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       xmj, mj-server, mj-player - programs for playing Mah-Jong


       xmj [--id idnumber]
                [--server address]
                [--name playername]
                [--show-wall | --no-show-wall]
                [--size N]
                [--animate | --no-animate]
                [--tileset directory]
                [--tileset-path directory-path]
                [--dialogs-popup | --dialogs-below | --dialogs-central]
                [--use-system-gtkrc | --no-use-system-gtkrc]
                [--gtk2-rcfile file]

       mj-server [--server address]  [--timeout seconds]
                [--pause deciseconds]
                [--random-seats | --id-order-seats]
                [--disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3]
                [--option-file file]
                [--load-game file]
                [--auth-basic id:password]*4
                [--logfile file]
                [--seed N]
                [--wallfile filefP]

       mj-player [--id idnumber] [--name playername]
                [--server address] [--password password]
                [strategy options]


       A  set  of  three  programs  to  play Mah-Jong on Unix systems, against
       people or programs, over the Internet.

              is the program that handles communications and  control  of  the
              game;  the  rules and scoring are enforced there. Players, human
              or computer, connect to a server via the network.

              is a computer player.  At  present,  it  is  fairly  simplistic,
              having  only  offensive  tactics  with no knowledge of defensive

       xmj    is the X client for human players.


       If you don’t want to read this long document: to start a  game  against
       three  computer players, start xmj, select "New local game..." from the
       "Game" menu, and click  "Start  Game".  (Wait  about  ten  seconds  for
       everything to start up.)


   All Programs
       --server address
              specifies the network address to listen on (for mj-server) or to
              connect to (for mj-player  and  xmj).   If  address  contains  a
              colon, it specifies an Internet socket, and should have the form
              host:port  .  If  address  does  not  contain  a  colon,  it  is
              interpreted  as a Unix file name and a Unix socket is used.  The
              default value for address is  localhost:5000 .  address can also
              be set in a dialog box in xmj.

   xmj and mj-player
       --id idnumber
              The  server assigns a unique integer ID (which is currently just
              1 to 4 in order of connection) to each player. This ID should be
              quoted  when  reconnecting  to  a  game  in progress (after, for
              example, losing a network  connection  or  accidentally  killing
              xmj). The default ID is 0, which denotes no pre-assigned ID.

       --name name
              Players  can  give themselves names which will be used by client
              programs. This option specifies the name. For xmj,  the  default
              is  the  value  of  the environment variable LOGNAME, or failing
              that the username of the logged  in  user.  For  mj-player,  the
              default is "Robot(PID)" where PID is the process id.

              By  default, xmj does not automatically connect to a server, but
              waits for the user to connect via a  menu.  If  this  option  is
              specified, xmj immediately connects.

              Tells  xmj  (not)  to  display the wall. By default, the wall is
              shown only if running on a big enough  screen.  This  option  is
              also controllable via the Display Options preference panel.

       --size number
              This  option  adjusts  the size of the main window. It should be
              thought of as the length of a tile rack, measured in tiles.  The
              default,  and  the largest value accepted, is 19, or 18 if on an
              800x600 display. The smallest usable value is 14. This option is
              also controllable via the Display Options preference panel.
              If  the  --show-wall  option  is given, a --size smaller than 19
              will have no effect.

              This option switches on  (off)  some  animation.  Not  all  tile
              movements  are animated: only those that involve moving tiles to
              or from a hand from outside. This option  is  also  controllable
              via the Display Options preference panel.

       --tileset directory
              xmj  needs  pixmaps to display the tiles and the tong box.  This
              option tells it which directory to find them in.  The default is
              set  at  compilation  time;  the  default  default is to use the
              compiled-in tiles.

       --tileset-path directory-path
              This  gives  a  colon-separated  (or  semicolon-separated  under
              Microsoft  Windows) list of directories in which to look for the
              directory named by the --tileset option.

              By default, most of the dialog boxes for player actions are part
              of  the  main  window. If this option is used, they will instead
              appear as separate transient windows.

              By default, dialog boxes appear in the centre of the table.   If
              this  option  is  given,  dialogs  (apart  from some popups) are
              positioned below the table area. Please let me know which  style
              you prefer!

              The  default:  dialog  boxes  appear in the middle of the table.
              These options are also  controllable  via  the  Display  Options
              preference panel.

       --gtk2-rcfile file
              If  xmj  is  compiled with GTK+2, this option specifies a GTK rc
              file to be used instead of the program’s compiled-in style file.
              This  may  be  used to change the appearance of the program. See
              description under the Display Options... panel for more details.
              The  file  should be an absolute filename; if it is relative, it
              will be sought in the current directory (Unix)  or  the  program
              directory  (Windows).  This  option is also controllable via the
              Display Options preference panel.

              When xmj is compiled with  GTK+2,  by  default  it  ignores  the
              system  provided  settings,  to  ensure  a  consistent behaviour
              across systems.  If you wish it to use your system settings, set
              this  option.   This option is also controllable via the Display
              Options preference panel.

              If this option is given, xmj  will  echo  to   stdout   all  the
              protocol  messages  received from the server. This option is for
              use in debugging.

