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       ci - check in RCS revisions


       ci [options] file ...


       ci  stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each pathname matching an RCS
       suffix is taken to be an RCS  file.   All  others  are  assumed  to  be
       working  files  containing  new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of
       each working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only  a  working
       file  is  given,  ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS
       subdirectory and then  in  the  working  file’s  directory.   For  more
       details, see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci  to work, the caller’s login must be on the access list, except
       if the access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner
       of  the  file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip
       revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise,  only
       a  new branch can be created.  This restriction is not enforced for the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).   A  lock
       held by someone else can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless  the  -f  option  is given, ci checks whether the revision to be
       deposited differs from the preceding one.  If not, instead of  creating
       a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.  To revert, ordinary ci
       removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps  and  ci -u  removes
       any  lock,  and  then  they both generate a new working file much as if
       co -l or co -u had  been  applied  to  the  preceding  revision.   When
       reverting, any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

       For  each  revision  deposited,  ci prompts for a log message.  The log
       message should summarize the change and must be terminated  by  end-of-
       file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked
       in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the  standard
       input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log
       message for all files.  See also -m.

       If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents
       of the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The
       access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of the  log  message,  ci
       requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev  of  the deposited revision can be given by any of the
       options -f, -i, -I, -j, -k,  -l,  -M,  -q,  -r,  or  -u.   rev  can  be
       symbolic,  numeric,  or  mixed.   Symbolic names in rev must already be
       defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during  checkin.
       If  rev  is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in
       the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then  the  default  branch  (normally  the
       trunk)  is  prepended  to  it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a
       period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest  one  on
       the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev  is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is
       appended to that branch.  The level number is obtained by  incrementing
       the  tip  revision  number  of  that  branch.   If rev indicates a non-
       existing branch, that branch  is  created  with  the  initial  revision
       numbered rev.1.

       If  rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
       caller’s last lock.  If the caller has locked the  tip  revision  of  a
       branch,  the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision
       number is obtained by incrementing the tip  revision  number.   If  the
       caller  locked  a  non-tip  revision,  a  new branch is started at that
       revision by incrementing the highest branch number  at  that  revision.
       The default initial branch and level numbers are 1.

       If  rev  is  omitted  and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and
       locking is not set to strict, then the  revision  is  appended  to  the
       default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception:  On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not


       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning
              in  ci.  With other RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the
              most recent revision on the default branch, but with ci, a  bare
              -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releasing a lock
              and removing the working file,  and  is  used  to  override  any
              default  -l  or  -u  options  established  by  shell  aliases or

              works like -r, except it performs an additional  co -l  for  the
              deposited revision.  Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
              checked out again and locked.   This  is  useful  for  saving  a
              revision  although  one  wants  to continue editing it after the

              works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.
              This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

              The  -l,  bare  -r,  and  -u  options are mutually exclusive and
              silently  override  each  other.   For  example,   ci -u -r   is
              equivalent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

              forces  a  deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
              different from the preceding one.

              searches the working file for keyword values  to  determine  its
              revision  number,  creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),
              and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather  than
              computing  them  locally.   It  also  generates  a default login
              message noting the login of the caller and  the  actual  checkin
              date.   This  option  is  useful  for  software distribution.  A
              revision that is sent to several sites should be checked in with
              the  -k  option  at these sites to preserve the original number,
              date, author, and state.  The extracted keyword values  and  the
              default  log  message can be overridden with the options -d, -m,
              -s, -w, and any option that carries a revision number.

              quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A  revision  that
              is not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless
              -f is given.

              initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.
              This avoids race conditions in certain applications.

              just  checkin  and do not initialize; report an error if the RCS
              file does not already exist.

              interactive mode; the user is prompted and  questioned  even  if
              the standard input is not a terminal.

              uses  date for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified
              in free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for  lying
              about  the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If
              date is empty, the working file’s time of last  modification  is

              Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date
              of the retrieved revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does  not
              alter  f’s modification time, even if f’s contents change due to
              keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse

       -mmsg  uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked
              in.  By convention, log messages that start with # are  comments
              and  are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs’s vc package.  Also,
              log messages that start  with  {clumpname}  (followed  by  white
              space)  are  meant  to  be clumped together if possible, even if
              they are associated with different files; the {clumpname}  label
              is  used  only for clumping, and is not considered to be part of
              the log message itself.

