to squash  them  it  is  sometimes
              useful  to  have  a  core  dump.  This option enables core dumps
              unless the Bad Thing happened before the option parsing.

              This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
              It lets gpgsm bypass all certificate chain validation checks.

              This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
              It lets gpgsm ignore all notAfter dates, this  is  used  by  the
              regression tests.

       --fixed-passphrase string
              Supply  the  passphrase  string  to  the gpg-protect-tool.  This
              option is only useful for the  regression  tests  included  with
              this  package  and may be revised or removed at any time without

              Suppress the import of common certificates on keybox creation.

              All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
              after stripping off the two leading dashes.


       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
       are only valid for gpg others are only good for  gpgsm.   Here  is  the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low  64  bits  of  its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids is
              just a shortcut, for all automated  processing  the  fingerprint
              should be used.

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.



       By fingerprint.
              This  format  is  deduced  from the length of the string and its
              content or the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20  byte  version
              fingerprint  is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to  force
              using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by  using  the  fingerprint.
              This  avoids  any  ambiguities in case that there are duplicated
              key IDs.


       (gpgsm also accepts colons between  each  pair  of  hexadecimal  digits
       because  this  is  the  de-facto  standard  on  how  to  present  X.509

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make  sense
              for X.509 certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This  is  indicated  by enclosing the email address in the usual
              way with left and right angles.


       By word match.
              All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear
              in  any  order in the user ID or a subjects name.  Words are any
              sequences of letters, digits, the underscore and all  characters
              with bit 7 set.

         +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This  is  indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string  printed  by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one as been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash and then directly followed by the rfc2253  encoded  DN  of
              the  issuer.   This  should  return the Root cert of the issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a hash mark, followed  by  the  hexadecimal
              representation  of  the  serial number, then followed by a slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex  digits
              of  a  keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.


       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate  this  by  putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not
              case sensitive.


       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used
       in  old  GnuPG  versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is not
       anymore used and there should be  no  conflict  when  used  with  X.509

       Using  the  RFC-2253  format  of  DNs  has  the drawback that it is not
       possible to map them back to the original encoding,  however  we  don't
       have  to  do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta


         $ gpgsm -er <plaintext >ciphertext

       gpgsm is often used as a backend engine by  other  software.   To  help
       with  this  a machine interface has been defined to have an unambiguous
       way to do this.  This is most likely used with the --server command but
       may  also be used in the standard operation mode by using the --status-
       fd option.

       It is very important to understand the semantics  used  with  signature
       verification.   Checking  a  signature is not as simple as it may sound
       and so the operation is  a  bit  complicated.   In  most  cases  it  is
       required to look at several status lines.  Here is a table of all cases
       a signed message may have:

       The signature is valid
              This  does  mean  that  the  signature  has  been   successfully
              verified,  the certificates are all sane.  However there are two
              subcases with important information:  One  of  the  certificates
              may  have expired or a signature of a message itself as expired.
              It is a sound practise to consider such  a  signature  still  as
              valid but additional information should be displayed.  Depending
              on the subcase gpgsm will issue these status codes:
                .TP signature valid and nothing did expire
                .TP signature valid but at least one certificate has expired
                .TP signature valid but expired
                Note, that this case is currently not implemented.

       The signature is invalid
              This means that the signature verification failed  (this  is  an
              indication  of af a transfer error, a program error or tampering
              with the message).  gpgsm  issues  one  of  these  status  codes
                .TP BADSIG

       Error verifying a signature
              For  some  reason  the  signature could not be verified, i.e. it
              can't be decided whether the signature is valid or  invalid.   A
              common reason for this is a missing certificate.


       There  are  a  few  configuration  files  to control certain aspects of
       gpgsm's operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current  home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

              This  is  the  standard  configuration  file  read  by  gpgsm on
              startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading  two
              dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
              This default name may be  changed  on  the  command  line  (see:
                --options]).  You should backup this file.