              If this option is given, xmj will send any text given  on  stdin
              to the server. This option is for use in debugging.

              If  this  option  is given, xmj will send requests to the server
              only in direct response to user actions; it will take no  action
              itself  (and  hence  all  auto-declaring  and  playing  is  also
              disabled). This option is for use in debugging.

       --timeout seconds
              When a discard is made, there is a limit  on  the  time  players
              have  to claim it. This option sets the timeout; a value of zero
              disables it. The default is 15 seconds.
              This value can also be set  via  a  GameOption  request  from  a

       --pause deciseconds
              This  will  make  the  server  enforce a delay of deciseconds/10
              seconds between each action in the game; the purpose is to  slow
              programmed  players  down  to  human  speed  (or,  in a teaching
              situation, to slow the  game  even  more).  The  current  server
              considers  that  50  (i.e.  5 seconds) is the maximum reasonable
              value for this option.  The option  can  also  be  requested  by
              players, via a PlayerOption protocol request.

              By  default,  players  are  seated in order of connection to the
              server. This option seats them  randomly.  It  will  become  the
              default later.

              This  option  causes the players to be seated in numerical order
              of their ids. It is used by the xmj  program  to  make  the  New
              local game..  work as expected.

       --disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3
              This specifies the penalties applied by the following option for
              players who disconnect before the end  of  a  game.  N1  is  the
              penalty for disconnecting in the middle of a hand; N2 at the end
              of a hand but in the middle of a round; N3 at the end of a round
              (other  than  end  of  game).  They  all  default  to  0  if not

              If this option is given, a  disconnection  by  one  player  will
              gracefully  terminate the game. Mid-hand, the hand is declared a
              wash-out; after Mah-Jong has been declared,  then  if  a  losing
              player  disconnects,  their tiles are shown, the hand is scored,
              and then the game ends; if a  winning  player  disconnects,  the
              hand  is  a wash-out. The disconnecting player may be assigned a
              penalty, according to the --disconnect-penalties  option,  which
              will  be  included in the scores printed out by the server. (The
              penalties will not be visible to the other players.)

              If this option is given, the server  will  quit  if  any  player
              disconnects,  rather than waiting indefinitely for reconnection.

              If this option is given, the server will save the state  of  the
              game if it quits as a result of a player disconnecting. (It will
              not save the state if it quits as  the  result  of  an  internal

       --option-file file
              This  names a file of protocol commands which will be applied to
              every game when it starts. Its  main  purpose  is  to  set  non-
              default  game options, via the GameOption protocol message (note
              that this is a CMsg, not a PMsg). However, users  will  normally
              set  options  and  preferences via the xmj control panel, not by
              this means.

       --load-game file
              This names a  file  containing  a  saved  game  (as  a  suitable
              sequence  of  protocol commands). The server will load the game;
              clients connecting will be treated as if they  had  disconnected
              and rejoined the game.

              In  the  most  common  case of resuming a saved game, namely one
              human playing against three robots, the robots will not have the
              same  names  or  ids  as  the  robots in the original game. This
              option tells the server that if it cannot match  a  reconnecting
              player  by  id  or name, it should anyway match it to one of the
              previously  disconnected  players.  (In  this  case,  the  human
              normally  connects  first  with  the  same name, so is correctly

              Usually, the first player to connect becomes the  game  manager,
              and  can  change all the game settings. If this option is given,
              no player will be allowed to change the game settings.

       --auth-basic id:password
              This provides basic (insecure, since the password is transmitted
              in plaintext) authorization: the player with id id must give the
              specified password to connect. Note that  if  this  argument  is
              given,  it  must  be  given four times, once for each authorized
              player - any player id not mentioned  will  not  be  allowed  to
              connect.  A  player may be allowed to connect without a password
              by making password empty.

              This enables  various  debugging  features.  In  particular,  it
              enables  protocol commands that allow one to change the tiles in
              a hand...

       --logfile file
              The server will write a complete record of  the  game  to  file;
              this  will  be  quite  large,  and  is only useful for automatic
              comparison of different computer players.

              This option suppresses the scoring of  points  and  doubles  for
              flowers  and seasons. It is primarily intended for running tests
              of different players; for human  use,  a  game  option  will  be
              provided to eliminate the specials altogether.

       --seed n
              This  option specifies the seed for the random number functions.
              Used for repeatable tests.

       --wallfile file
              This names a file containing space separated tile  codes  giving
              the  wall; used for repeatable tests. (This is a testing option;
              it is not robust.)

              This is an option to facilitate certain automatic  analyses;  if
              set,  a history of each hand is dumped to the file hand-NN.mjs .

              Another option only used in  automatic  comparison:  this  saves
              some  CPU  time  by disabling the book-keeping required to allow
              players to disconnect and reconnect.

       --password password
              sets the password if basic authorization is in use.

       strategy options
              The player has some options which can  be  used  to  change  its
              "personality".  The  meanings are rather approximate, since they
              actually change parameters which are used in  a  rather  complex
              way, but the idea is right. These options, each of which takes a
              floating point value in the given range, are:

       --chowness -1.0 .. 1.0
              This affects how much the player likes chows: at 1.0, it will go
              all  out  for  the chicken hand, at -1.0 it will never chow. The
              default is 0.0.

