Man Linux: Main Page and Category List


       seesat5 - provides satellite visibility information.


       This  man  page  explains  the  commands used by seesat5 to produce and
       control the satellites that will be analysed and the output  criterion.
       These  commands  are valid for use in SEESAT5.INI, in the command line,
       and from the seesat5 prompt.


       MAXELEV <number>
              This selects data where the  calculated  elevation  is  less  or
              equal to the entered value.

                  MAXELEV 70

              means that only elevation values of 70 or less will be selected.
              Only satellites that are at 70 or less degrees in elevation will
              be selected.

       MINELEV <number>
              This  selects  data where the calculated elevation is greater or
              equal to the entered value.

                  MINELEV 15

              means that only elevation values of 15 or more will be selected.
              Only satellites that get to 15 or more degrees in elevation will
              be selected.

       MINPHASE <number>
              This selects data where the calculated phase  angle  (the  angle
              between  the  sun and the satellite as seen by the observer), is
              greater or equal the entered value.

       MINRANGE and MAXRANGE <number>
              This selects data where the range of  the  satellite  is  within
              these  limits.   The  number  denotes either miles or kilometers
              depending upon whether you set the MILES or  KILOMETERS  option.
              If  the  satellite  never gets between the MINRANGE and MAXRANGE
              values at your location, then no data is  printed  for  it.  The
              default  values  for  MINRANGE  and  MAXRANGE  is zero and 65535

       SET and RESET
              These commands are used to set and reset conditions and options.
              They are as follows :

                  SET SHOWTLE
                  SET SHOWNORAD


              is  is  useful  when  you want to see all the data using the ALL
              command. If  you  don’t  reset  the  selection  conditions,  the
              program  does not print any lines because the conditions are not
              satisfied.  The  values   for   SHOWTLE,   VISMAG,   SUNELEVSAT,

              This varient of SET  determines  whether  distances  are  to  be
              printed   in  MILES  or  KILOMETERS.  Various  people  can  only
              visualize distance in one or the other of these units.

              When this option is SET, the age (in days)  of  the  element  is
              displayed.  This is the age of the element at the time for which
              the satellite data is printed. Also note that this value is  UTC
              relative.   For  example,  if  you do a whole weeks run with the
              same satellite elements and the satellite is visible every  day,
              then  the  TleAge  value  will  be  1  day  greater in each days

              Show the satellite NORAD number on the printout.

              Controles the printing of the Keplerian elements when a LOAD  or
              NEXT  is  done.  When  SET, Keplerian elements are printed. When
              RESET, they are not

       SUNELEVOBS <number>
              This selects data where the calculated SUN’s  elevation  at  the
              observers location is less or equal the entered value.

                  SUNELEV 0

              means  select data when the sun is at or below the horizon. This
              will let you filter out satellite’s that pass over in  daylight.

       SUNELEVSAT <number>
              This  selects  data  where the calculated SUN’s elevation at the
              satellite is greater or equal than the entered value.

                  SUNVAL 0

              means that only positive SUN values will be selected. This  lets
              you select data when the sun is shining on the satellite.

       VISMAG <number>
              This  selects  data  where the MAGNITUDE is less or equal to the
              supplied value.

                  VISMAG 1.0

              means the calculated magnitude must be less  than  or  equal  to
              1.0. This lets you select bright satellites only.

       ALL    Toggles   between   normal   mode   (predictions  below  horizon
              suppressed) and a mode which displays all predictions.

              This command requires a file name parameter. This is the same as
              the OPENSDF command except the file is opened for extend. If the
              file named does not exist, it will be created.

       BLOCK  This command is used to customize  the  skyline  that  you  view
              from.   It   has  the  format  BLOCK  begin-azimuth  end-azimuth
              elevation. The azimuth values are integers between 0 and 359 and
              the  elevation 0 and 90 degrees.  You can use this to accurately
              define your view of the sky.  You  can  enter  up  to  30  block
              commands,  each  one  defines  a  block from a starting azimuth,
              ending azimuth and an elevation. If a satellite never  gets  out
              from  behind  the  blocks  you  define then its data will not be
              printed. If at any time (be careful with time steps  here),  the
              satellite  is  visible,  then  its  data is printed and the data
              where it is behind a block will be  printed  with  a  particular
              time  you  will  not be able to see the satellite although it is
              above the horizon.  The MINELEV command  is  a  more  simplified
              version  of  BLOCK  and  only  useful in an open field where the
              "mist line" at the horizon is uniform. BLOCK provides  a  better
              solution  for "city dwellers" where buildings tend to block only
              some areas of the sky.