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of  the  checked-in
              revision.   ci  prints  an  error  message  if  name  is already
              assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a  previous  assignment  of

              sets  the  state  of  the  checked-in revision to the identifier
              state.  The default state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
              the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin
              with -.

              Write descriptive text  from  the  string  into  the  RCS  file,
              deleting the existing text.

              The  -t  option,  in  both  its forms, has effect only during an
              initial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

              During the initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci  obtains  the
              text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
              containing . by itself.  The user is prompted for  the  text  if
              interaction is possible; see -I.

              For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
              option is ignored.

       -T     Set the RCS file’s modification time to the new revision’s  time
              if  the  former precedes the latter and there is a new revision;
              preserve the RCS file’s modification  time  otherwise.   If  you
              have  locked  a  revision,  ci  usually  updates  the RCS file’s
              modification time to the  current  time,  because  the  lock  is
              stored  in  the RCS file and removing the lock requires changing
              the RCS file.  This can  create  an  RCS  file  newer  than  the
              working  file  in  one  of  two  ways: first, ci -M can create a
              working file with a date before the current time;  second,  when
              reverting to the previous revision the RCS file can change while
              the working file remains unchanged.  These two cases  can  cause
              excessive  recompilation  caused  by a make(1) dependency of the
              working file on the RCS  file.   The  -T  option  inhibits  this
              recompilation  by  lying  about  the  RCS file’s date.  Use this
              option with care; it can  suppress  recompilation  even  when  a
              checkin  of  one working file should affect another working file
              associated with the same RCS file.  For example, suppose the RCS
              file’s  time  is  01:00,  the  (changed)  working file’s time is
              02:00, some other copy of the working file has a time of  03:00,
              and  the  current  time  is  04:00.   Then ci -d -T sets the RCS
              file’s time to 02:00 instead of the  usual  04:00;  this  causes
              make(1) to think (incorrectly) that the other copy is newer than
              the RCS file.

              uses login for the  author  field  of  the  deposited  revision.
              Useful  for  lying  about the author, and for -k if no author is

       -V     Print RCS’s version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

              specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches
              any  pathname ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any
              pathname of the form RCS/path or path1/RCS/path2.  The -x option
              can  specify  a  list  of suffixes separated by /.  For example,
              -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.   If  two
              or  more  suffixes  are  specified, they are tried in order when
              looking for an RCS file; the first one that works  is  used  for
              that  file.   If  no  RCS  file  is found but an RCS file can be
              created, the suffixes are tried in order to  determine  the  new
              RCS  file’s  name.   The  default  for suffixes is installation-
              dependent; normally it is ,v/ for hosts like  Unix  that  permit
              commas  in  filenames, and is empty (i.e. just the empty suffix)
              for other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in  keyword  substitution,  and
              specifies  the  default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
              The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or  the  special
              string  LT  for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
              uses the traditional RCS format of UTC  without  any  time  zone
              indication  and  with  slashes separating the parts of the date;
              otherwise, times are output in ISO 8601 format  with  time  zone
              indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
              Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
              output as follows:

                     option    time output
                     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00        (default)
                     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
                     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

              The  -z  option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which
              are always UTC.


       Pairs of RCS files and working files can be  specified  in  three  ways
       (see also the example section).

       1)  Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname
       is of the form path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the  form
       path2/workfile  where  path1/  and  path2/  are  (possibly different or
       empty) paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS suffix.  If X  is
       empty, path1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the
       current directory and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file
       by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X
       in turn, looking for an RCS file of the form path2/RCS/workfileX or (if
       the former is not found and X is nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If  the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for
       the RCS file first in the directory  ./RCS  and  then  in  the  current

       ci  reports  an  error  if  an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an
       unusual reason, even if the RCS file’s pathname is just one of  several
       possibilities.   For  example,  to  suppress  use  of RCS commands in a
       directory d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that casual  attempts
       to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.


       Suppose  ,v  is  an  RCS  suffix  and  the current directory contains a
       subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of  the  following
       commands  check  in  a  copy  of  io.c  into  RCS/io.c,v  as the latest
       revision, removing io.c.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
              ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the  current
       directory  contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each
       of the following commands checks in a new revision.

              ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
              ci  io.c  RCS/io.c;
              ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;


       An RCS file created by ci inherits the  read  and  execute  permissions
       from  the  working  file.  If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves
       its read and execute  permissions.   ci  always  turns  off  all  write
       permissions of RCS files.