       --hiddenness 0.0 .. 1.0
              Increasing this makes the player reluctant to make exposed sets.
              At  1.0,  it  will never claim (except possibly to go mah-jong).
              The default is 0.0.

       --majorness 0.0 .. 1.0
              Increasing this  biases  the  player  towards  collecting  major
              tiles. At 1.0, it will discard all minor tiles, if possible. The
              default is 0.0.

       --suitness 0.0 .. 1.0
              Increasing this makes the player try to go for  one-suit  hands.
              The default is 0.0

       In  practice,  the  --majorness option seems not to be very useful, but
       the other options change the personality without completely  destroying
       the playing ability.

       In fact, all these options take a comma-separated list of values, which
       allows the specifications of a set of strategies, which the player will
       switch between. In this case, the --hysteresis hhh option specifies how
       much better a strategy should be to switch to it. However, use of  this
       option,  and  multiple strategies, is probably only useful if you first
       read the code to see how it works.


       The main window contains a menu-bar and a table area; the table is in a
       tasteful  shade of dark green. The table displays a stylized version of
       the game: stylized in that there is no jazzy graphics  or  perspective,
       and  the  tiles are not intended to be pictures of real objects, and so
       on. Otherwise, the layout is as  one  would  expect  of  a  real  game.
       However,  the  wall  may  or  may not be displayed, depending on option
       settings and screen size. (See above.)

       Specifically, the four players are arranged around the  four  edges  of
       the  table,  with  "us"  at  the bottom. For each player, the concealed
       tiles are displayed nearest the edge of the table; our  own  tiles  are
       visible,  the  other  players’  tiles  are  face-down.  In front of the
       concealed tiles are (to the player’s left) any declared sets,  and  (to
       the player’s right) flowers and seasons, and the tong box if the player
       is East. The tong box displays the wind of the round in a white circle.
       If  necessary, the flowers and seasons will overflow into the concealed

       The discards are displayed face-up in the middle of the board: they are
       laid  down  in  order by each player, in the natural orientation. TODO:
       add options to display discards randomly, or face-down.   If  animation
       (see  --animate option) is not being used, then the most recent discard
       will be highlighted in red.

       The name of a face-up tile can be displayed by  right-clicking  in  the
       tile.  Alternatively,  the Tiletips display option can be set, in which
       case the name of a tile is displayed whenever the mouse enters it.

       Our tiles are displayed in sorted order, which happens  to  be  Bamboos
       (1-9),  Characters  (1-9),  Circles (1-9), Winds (ESWN), Dragons (RWG),
       Flowers, Seasons. We can also arrange the tiles  ourselves  -  see  the
       "Sort tiles in hand" display preference described below.

       Actions  are generally carried out by clicking a button in a dialog box
       that appears in the middle of the board. For many actions, a tile  must
       be  selected.  A  tile is selected or unselected by single-clicking it;
       when selected, it appears as a  depressed  button.   The  program  will
       generally pre-select a sensible tile: specifically:
       during  the initial declaration of special tiles, the rightmost special
       is selected;
       after we draw a tile from the wall, the drawn tile is selected;
       when  declaring  concealed  sets  after  going  Mah  Jong,  the   first
       undeclared tile is selected.

       To  describe  the  possible actions, let us run through the course of a

       First select "New local game..." from the "Game"  menu.  A  panel  will
       appear. The default options are to play a game against the computer, so
       click "Start Game".  After a second or two, a game will  start.  (NOTE:
       this  assumes  correct  installation. If this fails, start a server and
       players manually, and use the "Join server..." menu item.)

       The first thing that happens is a  dialog  box  "Ready  to  start  next
       hand".  The server will not start playing a hand until all players have
       indicated their willingness to continue play.

       Next, the tiles are dealt. Then each player  in  turn  is  expected  to
       declare  flowers and seasons. When it is our turn, a dialog will appear
       with the following buttons:

              declare the selected flower or season. (Note: the program  auto-
              selects  the  rightmost  special tile.)  If no tile is selected,
              this finishes declarations.  This button will not appear if  the
              game is being played without flowers and seasons.

       Kong   If  we  have  a  concealed kong, we can declare it now with this

       Finish Finish declaring specials and kongs.

       When all players have finished declaring specials and kongs,  a  dialog
       box appears, asking (on East’s behalf) permission to continue.

       During  play,  when  we  draw  a  tile  from the wall, it will be auto-
       selected. We may also of course select a different tile.  A dialog will
       appear giving us the following possibilities:

              discard  the selected tile. This button also serves to declare a
              flower or season, and the label changes to "Declare" when one is

              discard  the  selected  tile  and  declare a calling hand.  This
              button is only shown when calling is allowed (by  default,  only
              Original Call is allowed).

       Kong   declare  a  concealed  kong  of  the  selected  tile, or add the
              selected tile to an exposed pung, as appropriate

       Mah Jong!
              declare Mah Jong! (no selection needed)

       If the wall is not being shown, the dialog  will  note  the  number  of
       tiles left in the live wall.