       CENTER Followed by a time, this command determins the  time  to  center
              the data run, usually used in conjuction with SPAN.

              If  you  want to put comments inside your SEESAT5.INI file, just
              type in a forward slash (/) anywhere you want. When the slash is
              at  the start of a line the entire line is treated as a comment.
              When it is in the middle of a line, everthing after the slash up
              to the end of the line is treated as a comment.

              This  command  is  reserved for use in SEESAT5.INI. When seesat5
              encounters this command it executes the commands  found  on  the
              command  line as though they were located in the init file where
              the cmdline command is located. The main use of this command  is
              to  impliment  the  "go  label" command. Typically the init file
              begins with setup commands that set the viewing location as well
              as  some  general filter criterion. Following this with cmdline,
              followed by as many blocks of instructions as you like, each one
              beginning  with a unique label, allows a runtime choice of which
              block to execute.

       DBS and DBS#
              To select satellites you want to run  predictions  on.  You  can
              maintain  the  list  inside  the  seesat.bat file, together with
              comments. You may load the satellite either by name or by  Norad
              Satellite Number.

                  DBS "HST ARRAY"              / Last seen 2/3/94, dim, blinks
                  DBS HST                      / Last seen with shuttle
                  DBS "OKEAN 1"                / Fast
                  DBS MIR                      / Must see soon
                  DBS 23028                    / SEDS 2
                  DBS# 16609                    / Its MIR again

              After  selecting  your  favorite  satellites, run the prediction
              using the RUNDBS command.

              RUNDBS  is  like  RUNTIME  but  just  runs  satellites  in  your
              database.   You  can  still do RUNALL or RUNTIME any time to run
              all the satellites loaded with your last OPEN.

              If you want to select another set of  DBS  satellites,  you  can
              either  OPEN  a new TLE file (that resets all the DBS entries to
              false), or more efficiently (if you want to keep the current TLE
              file open), use the RESET DBS command.

       EX <filename>
              Execute a batch file of commands.  Any SEESAT command may appear
              in a batch file.  Multiple commands per line are  allowed,  just
              as  if  you  were entering the command line manually.  EX itself
              may be in a batch file.   If  encountered,  it  will  close  the
              current  batch  file  and  begin  executing  the specified file.
              Control will not return to the preceding file.   I.e.,  you  can
              chain batch files but not nest them.

       EXIT   Exit from seesat5.

       GO or GOTO
              Requires a label name to go to, and starts processing there. The
              GOTO command is probably  going  to  be  most  useful  from  the
              command  line to let you jump into a particular SEESAT5.INI file
              section of your choice. Obviously, any  commands  following  the
              GOTO  will  not  be processed.  When you specify a GOTO command,
              the program begins  searching  the  SEESAT5.INI  file  from  the
              beginning  and  looks  for the LABEL <labelname> line. If one is
              not found, the message END OF BATCH FILE is  displayed  and  the
              program  goes  into keyboard command mode. If you have duplicate
              labels, the first one will be processed. No checking is done  to
              prevent  you  from  making  the  program loop continously, so be
              careful. Also, if you use EX’ed files, the GOTO will  only  goto
              labels in the current file that is open.

       HELP   Displays a help screen.

       HEIGHT <number>
              Number,  specifies,  in  kilometers,  the  height of the viewing
              location. Errors incurred from incorrect values for height  have
              little  propogation into the satellite location prediction. As a
              result, if you don’t know your height, it may safely be left  0.

       INDEX  Lists  the  satellites  in the currently open file.  If there is
              more than one screenful, it will pause with  a  "more>"  prompt.
              At  this  prompt  you  may  either  press RETURN to continue the
              listing, or enter a command (or commands) just as you  would  at
              the normal command prompt.  In that case, the listing is aborted
              and your commands are executed.

       LABEL  This command requires a parameter that is a label that you  want
              to  GOTO later. The maximum label length is 30 characters and it
              must be the FIRST command on the line. More commands are allowed
              after  the  label name if you want, but I found it more readable
              to have the command on a single line.