              This  is  a  list of allowed CA policies.  This file should list
              the object identifiers of the  policies  line  by  line.   Empty
              lines and lines starting with a hash mark are ignored.  Policies
              missing  in  this  file  and  not  marked  as  critical  in  the
              certificate   will  print  only  a  warning;  certificates  with
              policies marked as critical and not listed  in  this  file  will
              fail the signature verification.  You should backup this file.

              For example, to allow only the policy, the file should
              look like this:

                # Allowed policies

              This is  the  list  of  root  certificates  used  for  qualified
              certificates.   They  are  defined  as  certificates  capable of
              creating  legally  binding  signatures  in  the  same   way   as
              handwritten signatures are.  Comments start with a hash mark and
              empty lines are ignored.  Lines do have a length limit but  this
              is  not  a  serious  limitation  as the format of the entries is
              fixed and checked by  gpgsm:  A  non-comment  line  starts  with
              optional whitespace, followed by exactly 40 hex character, white
              space and a lowercased 2 letter country code.   Additional  data
              delimited  with  by  a  white space is current ignored but might
              late be used for other purposes.

              Note that even if a certificate is listed  in  this  file,  this
              does  not  mean  that the certificate is trusted; in general the
              certificates listed in this file  need  to  be  listed  also  in

              This  is  a global file an installed in the data directory (e.g.
              '/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt').  GnuPG  installs  a  suitable
              file  with root certificates as used in Germany.  As new Root-CA
              certificates may be issued over time, these entries may need  to
              be  updated; new distributions of this software should come with
              an updated list but  it  is  still  the  responsibility  of  the
              Administrator to check that this list is correct.

              Everytime  gpgsm  uses a certificate for signing or verification
              this file will be consulted to  check  whether  the  certificate
              under  question  has ultimately been issued by one of these CAs.
              If this is the case the user will be informed that the  verified
              signature   represents   a   legally   binding   (``qualified'')
              signature.  When creating a signature using such  a  certificate
              an extra prompt will be issued to let the user confirm that such
              a legally binding signature shall really be created.

              Because this software has not yet been  approved  for  use  with
              such certificates, appropriate notices will be shown to indicate
              this fact.

              This is plain text file  with  a  few  help  entries  used  with
              pinentry  as  well  as  a  large  list of help items for gpg and
              gpgsm.  The standard file has English  help  texts;  to  install
              localized  versions  use  filenames  like  'help.LL.txt' with LL
              denoting the locale.  GnuPG comes with a set of predefined  help
              files        in       the       data       directory       (e.g.
              '/usr/share/gnupg/') and  allows  overriding  of  any
              help  item  by  help  files  stored  in the system configuration
              directory (e.g. '/etc/gnupg/').  For a  reference  of
              the  help  file's  syntax,  please  see the installed 'help.txt'

              This file  is  a  collection  of  common  certificates  used  to
              populated  a  newly created 'pubring.kbx'.  An administrator may
              replace  this  file  with  a  custom  one.   The  format  is   a
              concatenation  of  PEM  encoded X.509 certificates.  This global
              file   is   installed    in    the    data    directory    (e.g.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into the directory '/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that  newly  created  users
       start  up  with  a  working  configuration.  For existing users a small
       helper script is provided to create these files (see:  [addgnupghome]).

       For  internal  purposes  gpgsm creates and maintains a few other files;
       they  all  live  in  in  the  current  home  directory  (see:   [option
       --homedir]).  Only gpgsm may modify these files.

              This  a  database  file storing the certificates as well as meta
              information.  For debugging purposes the  tool  kbxutil  may  be
              used  to  show  the internal structure of this file.  You should
              backup this file.

              This content of this file is used to maintain the internal state
              of  the  random  number  generator across invocations.  The same
              file is used by other programs of this software too.

              If   this   file   exists   and   the    environment    variable
              'GPG_AGENT_INFO'  is not set, gpgsm will first try to connect to
              this socket for accessing gpg-agent before starting a  new  gpg-
              agent  instance.  Under Windows this socket (which in reality be
              a plain file describing a regular TCP  listening  port)  is  the
              standard way of connecting the gpg-agent.


       gpg2(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site,  the

         info gnupg

       should  give  you  access  to  the  complete  manual  including  a menu
       structure and an index.