       A tile can also be discarded simply by double-clicking it.

       When another player discards, a dialog appears to allow us to claim it.
       If the dialogs are in the middle of the table, the dialog displays  the
       tile  in  a  position  and  orientation  to  indicate  the  player  who
       discarded; if the dialogs are at the bottom, this is not done, to  save
       space.   In  any  case  the  dialog  displays the name of the tile, and
       buttons for the possible claims. (Note: in  the  default  case,  it  is
       possibly  confusing  that  the  discarded  tile can be seen both on the
       table and in the dialog box. Opinions are sought on  this  point.)   If
       the  wall  is not being shown, the dialog will note the number of tiles
       left in the live wall.  Note: there appear to be subtle  bugs  in  GTK,
       which  mean  that  sometimes  the  name  of  the  tile  does not appear
       properly. I have completely failed to track this down; if  it  happens,
       just  iconify (that’s minimize in Windoze-speak) the window and open it
       again.  There is also a ‘progress bar’ which shows how time is  running
       out.   The  buttons use one variant of traditional English terminology,

       No claim
              we don’t claim this tile. If there is no timeout  in  operation,
              it  is  necessary to click this to indicate a "pass", and in any
              case it is desirable to speed up play.

       Chow   claim for a sequence.  If our claim is successful and  there  is
              more than one possible sequence to be made, a dialog will appear
              asking us to specify which one.

       Pung   claim for a triplet.

       Kong   claim for quadruplet.

       Mah Jong!
              claim for Mah Jong.  If the claim succeeds, a  dialog  box  will
              appear  asking  whether  we  want  the  tile for "Eyes", "Chow",
              "Pung", or a "Special Hand" (such as Thirteen  Unique  Wonders).
              (The term "Eyes" is used instead of "Pair" so that when keyboard
              accelerators are implemented, E  is  different  from  P!  Is  it
              better to stick to "Pair"?)

       When  a player (including us) claims, the word "Chow!" etc. will appear
       (in big letters on a yellow background, if things are correctly set up;
       please  tell  me  if this doesn’t happen) for a couple of seconds above
       the player’s tiles.

       When all players have claimed, or timed out, the  successful  claim  is
       implemented;  no  additional  announcement  is made of this. (Should it

       If a player adds a tile to an exposed pung, and that tile would give us
       Mah  Jong,  then a dialog box pops up to ask whether we wish to rob the

       After somebody goes Mah Jong, we are asked  to  declare  our  concealed
       sets.  A  dialog  appears  with  buttons for "Eyes", "Chow", "Pung". To
       declare a set, select a tile, which must be the first tile in  the  set
       for  a  chow,  and  click  the appropriate button. (If we are going Mah
       Jong, the first undeclared tile is auto-selected.) When finished, click
       "Finished"  to  reveal the remaining tiles to the other players.  If we
       are the winner, there will be a button for "Special Hand": this is used
       to  declare  hands  of  non-standard  shape,  such  as  Thirteen Unique
       Wonders. (Note: the Seven Pairs hand, if in use, should be declared  by
       means of the "Eyes" button, not the "Special Hand" button.)

       At  this  point,  a new top-level window appears to display the scoring
       information. The scoring is done entirely by the  server,  not  by  the
       players;  the server sends a text description of the score calculation,
       and this is displayed for each  player  in  the  Scoring  window.   The
       information  in the Scoring window remains there until the next hand is
       scored; the window can be brought up at any time via the "Show" menu.

       Finally, the "continue with next hand" dialog appears.  The  hand  just
       completed  will remain visible on the table until the next hand starts.

       Keyboard Accelerators
       There are keyboard accelerators for all the actions in  the  course  of
       play. For selecting tiles, the Left and Right arrow keys can be used to
       move the selection left or  right  along  the  row  of  tiles.  In  all
       dialogs,  Space  or  Return will activate the shadowed button, which is
       usually the commonest choice. Each button  can  also  be  activated  by
       typing  the  underlined letter. (In the Windows GTK1 build, use l (ell)
       and r instead of Left and Right. The button accelerators do  not  work,
       for reasons unknown to me.)
       The  menus  are also accessible via accelerators. To open a menu, press
       Meta-X (Alt-X on Windows), where X is the underlined letter in the menu
       name.  (Meta-X  is  often  (confusingly) Alt-X on Linux systems.)  Then
       each entry has an underlined letter which if pressed will activate  it.

       An  additional  top-level  window  showing the state of the game can be
       obtained by selecting "Game info" from the "Show" menu.

       There is also a  facility  for  sending  text  messages  to  the  other
       players.  Select  "Messages"  from  the  "Show" menu, and a window will
       appear: in the top is a display of all messages sent, and  below  is  a
       single  line  in which you can enter your message. It will be sent when
       you hit Return. The message window pops  up  automatically  whenever  a
       message  is  received, unless prevented by a display preference. If the
       "Display status and messages in main window"  display  option  is  set,
       then  this  window  will  instead  appear in the main window, above the
       table. In that case, there is a checkbox "Keep cursor here" next to the
       message  entry  line.  Checking  this box will ensure that the keyboard
       focus stays in the message entry field, even when you click on  buttons
       in  the  game.  (Consequently,  you  will  be  unable  to  use keyboard
       accelerators while this option is checked.)