                  LABEL DAILY-RUN

              Use labels to keep my run parameters for different situations in
              a single SEESAT5.INI file and select which ones to process using
              the GOTO command.

       LAT <number>
              The number, in degrees, specifies the latitude  of  the  viewing
              location.   Southern  latitudes  are  declaired  with a negative
              number. Precision in this location is  critical.  A  .14  degree
              error  in location, approximately 10 miles will cause a 1 degree
              error in the satellite position.

       LENGTH <integer>
              Sets maximum number of characters the OPEN command will consider
              significant  in the satellite name when building the index.  The
              LENGTH command must therefore be issued before OPEN, to have any
              effect.   Any number from 1 - 22 is allowed.  Default is 22, and
              may be left alone unless you’re using a file such  as  Molczan’s
              N2L series.  In that case, you’ll want to reduce LENGTH to 15 to
              prevent SEESAT  from  using  the  extra  data  as  part  of  the
              satellite  name.   LENGTH  is  set  to  22 if you enter a number
              larger than 22.

              This command as added for predictions done on a machine where  a
              typical  run  takes  hours.  Starting  the  run  with the output
              redirected to the printer serves two purposes:

              1.   to print out the data, and
              2.   to serve as an alarm.

              How does this serve as an alarm? With a dot matrix  printer  the
              machine  can  be  left  to  run.  While other work gets done the
              machine chuggs along.  Eventually, the program finds a satellite
              that  can  be  seen. When the printer starts clacking away after
              the long silence you know that there is new data  available.  So
              that  you  can  come  to  the  printer and tear off the new data
              without interfering with potential  new  printing  this  command
              prints  a  selected  number  of  linefeeds  after  the satellite

       LOAD <name>
              Loads the named satellite from the file you opened with the OPEN
              command.  If the name has spaces, begin the name with quotes.

       LOAD# <number>
              This  is  just  like  the  original LOAD command except you must
              supply the Norad Satellite number. This is most usefull when you
              have  TLE  files  from different sources and the satellite names
              are not consistent.

       LON <number>
              The number, in degrees, specifies the longitude of  the  viewing
              location.   Western  longitudes  are  specified  with a negative
              number. As with latitude a relatively small error of .14 degrees
              will cause a 1 degree error in the satellite location.

       MAG <number>
              For  entering the absolute magnitude of a satellite.  It will be
              adjusted for range and illumination angle to generate the  "mag"
              value  in  the  prediction  table.   Absolute  magnitude  is its
              magnitude at 1000 km and 50% illuminated (i.e., 90 degree  phase
              angle).   Absolute  magnitude  input  can  be  automatic  during
              loading of the elements from the file.  If the first line of the
              element  set  (the  satellite  name  line)  is  longer  than  32
              characters, SEESAT assumes it’s a Molczan format line, and reads
              the  magnitude.   You  can  use  the MAG command to override the
              value if necessary.

       MAGBIAS <number>
              Bias  to  be  applied  to  SEESAT’s  computed  magnitude  before
              display.   A negative sign is allowed.  The default is zero.  If
              your  absolute  magnitudes  assume  a  different  range   and/or
              illumination  than  1000  km  and  50%, the MAGBIAS command will
              bring your scale into coincidence with SEESAT’s.  If r and k are
              your   assumed   standard   conditions   (in   km  and  percent,
              respectively), set MAGBIAS to:

                  2.5 * log10 ((1000/r)^2 * k/50)

              For example, if your absolute magnitude is for 1000 km range and
              100% illuminated, enter:

                  MAGBIAS .8

              The satellite longitudes in the prediction table may be computed
              with  respect  to  either  Greenwich  or  your  local  meridian.
              MERIDIAN toggles this mode, and informs you of the current mode.
              Default is Greenwich.

       MOON <date time>
              Print the azimuth & elevation of the moon  at  the  given  time.
              Percentage of illumination is also given.

       NEXT   Loads the next satellite from the current open element file.

       NOMINAL <date time> / ACTUAL <date time>
              These commands adjust the epoch and RAAN of the currently loaded
              elements for the  difference  between  the  nominal  and  actual
              launch  times.   They  are  useful  for  correcting  a prelaunch
              element set.


