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       blame - annotate RCS files


       blame [options] file ...


       blame  outputs  an annotated revision from each RCS file.  An annotated
       RCS file describes the revision and date in which each line  was  added
       to the file, and the author of each line.

       Pathnames  matching  an  RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others denote
       working files.  Names are paired as explained in ci(1).

       A revision is selected  by  options  for  revision  or  branch  number,
       checkin  date/time,  author,  or state.  When the selection options are
       applied in  combination,  blame  retrieves  the  latest  revision  that
       satisfies  all of them.  If none of the selection options is specified,
       blame retrieves the latest revision on the default branch (normally the
       trunk,  see  the  -b  option  of  rcs(1)).  The options -d (--date), -s
       (--state), and  -w  (--author)  retrieve  from  a  single  branch,  the
       selected  branch, which is specified by -r (--revision), or the default

       blame always performs keyword substitution (see KEYWORD SUBSTITUTION in


       -r, --revision[=rev]
              Retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than or equal
              to rev.  If rev indicates a branch rather than a  revision,  the
              latest revision on that branch is retrieved.  If rev is omitted,
              the latest revision on the default branch (see the -b option  of
              rcs(1))  is  annotated.   If  rev  is  $,  blame  determines the
              revision  number  from  keyword  values  in  the  working  file.
              Otherwise,  a  revision  is  composed  of one or more numeric or
              symbolic fields separated by periods.   If  rev  begins  with  a
              period,   then  the  default  branch  (normally  the  trunk)  is
              prepended to it.  If rev  is  a  branch  number  followed  by  a
              period,  then  the  latest revision on that branch is used.  The
              numeric equivalent of a symbolic field is specified with the  -n
              option of the commands ci(1) and rcs(1).

       -kkv, --expand=kv
              Generate keyword strings using the default form, e.g. $Revision:
              1.3 $ for the Revision keyword.  This is the default.

       -kkvl, --expand=kvl
              Like -kkv, except that a locker’s  name  is  inserted  into  the
              value of the Header, Id, and Locker keyword strings if the given
              revision is currently locked.

       -kk, --expand=k
              Generate only keyword  names  in  keyword  strings;  omit  their
              values.   See  KEYWORD  SUBSTITUTION in co(1).  For example, for
              the Revision keyword, generate the string $Revision$ instead  of
              $Revision:  1.3  $.   Log  messages  are  inserted  after  $Log$
              keywords even if this option is specified.

       -ko, --expand=o
              Generate the old keyword string, present  in  the  working  file
              just  before  it  was checked in.  For example, for the Revision
              keyword,  generate  the  string  $Revision:  1.1  $  instead  of
              $Revision:  1.3  $  if  that is how the string appeared when the
              file was checked in.

       -kb, --expand=b
              Generate a binary image of the old keyword  string.   This  acts
              like  -ko,  except it performs all working file input and output
              in binary mode.  This makes little difference on Posix and  Unix

       -kv, --expand=v
              Generate  only keyword values for keyword strings.  For example,
              for the Revision keyword, generate the  string  1.3  instead  of
              $Revision: 1.3 $.

       -d, --date=date
              Retrieves  the  latest  revision  on  the  selected branch whose
              checkin date/time is less than or equal to date.  The  date  and
              time  can  be given in free format.  The time zone LT stands for
              local time; other common time zone names  are  understood.   For
              example,  the  following  dates  are equivalent if local time is
              January 11, 1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of
              Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):

                     8:00 pm lt
                     4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990           default is UTC
                     1990-01-12 04:00:00+00           ISO 8601 (UTC)
                     1990-01-11 20:00:00-08           ISO 8601 (local time)
                     1990/01/12 04:00:00              traditional RCS format
                     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT      output of ctime(3) + LT
                     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990     output of date(1)
                     Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
                     Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800  Internet RFC 822
                     12-January-1990, 04:00 WET

              Most  fields in the date and time can be defaulted.  The default
              time zone is normally UTC, but this can be overridden by the  -z
              option.   The  other  defaults are determined in the order year,
              month,  day,  hour,  minute,   and   second   (most   to   least
              significant).   At  least  one of these fields must be provided.
              For omitted fields that are  of  higher  significance  than  the
              highest  provided  field,  the  time  zone’s  current values are
              assumed.  For all other  omitted  fields,  the  lowest  possible
              values are assumed.  For example, without -z, the date 20, 10:30
              defaults to 10:30:00 UTC of the 20th  of  the  UTC  time  zone’s
              current  month  and  year.   The  date/time must be quoted if it
              contains spaces.

       -s, --state=state
              Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose state
              is set to state.

       -w, --login[=login]
              Retrieves  the  latest revision on the selected branch which was
              checked in by the user with login name login.  If  the  argument
              login is omitted, the caller’s login is assumed.

       -V, --version[=ver]
              If  no  argument  is supplied, print blame’s version number, and
              the version of RCS it emulates by default. Otherwise emulate the
              specified version.  See co(1) for details.

       -x, --suffixes=suffixes
              Use  suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -z, --zone=zone
              Specifies the date output format in  keyword  substitution,  and
              specifies  the  default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
              The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or  the  special
              string  LT  for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
              uses the traditional RCS format of UTC  without  any  time  zone
              indication  and  with  slashes separating the parts of the date;
              otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format  with  time  zone
              indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
              Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
              output as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30


       Strings  of  the  form $keyword$ and $keyword:...$ embedded in the text
       are replaced with strings of the form $keyword:value$ as  described  in


       blame never changes an RCS or working file.  It uses the effective user
       for all accesses, and it does not even read the working file  unless  a
       revision number of $ is specified.


              Options  prepended  to  the  argument list, separated by spaces.
              See ci(1) for details.


       The working pathname and a separator line is written to the  diagnostic
       output.   The  exit  status  is zero if and only if all operations were


       One day, there will be a whole bunch of useful examples here.


       rcsintro(1), ci(1), co(1), ctime(3), date(1), rcs(1), rcsfile(5)


       Michael Chapman <>

       Portions of this manual page are from ci(1)  and  co(1)  by  Walter  F.
       Tichy and Paul Eggert.


       blame is copyright © 2004, 2005 Michael Chapman.

       blame  is  released  under  the terms and conditions of the GNU General
       Public License version 2.  Please read the COPYING file carefully.