   Starting games and re-connecting
       The "Game" menu has the "New local game..." item to start a new game on
       your  local  computer,  and  the "Join server..." item to connect to an
       existing game. The dialogs for both these have the following entries:

       Checkboxes for Internet/Unix server
              These specify whether the server is  listening  on  an  Internet
              socket  or  a Unix socket. If an Internet (TCP) socket, the host
              name ("Join Game..." only) and port number should be entered  in
              the  appropriate  boxes;  if a Unix socket, the file name of the
              socket should be entered.  These fields are remembered from game
              to game.

       "Player ID" and "Name" fields
              The  "Player  ID" should be left at 0, unless reconnecting to an
              existing game, in which case it should be the ID assigned by the
              server on first connecting to that game. The "Name" field can be
              anything. When reconnecting to an existing game, if  the  ID  is
              given  as  0,  the server will try to use the "Name" to identify
              the player. (This may not be true in future.) The  "Name"  field
              is remembered from game to game.

       The  "Join  server..."  dialog  then  simply  has a "Connect" button to
       establish the connection. The "New local  game..."  has  the  following

       For each of three further players,
              A  checkbox to say whether to start a computer player. (Some of)
              these should be unchecked if you wish other humans to  join  the
              games.   If  checked,  there is a text entry to set the players’
              names, and a text entry field in which options can be  given  to
              the  players;  the  latter should only be used if you understand
              the options!

       An "allow disconnection" checkbox
              If this is checked, the server that is started will continue  to
              run even if players disconnect. If it is not checked, the server
              will quit if any player disconnects.  If  you  are  playing  one
              against  the  computer, this should generally be left unchecked,
              in order to avoid server processes accidentally being left lying
              around.  If  playing  against  people,  it should be checked, to
              allow players to go away, or to guard against network outages.

       As "save game state on exit" checkbox
              If this is checked, the server will save  the  game  state  (see
              below on on saving and resuming games) when a player disconnects
              and causes it to quit.

       A "seat players randomly" checkbox
              If this is left unchecked, players will be initially  seated  as
              East,  South,  West,  North  in  order of connection. (We always
              connect first.)  If it is checked, the seating will be random.

       A numeric entry field
              to specify the time limit for claiming discards.  If set  to  0,
              there will be no time limit.

       A button to start the game
              Note  that  it takes a few seconds to start a game, during which
              time the dialog stays up with the  button  pressed.  (TODO:  fix

   Saving and resuming games
       At  any time during the play of a game, you can choose the "Save" entry
       from the "Game" menu. This causes the server to save the current  state
       of the game in a file. The file will be named game-date.mjs by default;
       if a name has previously been specified, or if  the  game  was  resumed
       from  a  file, that name will be used. To specify a name, use the "Save
       as..." entry in the "Game" menu. Note that  for  security,  directories
       cannot  be  specified  (except by resuming a game), so the file will be
       created in the working directory of the server.

       To resume a saved game, use the "Resume game..." entry from the  "Game"
       menu. This is just like the "New local game..." panel, but it has a box
       to specify the file containing the saved game.  At  present,  you  must
       type  the  name  of  the  file into this box. TODO find a file selector
       widget for this.

   Setting display and game options
       The "Options" menu of xmj brings  up  panels  to  set  various  options
       related  to  the  display and to the game rules.  Most of these options
       can be stored in the preferences file, which is  .xmjrc  in  your  home
       directory  on  Unix,  and  xmj.ini  in  your home (whatever that means)
       directory on Microsoft Windows.

   Display Options
       This panel controls options related  to  the  local  display.   At  the
       bottom are three buttons: "Save & Apply" applies changes and saves them
       in the preferences file for future sessions; "Apply (no save)"  applies
       any  changes,  but  does not save them; "Cancel" ignores changes.  Note
       that many display  options  can  also  be  controlled  by  command-line
       arguments;  if  an option is specified both in the preferences file and
       on the command line, the command line takes priority.

       Position of action dialogs.
              This determines where the dialogs for user actions in  the  game
              are popped up; see the description of the --dialogs-central etc.
              options above. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display DialogPosition posn
              where posn is one of "central", "below" or "popup".

              determines  whether  tile  movements  are  animated   (see   the
              --animate   option   above).   This  option  is  stored  in  the
              preferences file as
              Display Animate bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Display status and messages in main window
              puts the game status and message  (chat)  windows  in  the  main
              window,  above  the  table,  instead  of  having  separate popup
              windows. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display InfoInMain bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Don’t popup scoring/message windows
              will prevent the automatic popup of the scoring  window  at  the
              end  of  a hand, the message window on the arrival of a message,
              and the game status window at the end of the game.  This  option
              is stored in the preferences file as
              Display NoPopups bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Tiletips always shown
              means  that  the  name of a tile is displayed whenever the mouse
              enters it, and the name of the selected tile  is  always  shown.
              (Otherwise,  right-click  to  display  the name.) This option is
              stored in the preferences file as
              Display Tiletips bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Display size
              This drop-down list specifies the size of the display. The  size
              should  be thought of as the length of a tile rack. This is only
              relevant if the wall is not being displayed. Values  range  from
              14  to  19;  if  "(auto)" (the default) is specified, the client
              tries to choose a size as big as will fit in the  display.  This
              option  can  also  be  specified  by  the  command  line  --size
              argument. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display Size n

       Show the wall
              "always" is equivalent to the  --show-wall  option;  "never"  is
              equivalent  to the --no-show-wall option; and "when room" is the
              default. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display ShowWall when
              where when is one of "always", "when-room" or "never".