                  NOMINAL 19 1851 ACTUAL 1918

              tells SEESAT that the currently loaded elements assume a  launch
              on  the  19th at 1851, but the launch actually occurred at 1918.
              You can’t use NOMINAL or ACTUAL by itself!  If you use one,  you
              must  also use the other or you’ll get crazy results.  The order
              of the commands does not matter, and they don’t have  to  be  on
              the  same line.  Just be sure that both commands have been given
              before starting  a  prediction  run.   The  entered  values  are
              remembered.   So  you  may,  for example, use NOMINAL just once,
              then  experiment  with  different  ACTUAL  values.   Loading  an
              element set (even reloading the same one) disables the effect of
              NOMINAL and ACTUAL.  Their values are still remembered, however,
              so  you  may  re-enable  the  adjustment  by  giving one or both
              commands.  The NOMINAL and ACTUAL arguments may be for any  time
              zone, as seesat5 cares only about their time difference.

       NULL   This  command  is  useful if you want to specify year, month day
              and time for the start/stop/span commands but don’t want  to  do
              the  RUN  command automatically. It can save specifying repeated
              information on every line of your parameters.

                  Example :
                  open my.tle span 720 null
                  start 1993 oct 01 1900 runall
                  start 1993 oct 02 1900 runall

       OFFSET <time>
              Applies an offset  to  the  epoch  of  the  satellite  elements,
              thereby   making  the  satellite  come  early  or  late  in  the
              predictions.  Useful for putting a satellite ahead of or  behind
              schedule,  to evaluate the resulting track drift with respect to
              the stars.  Also can be used to adjust for any discrepancy noted
              between  predicted  and actual times of passes.  A negative sign
              is allowed on <time>.  A negative <time> will make the effective
              epoch  EARLIER,  and  make  the  satellite  come EARLIER in your
              predictions.  If OFFSET is nonzero, an advisory of its value  is
              printed at the top of each prediction table.  OFFSET is reset to
              zero when an element set is loaded.

       OPEN <filename>
              Opens the orbital element file.  If an element file  is  already
              open, that file will be closed first.OPEN builds an index of the
              satellites in the file, using linked blocks in RAM.  Each  block
              holds  50  satellites.   Storage  is  requested as needed at run
              time, so the size  of  the  element  file  is  limited  only  by
              available  memory.   Assuming  your system uses 4-byte longs and
              2-byte pointers, each 50-satellite  block  uses  1352  bytes.The
              index  only  contains the name of the satellite and its location
              in the file.  The elements are not read from the disk until  you
              issue the LOAD or NEXT command.

              This  command  requires  a  file name parameter that will open a
              STANDARD DELIMITED FILE with that name. The file  format  is  as

                  1st. record
                  "satellite","date","time", ...

                  2nd. record thru EOF
                  satellite name

              This  a  value that has a default of 60 minutes. This is used in
              the RUNTIME mode to determine how  long  to  keep  a  satellites
              above  horizon  values  in  memory  before  they  are deemed un-
              useable. The way the RUNTIME  mode  works  is  that  it  does  a
              prediction  for  a  satellite.  If  that  satellite is above the
              horizon at a particular time, that  time  is  saved  in  memory.
              When  the satellites other attributes (elevation, magnitude etc)
              are checked and they pass the conditions, the stored time values
              are  used to start printing the prediction run. If the satellite
              never satisfied the selection conditions, then after 60  minutes
              has  passed,  the  stored  time  values are reset. This prevents
              misleading prediction data being printed.

       PARA <date time>
              Print the parallactic angle at the  predicted  position  of  the
              satellite   for  the  given  time.   Parallactic  angle  is  the
              direction of celestial north, as seen in a  binocular  field  of
              view.   E.g.,  0  =  straight  up, 90 = 3 o’clock.  This command
              allows you to examine your star atlas  plot  and  visualize  the
              star field orientation you’ll see when you go outside.

       PRECESS <date time>
              Controls  the  correction of Right Ascension and declination for
              precession.  PRECESS sets the final epoch.   The  epoch  of  the
              elements  is  always  used  as the initial epoch.  For 1950.0 or
              2000.0 coordinates, respectively:

                  PRECESS 1950 JAN 0 2210
                  PRECESS 2000 JAN 1 1200

              These are Greenwich times, so, strictly  speaking,  the  PRECESS
              command  should  be  given  before  setting  ZONE.   But for all
              practical purposes it doesn’t matter.   Precession  is  so  slow
              there  will  be  virtually  no  error even if you miss by a full
              year.  Over several decades, though,  it  will  build  up  to  a
              significant level.  For example, if your atlas is 1950.0 and you
              neglect the PRECESS command, an error of up to  42  arc  minutes
              can  occur in your plot of a satellite’s track.  This is perhaps
              four or five times worse than SEESAT’s prediction accuracy under
              good  conditions!  The PRECESS value remains until you change it
              or exit SEESAT.  Default setting is 2000.0 at program startup.

