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       gp - PARI calculator


       gp  [--stacksize|-s  stacksize]  [--primelimit|-p primelimit] [--emacs]
       [-f|--fast]  [-q|--quiet]  [--help]  [--test]  [--texmacs]  [--version]
       [--version-short] [ file1 file2 ...]


       Invokes  the PARI-GP calculator, loading the file1, file2, ... (written
       in the  GP  language)  on  startup.  gp  is  an  advanced  programmable
       calculator,   which   computes   symbolically   as  long  as  possible,
       numerically where needed, and contains  a  wealth  of  number-theoretic
       functions   (elliptic   curves,  class  field  theory...).  It  can  be
       programmed with the GP scripting language. Its basic data types are

              integers,  real  numbers,  exact  rational  numbers,   algebraic
              numbers,  p-adic  numbers, modular integers (integers modulo n),
              complex numbers,

       polynomials, rational functions,
              and power series,

       integral binary quadratic forms,

       matrices, vectors,
              and lists,

       character strings,

       and recursive combinations of these.


       Command line options are availaible in both short form (-f) and  POSIX-
       like (--fast). Numeric arguments can be followed by a modifier k , M or
       G at the user’s convenience; in that case the argument is multiplied by
       10^3, 10^6, or 10^9 respectively.

       -f, --fast
              Fast  start (or factory settings). Do not read .gprc (see below)
              upon startup.

       -p, --primelimit limit
              Upon startup, gp computes  a  table  of  small  primes  used  in
              number-theoretic  applications.  If primelimit is set, the table
              include  primes  up  to  that  bound  instead  of  the  default.
              Unreasonably  high  values  will  considerably  increase startup
              time. Exceedingly small values will cause some  number-theoretic
              functions  to  fail  with  the  message  "not enough precomputed

       -q, --quiet
              Quiet mode. Don’t print headers or history  numbers,  don’t  say

       -s, --stacksize limit
              Size of gp internal stack allocated on startup. When gp runs out
              of space, it interrupts the current  computation  and  raises  a
              stack  overflow exception. If this occurs frequently, start with
              a bigger stack. The stack size can also be increased from within
              gp,  using  default(parisize,...);  it  may be convenient to set
              stacksize from  your  .gprc.   Note  that  computations  with  a
              smaller stack may be more efficient due to better data locality.
              Most computations should need less than 20MB.

              gp can be run in an  Emacs  shell  (see  GP  User’s  manual  for
              details). This flag is then required for smooth interaction with
              the relevant Emacs package (pari.el). It is set automatically by
              the  pari.el  package, and will produce nice display oddities if
              you set it outside of an Emacs session.

       --help print a summary of available command-line options.

       --test run gp in test mode: suppress printing of  history  numbers  and
              wrap  long  output  lines  (to  get  readable  diff output). For
              benches only.

              gp can be run from a TeXmacs  frontend.  This  flag  is  set  by
              TeXmacs,  to  enable  special purpose communication channels. Do
              not set it yourself.

              output version info (banner) then exit.

              output version number then exit.


       ?      to get online help.

       ??     to get  extended  online  help  (more  precisely,  to  call  the
              external help program, gphelp by default)

       quit   (or \q), or EOF (Ctrl-D) to quit gp.

       The following works only when gp was linked with GNU readline library:

       arrow keys
              for editing and viewing the input history.

       TAB     for automatic completion


       The  following  material  is  included  in  the  standard  distribution
       (originally in TeX format):

       The Users Guide to PARI/GP

       The Users Guide to the PARI library

       PARI/GP, a tutorial

       PARI/GP reference card
              ( 4 pages, based on an earlier version by Joseph  H.

              explains the use of the pari.el package, and how to customize it
              (prompt, colors).


       gp     main executable

              (or $GPRC if set) read at beginning  of  execution  by  each  gp
              shell.   A   default   gprc   gprc.dft   is  provided  with  the
              distribution. If this file cannot be found, /etc/gprc is checked

              default  logfile (can be changed in .gprc or interactively using
              default() )
              default psfile used for postscript output (as above)

       gphelp default external help program (as above)

              elisp package to run pari in an Emacs shell. Must be loaded from
              your .emacs file.

       *.gp   GP programs


       $GPRC  place  to  look  for  the  user’s gprc file (before $HOME/.gprc,
              ./gprc, and /etc/gprc in this order).

              directory containing  precomputed  data.  For  now,  the  Galois
              resolvents  files in directory galdata/, needed by the polgalois
              function, in degrees 8 to 11.

              name of  the  external  help  program  invoked  by  ??  and  ???

              name of the directory where temporary files will be generated.


       PARI’s home page resides at


       There  are  three  mailing  lists  devoted  to the PARI/GP package (run
       courtesy of Dan Bernstein), and most feedback  should  be  directed  to
       those. They are:

       -  pari-announce (moderated): for us to announce major version changes.

       -  pari-dev:  for  everything  related  to  the  development  of  PARI,
       including  suggestions,  technical  questions,  bug  reports  or  patch

       - pari-users: for everything else.

       To subscribe, send empty messages respectively to


       Bugs should be submitted online to our Bug Tracking  System,  available
       from PARI’s home page, or directly from the URL
       Further instructions can be found on that page.


       Despite the leading G, GP has nothing to do with GNU. The first version
       was originally called GPC, for Great Programmable Calculator. For  some
       reason, the trailing C was eventually dropped.

       PARI has nothing to do with the French capital. The name is a pun about
       the project’s early stages when the  authors  started  to  implement  a
       library  for  "Pascal  ARIthmetic"  in  the PASCAL programming language
       (they quickly switched to C).

       For the benefit  of  non-native  French  speakers,  here’s  a  slightly
       expanded  explanation:  Blaise  Pascal  (1623-1662) was a famous French
       mathematician  and  philosopher  who  was  one  of  the   founders   of
       probability and devised one of the first "arithmetic machines". He once
       proposed the  following  "proof"  of  the  existence  of  God  for  the
       unbelievers:  whether  He  exists or not I lose nothing by believing in
       Him, whereas if He does and I misbehave... This is the so-called  "pari
       de Pascal" (Pascal’s Wager).

       Note that PARI also means "fairy" in Persian.


       PARI  was  originally  written  by Christian Batut, Dominique Bernardi,
       Henri Cohen, and Michel Olivier in Laboratoire A2X (Universite Bordeaux
       I,  France),  and  was  maintained by Henri Cohen up to version 1.39.15
       (1995), and by Karim Belabas since then.

       A  great  number  of  people  have  contributed   to   the   successive
       improvements  which eventually resulted in the present version. See the
       AUTHORS file in the distribution.


       dvips(1), emacs(1), gap(1), ghostview(1), gphelp(1), maple(1), perl(1),
       readline(3), tex(1), texmacs(1), xdvi(1)


       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free Software Foundation.

       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;  without   even   the   implied   warranty   of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

                                10 August 2004