       Sort tiles in hand
              By default, the program  maintains  your  own  tiles  in  sorted
              order.   If  you  prefer  to leave them unsorted (which is often
              recommended in real life, to avoid giving  information  to  your
              opponents), or to arrange them yourself, you can set this option
              to "never", or to "on deal" if you want them to be sorted at the
              beginning,  but  then  left  alone.  To rearrange tiles, use the
              Shift-Left and Shift-Right (i.e. the left and right  arrow  keys
              while  holding  Shift)  -  these  move the selected tile left or
              right in your hand. (In the Windows GTK1 build, use L  (Shift-l)
              and  R  (Shift-r)  instead.) On GTK2 builds, you can also drag a
              tile to its new position with the mouse.  This option is  stored
              in the preferences file as
              Display SortTiles when
              where when is one of "always", "deal" or "never".

       Iconify all windows with main
              If  this  option  is  set  (the default), then when the main xmj
              window is iconified, (almost) all other  open  windows  such  as
              dialogs  will  also  be  iconified;  when  the  main  window  is
              uniconified, the other windows will also be uniconified.  If  it
              is  not  set,  all  windows are independent of one another. This
              option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display IconifyDialogs bool
              This option is not currently supported under Microsoft  Windows.

              this  is  the tile pixmap directory, also given by the --tileset
              option. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display Tileset dirname

       Tileset Path
              this is the search path for tileset directories, also  given  by
              the   --tileset-path  option.  This  option  is  stored  in  the
              preferences file as
              Display TilesetPath search-path

       Main font selection...
              This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
              used  in  buttons,  menus,  etc.  in  the client. This option is
              stored in the preferences file as
              Display MainFont font-name
              where font-name is a font name, which may be an  X  LFD  in  the
              Unix GTK+1 version, or a Pango font name in the Windows and Unix
              GTK+2 versions.

       Text font selection...
              This button brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font
              used  in  text  display  (such  as scoring info and chat) in the
              client. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display TextFont font-name

       Table colour selection...
              Unaccountably, not everybody likes my choice of dark  green  for
              the  table  background. This button brings up a colour selection
              box to allow the table  colour  to  be  changed.This  option  is
              stored in the preferences file as
              Display TableColour col
              where  col  is a GTK colour specification. The format depends on
              whether xmj is built with GTK+1 - in which case it is an X color
              of  the form rgb:RRRR/GGGG/BBBB - or GTK+2 - in which case it is
              a GTK2 color of the  form  #RRRRGGGGBBBB.  GTK+2  programs  will
              convert an old GTK1 specification.

       Gtk2 Rcfile:
              In the GTK+2 build, xmj by default ignores completely the system
              and user settings for look and feel, and uses its own  built  in
              settings.   These  settings  use  the Clearlooks theme, if it is
              available, to provide a simple  but  clean  look  with  slightly
              rounded  tiles;  and  fall  back to a plain theme, as compact as
              possible with the standard engine. If you wish, you can use this
              option  to  specify  the name of a GTK rcfile which will be read
              instead of the built in settings.  A  minimal  set  of  settings
              will  be read before your file is read.  Such a file can specify
              many details of the appearance, provided that you  know  how  to
              write  a  GTK  rcfile.  You  will need to know that xmj uses the
              following styles and bindings:
              gtk-font-name = fontname
              can be used to change the overall font  used  by  widgets.  This
              will  overridden  by the font specified by the Main Font option,
              if set.
              style "table"
              is used to give the green (or whatever you set)  colour  to  the
              table.  All  widgets  that  should  have  this  style  are named
              "table", so the appropriate binding (already set in the  minimal
              set) is
                   widget "*.table" style "table"
              style "playerlabel"
              is  used  to  give  the  white  text colour to the player status
              labels in the corners of the board (if shown). All widgets  that
              should   have   this  style  are  named  "playerlabel",  so  the
              appropriate binding (already set in the minimal set) is
                   widget "*.playerlabel" style "playerlabel"
              style "tile"
              is used in the default settings for all  widgets  named  "tile",
              which are all tiles except the tiles in your own concealed hand.
              This style is not used in the minimal settings, but  if  set  it
              should be bound with
                   widget "*.tile" style "tile"
              style "mytile"
              is  used in the default settings for the concealed tiles in your
              hand, which are  active  buttons.  These  tiles  are  all  named
              "mytile". This style is not used in the minimal settings, but if
              set it should be bound with
                   widget "*.mytile" style "mytile"
              style "claim"
              is used to set the yellow background and large font of the claim
              announcement  popups.  These  popups  are  named "claim", so the
              appropriate binding (already set in the minimal set) is
                   widget "*.claim" style "claim"
              style "text"
              is used to change the font for the text widgets such as  message
              boxes  and  input  fields. In the minimal settings, it is empty,
              but is defined and bound to the relevant  widgets.  The  binding
              should not be changed, but the style itself can be redefined. If
              the Text Font option is set, this style  will  be  redefined  in
              order to implement it.
              binding "topwindow"
              is  defined  and  bound to the top-level window to implement the
              use of the left and right arrow  keys  to  change  the  selected
              tile. It is probably not helpful to change this.
              The  distribution  contains  three  example  gtkrc files, called
              gtkrc-minimal, gtkrc-plain, and gtkrc-clearlooks, which  contain
              the program’s compiled in settings.
              This option is stored in the preferences files as
              Display Gtk2Rcfile file-name
              Note  that  if the file-name is relative, it will be interpreted
              relative to the  current  directory  in  Unix,  or  the  program
              directory in Windows.

