Man Linux: Main Page and Category List


       INSERT - create new rows in a table


       INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
           { DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }
           [ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]


       INSERT  inserts new rows into a table.  One can insert one or more rows
       specified by value expressions, or zero or more rows resulting  from  a

       The  target  column  names  can  be  listed in any order. If no list of
       column names is given at all, the default is all  the  columns  of  the
       table  in  their  declared order; or the first N column names, if there
       are only N columns supplied by the VALUES clause or query.  The  values
       supplied by the VALUES clause or query are associated with the explicit
       or implicit column list left-to-right.

       Each column not present in the explicit or implicit column list will be
       filled  with a default value, either its declared default value or null
       if there is none.

       If the expression for any column is  not  of  the  correct  data  type,
       automatic type conversion will be attempted.

       The  optional  RETURNING  clause  causes  INSERT  to compute and return
       value(s) based on each row actually inserted.  This is primarily useful
       for  obtaining  values that were supplied by defaults, such as a serial
       sequence number. However, any expression using the table’s  columns  is
       allowed.  The  syntax of the RETURNING list is identical to that of the
       output list of SELECT.

       You must have INSERT privilege on a table in order to insert  into  it.
       If  a  column  list is specified, you only need INSERT privilege on the
       listed columns.  Use of the RETURNING clause requires SELECT  privilege
       on  all columns mentioned in RETURNING.  If you use the query clause to
       insert rows from a query, you of course need to have  SELECT  privilege
       on any table or column used in the query.


       table  The name (optionally schema-qualified) of an existing table.

       column The name of a column in table.  The column name can be qualified
              with a subfield name or array subscript, if  needed.  (Inserting
              into  only  some  fields  of a composite column leaves the other
              fields null.)

              All columns will be filled with their default values.

              An expression or value to assign to the corresponding column.

              The corresponding column will be filled with its default  value.

       query  A  query  (SELECT  statement)  that  supplies  the  rows  to  be
              inserted. Refer  to  the  SELECT  [select(7)]  statement  for  a
              description of the syntax.

              An  expression to be computed and returned by the INSERT command
              after each row is inserted. The expression can  use  any  column
              names  of  the  table.   Write  *  to  return all columns of the
              inserted row(s).

              A name to use for a returned column.


       On successful completion, an INSERT command returns a  command  tag  of
       the form

       INSERT oid count

       The  count is the number of rows inserted. If count is exactly one, and
       the target table has OIDs, then oid is the OID assigned to the inserted
       row. Otherwise oid is zero.

       If  the  INSERT command contains a RETURNING clause, the result will be
       similar to that of a SELECT statement containing the columns and values
       defined in the RETURNING list, computed over the row(s) inserted by the


       Insert a single row into table films:

           (’UA502’, ’Bananas’, 105, ’1971-07-13’, ’Comedy’, ’82 minutes’);

       In this example, the len column is omitted and therefore it  will  have
       the default value:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
           VALUES (’T_601’, ’Yojimbo’, 106, ’1961-06-16’, ’Drama’);

       This  example  uses the DEFAULT clause for the date columns rather than
       specifying a value:

           (’UA502’, ’Bananas’, 105, DEFAULT, ’Comedy’, ’82 minutes’);
       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
           VALUES (’T_601’, ’Yojimbo’, 106, DEFAULT, ’Drama’);

       To insert a row consisting entirely of default values:


       To insert multiple rows using the multirow VALUES syntax:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind) VALUES
           (’B6717’, ’Tampopo’, 110, ’1985-02-10’, ’Comedy’),
           (’HG120’, ’The Dinner Game’, 140, DEFAULT, ’Comedy’);

       This example inserts some rows into table films from a table  tmp_films
       with the same column layout as films:

       INSERT INTO films SELECT * FROM tmp_films WHERE date_prod < ’2004-05-07’;

       This example inserts into array columns:

       -- Create an empty 3x3 gameboard for noughts-and-crosses
       INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board[1:3][1:3])
           VALUES (1, ’{{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "}}’);
       -- The subscripts in the above example aren’t really needed
       INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board)
           VALUES (2, ’{{X," "," "},{" ",O," "},{" ",X," "}}’);

       Insert  a  single  row  into table distributors, returning the sequence
       number generated by the DEFAULT clause:

       INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname) VALUES (DEFAULT, ’XYZ Widgets’)
          RETURNING did;


       INSERT conforms to the SQL standard, except that the  RETURNING  clause
       is  a  PostgreSQL extension. Also, the case in which a column name list
       is omitted, but not all the columns are filled from the  VALUES  clause
       or query, is disallowed by the standard.

       Possible  limitations  of  the query clause are documented under SELECT