              This will run the current parameters  and  conditions  for  each
              satellite  in  the  TLE  file,  and  display  results whenever a
              satellites  data  passes  the  selection  conditions.  It   then
              increments  the  time  by  1  minute  and re-runs the prediction
              again. This will continue forever or until a key is pressed.

              The START command must be done first to setup the date and  time
              at  which  the prediction starts. This is the raw data generator
              for the realtime graphical display and also gives  you  in  time
              order, the satellites you may be able to see.

       PRINT? If  the  last  prediction  run  resulted in a line of data being
              printed, execute the command to the right of PRINT?.  Otherwise,
              skip it.  There must be at least one command after PRINT?.

              This  command  is  used  to  limit  the number lines printed per
              satellite prediction when  running  in  the  RUNTIME  mode.  The
              reason  you  may want limit the lines printed is because of very
              slow moving or stationery satellites. The RUNTIME mode  normally
              prints  prediction  data  until  the  satellite  dips  below the
              horizon. Of course, some satellites never dip below the  horizon
              so  end  up  with either a lot of prediction data or the program
              just keeps printing the data forever.  I  had  coded  a  default
              value  for  the printlimit of 60 lines. This default is fine for
              most regular runs, but for some special  purpose  runs  you  may
              want to change it.

       RET    If  encountered  in  a  batch file, returns control to user.  If
              entered manually, resumes execution of the batch file.

       REPEAT Jump back to beginning of command line.

       REPORT This command is used to suppress printing  of  lines  that  come
              from  the SEESAT5.INI file. It requires a 0 or 1 as a parameter.
              The default is to suppress (value 0). If you  want  to  see  all
              command  lines and messages printed, set the report option to 1.
              Messages like "complete; nn satellites  found"  are  suppressed.
              More  message  may  be suppressed by this command in the furure.
              This just helps to ’clean’ the output to  just  the  interesting
              satellite data.

       RUN    Begin  a prediction run, using the current time parameters.  The
              START, STOP, CENTER, SPAN, or STEP command automatically  begins
              a  run  if  it  is  at the end of the command line.  That is the
              normal way to get a run.  The RUN command is convenient if,  for
              example,  you  load  a  new  element  set and want a run without
              changing time parameters.

       RUNALL This command is almost a combination  of  OPEN,  NEXT,  RUN  and
              REPEAT.  It  takes  no  parameter  values  or filenames. It will
              reposition the current TLE files pointer to BOF, read thru  each
              two  line element set, do the RUN command on it and repeat until
              all elements in the file have been read. The difference  between
              this command and the commands it replaces, is that it carries on
              processing the next input command after all  two  line  elements
              have  been processed. The NEXT RUN REPEAT commands unfortunately
              stops the entire run as soon  as  it  reaches  the  end  of  the
              elements  file.  I use this to generate a list of all satellites
              that I can see each day for the whole of the month!

                  Example :
                  open my.tle
                  start 1993 oct 01 1900 span 720 runall
                  start 1993 oct 18 1900 span 720 runall
                  start 1993 oct 31 1900 span 720 runall


       RUNDBS Like RUNTIME but only runs the satellites in your database.  You
              can  still  do  RUNALL  or  RUNTIME  any  time  to  run  all the
              satellites loaded with your last OPEN.

              This runs prediction in time order. This produces the exact same
              output  data  as  the RUN command except it is in time order. It
              does however  take  a  little  longer  to  run.  The  processing
              involved  in  this  command  is  to  run through every satellite
              looking  for  a  satellite  that  is  above  the  horizon  at  a
              particalur  instance. The instances starts at the start time and
              continues until the stop time is exceeded with an  increment  of
              the step.

              When  a satellite is found that is above the horizon and it also
              satifies the selection conditions, its data is printed until  it
              dips  below the horizon. At that time the printing stops and the
              next satellite in the input TLE file is processed.