       Use system gtkrc
              As  noted  above, xmj does not normally load the system settings
              in the GTK+2 build. If this option is checked,  it  will  (after
              the  minimal  settings, but before the default or user-specified
              settings).  This option is stored in the preferences files as
              Display UseSystemGtkrc bool
              where bool is 0 or 1.

       Note for GTK+1 builds
              Under a GTK+1 build, xmj does what any other  application  does.
              This  should  allow  the use of a .gtkrc file to change colours,
              using the styles and bindings given above. However, this is  not
              a supported activity.

   Playing Preferences
       This  panel  controls  what actions the client may take on your behalf.
       The first (and currently only) section specifies when the client should
       declare tiles and sets for you. It has the following checkboxes:

       flowers and seasons
              if checked, will be automatically declared as soon as drawn.

       losing hands
              if this is checked, then when somebody else goes out, the client
              will declare your closed sets. It declares in the  order  pungs,
              pairs, chows.

       winning hands
              this is the same for when you go out.

       The  panel  has "Save & Apply", "Apply (no save)" and "Cancel" buttons,
       as in the display options panel.

   Game Option Preferences
       This panel controls preferred game options which will be  sent  to  the
       server  when  a game starts. Preferences will only be applied if we are
       the game manager, or the game has  no  manager.  (Normally,  the  first
       human player to connect to the server becomes the game manager.)
       For details of options and their meanings, see the Game Options section
       in the rules.
       The panel has two action buttons, "Save Changes" and "Cancel", with the
       obvious  meanings.  Note  if a game is in progress, changed preferences
       are NOT applied to it; however, there is a button in the  Current  Game
       Options panel to apply preferences.
       The main body of the panel is a scrollable window listing all the known
       options. If no preference is stored for the FooBar option,  then  there
       is  an "Add pref" button next to a description of the FooBar option. If
       this button is clicked, an entry for setting the  option  appears.  The
       format  of  this  entry depends on the type of the option (see the Game
       Options section of the rules for details of types):

       Boolean (on/off) options
              have a checkbox.

       Integer options
              have a spinbutton for numerical entry: the value  can  be  typed
              in, or the up and down arrows can be used to change it

       Score options
              have  radio  buttons  for selecting Limit, Half-Limit, or other;
              for other, the number of doubles and/or points is  entered  with
              spinbuttons.  (Note:  the underlying protocol allows percentages
              (possibly more than 100%) of limits to be specified for  scores;
              however,  the  current graphical interfaces allow only limits or
              half-limits. Even  half-limits  are  pretty  strange,  but  some
              bizarre  sets  of  rules,  such as those of the British Mah-Jong
              Association (which plays a weird American/Western/Chinese  mix),
              allow other fractions of limits.)

       String options
              have a simple text entry field.

       All option entries have a "Reset" button which returns the entry to its
       previous state.
       A preference is removed by clicking the "Remove pref" button.

   Current Game Options
       When there is a connected game, this panel allows its game  options  to
       be  modified (if we have permission to do so). The three action buttons
       are "Apply changes", which applies the panel’s settings to the  current
       game; "Apply prefs", which applies our preferences (as described above)
       to the current game; and "Cancel".
       The body of the panel contains entries  for  all  the  options  of  the
       current  game, in the same format as the preferences panel (see above).


       The latest release of the Unix Mah-Jong programs should be available at


       The  game  currently  implemented is a version of the classical Chinese
       game. The most convenient  and  comprehensive  set  of  rules  is  that
       provided  by  A.  D.  Millington,  "The  Complete  Book  of Mah-Jongg",
       Weidenfield & Nicolson (1993), ISBN 0 297 81340 4.  In the following, M
       103 denotes item 103 of the rules laid out in Chapter 3 of that book. I
       here describe only the differences from  these  rules,  some  of  which
       differences  are consequences of using computers, and some of which are
       points where my house rules differ from Millington’s  version.  In  due
       course,  all variations (of Chinese classical) will be accommodated, if
       there is sufficient desire.