       Temporary  files  are  created  in the directory containing the working
       file,  and  also  in  the  temporary  directory   (see   TMPDIR   under
       ENVIRONMENT).   A  semaphore file or files are created in the directory
       containing the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the  semaphore  names
       begin with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify
       an suffix whose first character could be that of  a  working  filename.
       With  an  empty  suffix,  the  semaphore  names  end  with _ so working
       filenames should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the file
       and  creates  a new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one or more
       symbolic links to an RCS file, it unlinks the destination file instead.
       Therefore,  ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to any working file it
       changes; and hard links to RCS  files  are  ineffective,  but  symbolic
       links to RCS files are preserved.

       The  effective  user  must  be  able  to search and write the directory
       containing the RCS file.  Normally, the real user must be able to  read
       the  RCS  and  working  files  and  to  search  and write the directory
       containing the working file; however, some older  hosts  cannot  easily
       switch  between  real  and  effective  users,  so  on  these  hosts the
       effective user is used for all accesses.  The  effective  user  is  the
       same  as  the  real  user  unless  your copies of ci and co have setuid
       privileges.  As described in the next section, these  privileges  yield
       extra   security   if  the  effective  user  owns  all  RCS  files  and
       directories, and if only the effective user can write RCS  directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the
       directory containing the files; only users with  write  access  to  the
       directory  can  use RCS commands to change its RCS files.  For example,
       in hosts that allow a user to belong to several groups, one can make  a
       group’s  RCS  directories  writable  to that group only.  This approach
       suffices for informal projects, but it means that any group member  can
       arbitrarily  change  the  group’s  RCS  files, and can even remove them
       entirely.  Hence more formal projects sometimes distinguish between  an
       RCS  administrator,  who  can  change  the RCS files at will, and other
       project members, who can check in new revisions  but  cannot  otherwise
       change the RCS files.


       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions,
       a set of users can employ setuid privileges as follows.

       · Check that the host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult  a  trustworthy
         expert  if  there  are  any doubts.  It is best if the seteuid system
         call works as described in Posix 1003.1a Draft  5,  because  RCS  can
         switch  back  and forth easily between real and effective users, even
         if the real user is root.  If not, the second best is if  the  setuid
         system call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of
         Posix 1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real or effective user  is
         root.  If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits immediately.

       · Choose  a  user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.
         Only A can invoke the rcs command on the users’ RCS files.  A  should
         not  be  root  or  any  other  user  with  special  powers.  Mutually
         suspicious sets of users should use different administrators.

       · Choose a pathname B to be a directory of files to be executed by  the

       · Have  A  set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A
         by copying the commands from their standard installation directory  D
         as follows:

              mkdir  B
              cp  D/c[io]  B
              chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       · Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:

              PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
              set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       · Have  A  create  each  RCS directory R with write access only to A as

              mkdir  R
              chmod  go-w  R

       · If you want to let only certain users read the  RCS  files,  put  the
         users into a group G, and have A further protect the RCS directory as

              chgrp  G  R
              chmod  g-w,o-rwx  R

       · Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R,  to  ensure  that  A  owns

       · An RCS file’s access list limits who can check in and lock revisions.
         The default access list is empty,  which  grants  checkin  access  to
         anyone  who can read the RCS file.  If you want limit checkin access,
         have A invoke  rcs -a  on  the  file;  see  rcs(1).   In  particular,
         rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       · Have  A  initialize  any  new  RCS  files  with rcs -i before initial
         checkin, adding the -a option if you want to limit checkin access.

       · Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them
         to rcs or to any other command.

       · Do  not  use  other setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is
         trickier than you think!


              options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.   A
              backslash  escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT options
              are prepended to  the  argument  lists  of  most  RCS  commands.
              Useful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       TMPDIR Name  of  the  temporary directory.  If not set, the environment
              variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
              found  is  taken;  if  none  of  them  are set, a host-dependent
              default is used, typically /tmp.


       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working  file,  and  the
       number  of  both  the  deposited  and the preceding revision.  The exit
       status is zero if and only if all operations were successful.


       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.17; Release Date: 1995/06/16.
       Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright © 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.


       co(1), emacs(1), ident(1), make(1),  rcs(1),  rcsclean(1),  rcsdiff(1),
       rcsintro(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.