              For Geo Stationary satellites  the  parameter  PRINTLIMIT  comes
              into  play.  This allows you to stop the printing of data when a
              certain number of lines have been printed. If this  command  was
              not  present,  the  data  print  would  print  forever if a geo-
              stationary satellite ever passed all the selection conditions.

              This command requires NO parameter,  it  just  closes  the  last
              opened SDF file.

       SKIP   Skip  the  command  to  the immediate right of SKIP.  To be used
              following PRINT?, to reverse the test.  There must be  at  least
              one command after SKIP.

       SPAN   Followed by a time in minutes, this command determins the length
              of the data run. When used with  the  CENTER  command  the  time
              value is centered on this time.

       START  Defines  the  start time for the run. Requires a date and a time
              as parameters.

       STEP <time>
              Controls size of time steps in the prediction run in minutes.  A
              run  begins  automatically  if  STEP  is the last command on the

       STOP   Defines the stop time for the run. If only a time is  specified,
              the  start  date  will  be  used.  Accepts  a date and a time as

              These commands require an integer and a  time.  The  integer  is
              when  you  want to stop (start) the prediction in number of days
              from today, followed by a time that you want  to  stop  (start).
              Just  for  consistency,  the  TODAY  command  can  now  also  be
              specified as STARTDAY.

              This command will show a selected summary data  about  the  last
              TLE  file  that  you  OPENed. At present it shows the satellites
              that have the earliest and latest epoch dates.

       SUN <date time>
              Print the azimuth & elevation of the sun at the given time.

       TODAY  This commands automatically sets up todays date as  the  default
              START  date. The command must be followed by a number indicating
              how many days you want to add to the system date  as  the  START
              value.  This number may be zero or an integer number of days.

                  Example :
                  OPEN NASA.TLE
                  TODAY +0 1700 STOP 2300 RUNALL
                  TODAY +1 0400 STOP 0800 RUNALL

              gives tonight and tomorrow mornings satellite viewing data. This
              command was implemented because it  saves  changing  SEESAT5.INI
              every  day  to run nightly and morning predictions.  You can set
              up the similar parameters as the  example  above,  depending  on
              when you do your regular/daily prediction run.

       ZONE <time>
              Set  timezone to that at the viewing location in UTC. A negative
              sign is permitted.  E.g., for Pacific Standard Time:

                  ZONE -800  or
                  ZONE -0800

              The ZONE value need not be an integral number  of  hours,  e.g.,
              Newfoundland standard time is 3h 30m behind UTC:

                  ZONE -330

              Default ZONE at program startup is Greenwich time.

       The  following  commands are used for entering orbital elements when no
       tle file is available for the satellite in question.

       AOP <number>
              Number represents the argument of the perigee.

       B <number>
              Number represent the BSTAR value.

       E <number>
              Number specifies the eccentricity of the orbit

       EPOCH <epoch>
              Manually enter epoch of the orbital elements.  Must be in  NORAD
              format:   YYDDD.DDD...  (use  any  number  of  decimal  places).
              Unused digits in the integer part of day number must  be  padded
              with  spaces  or  zeros.   If  spaces  are used for padding, the
              number must be enclosed in quotes.

                  EPOCH 91003.52029891    or
                  EPOCH "91  3.52029891"

       I <number>
              The number stands for the inclination of the orbit.

       MA <number>
              This number specifies the mean anomaly.

       MM <number>
              Mean motion is determined by the value of number.

       MMDOT <number>
              This number represents the first derivative of the mean  motion.
              Note:  this  value is not used in the SPG4 model used by seesat5
              and is only retained for compatability with the older SPG model

       MMDOTDOT <number>
              The second derivative of the mean motion is  specified  by  this
              number.  Note:  this value is not used in the SPG4 model used by
              seesat5 and is only retained for compatibility  with  the  older
              SPG model.

       NAME <satellite name>
              Satellite  name  will  appear  in  the  printout for the current
              element data being loaded by the above commands.

       RAAN <number>
              This number specifies the right ascension of the ascending node.


       seesat5(1), SEESAT5.INI(5), tle(5), cr(1)


       Many  of  the  above  commands  "do  not work well with others" so some
       unexpected behavior may result at times. Please  report  any  suspected
       bugs to Dale Scheetz <>.