       Classification of tiles (M 1-8): the tiles are a standard Chinese  set.
       The  tiles  do  not  have  Arabic  numerals, except for the flowers and
       seasons, where the identifying Chinese characters are too small  to  be
       legible. A numbered set is included in the distribution and can be used
       via the Tileset display preference.
       The flowers and seasons may be removed from the tile set  by  unsetting
       the Flowers game option.

       Preliminary (M 9-10): nothing to say.

       Duration  of  the  game  (M  11-14): standard rules. In particular, the
       title of East does not pass after a wash-out.

       Selection of seats (M 15): the players are seated  in  the  order  they
       connect  to  the  server, or randomly, according to the option given to
       the server.

       The deal etc. (M 16-27): There is no  attempt  to  simulate  the  usual
       dealing  ritual  (M  16-20,  23-26);  the wall is built randomly by the
       server. The dead wall is also maintained by the server.
       The existence of a dead wall is controlled by the DeadWall game option;
       normally there is a dead wall.
       The  deal  wall is either 14 tiles and kept at 13 or 14 during play (as
       in most authors), or  is  16  tiles,  not  extended  during  play  (per
       Millington (M 22)), according to the DeadWall16 game option.
       Replacement  tiles for kongs are always taken from the loose tiles, but
       replacements for bonus tiles may be drawn from the live wall (M 31), or
       from the loose tiles, according to the FlowersLoose game option.

       Object of game (M 28-31): all winning hands must comprise four sets and
       a pair, with the exception of the  Thirteen  Unique  Wonders.   If  the
       SevenPairs  game  option is set, then a hand of any seven pairs is also
       allowed as a winning hand.

       Bonus tiles (M 31): M requires that bonus tiles must be declared in the
       turn  in which they are drawn; otherwise the player may not exchange or
       score them (and  thus  they  cannot  go  out).  We  do  not  make  this
       restriction,  as  it  is  (a) pointless (b) unenforceable in real life.
       Bonus tiles may be declared at any time after drawing  from  the  wall.
       (Obviously, there is no reason not to declare them immediately.)

       Commencement of the Game (M 32-33): standard.

       Playing  procedure  (M  34-38):  standard.   In  particular,  the other
       players have to give permission for east to start playing (M 34).   The
       display  of  discards cannot be controlled by the server; the current X
       client displays them in an organized fashion, rather  than  the  random
       layout required by M 35.

       Chow (M 39-42): standard.

       Pung (M 43-45): standard.

       Kongs  (M  46-52):  M  distinguishes  three  types  of kong: concealed,
       claimed (by Kong), and annexed  (formed  by  adding  a  discard  to  an
       exposed  pung), and allows claimed kongs to be counted as concealed for
       the purposes of doubling combinations. I have not  seen  this  anywhere
       else;  normally, a claimed kong is treated as exposed for all purposes.
       We follow the normal convention; however, the game option KongHas3Types
       can  be  set to implement M’s rules. In this case, the xmj program will
       distinguish claimed kongs by displaying them with the  last  tile  face
       down, whereas annexed kongs are all face up.
       Players  may declare a concealed kong, or add to a pung, only when they
       have just drawn a tile from the wall (live or dead); not just  after  a
       claiming  a  discard. (A silly restriction in my view, but one that all
       rule sets seem to have (M 51).)

       Calling and Mah Jong (M 53-54): standard. (I.e. there is  no  "Calling"

       NOTE:  M  permits  players to change their mind about making a claim (M
       69); we do not, and all claims are  irrevocable.  Question:  should  we
       allow revocation?

       Original  Call  (M  55):  the  Original  Call  declaration must be made
       simultaneously with the first discard, rather than  afterwards.   NOTE:
       the  server  does  *not*  check  that  the  declarer does indeed have a
       calling hand, as a mistaken original call does  not  damage  the  other
       players  or  the  progress  of  the  game.  The  server  does, however,
       thereafter prevent the declarer from changing their hand;  therefore  a
       mistaken  original call will make it impossible to go out. (Note: in M,
       an Original Caller may change their hand, but  will  thereby  lose  the
       ability  to  go out (M 55(b)); is this a better way to treat it?)  Note
       also: as per M, an original call can be made even if another player has
       claimed a discard before, unlike the Japanese version.

       Robbing  a  Kong  (M 57-60): Robbing a kong is implemented. However, as
       with discards, we require that kongs are robbed  before  anything  else
       happens,  and in particular before the konger draws a replacement tile.
       Therefore, after a kong, all other players must either claim  Mah  Jong
       or  pass.  (The provided programs will pass automatically if robbing is
       not possible.) As for discards, there is a time limit.

       Precedence of claims for discard (M 61-65): Many rules allow a  discard
       to  be claimed up until the time the next discard is made. M does this,
       with elaborate rules  for  the  precise  specification.   For  ease  of
       implementation, we do not allow this: instead, all players are required
       to make a claim or  pass,  and  once  all  players  have  claimed,  the
       successful claim is implemented irrevocably.  The server imposes a time
       limit; players that do not claim within the limit are  deemed  to  have
       passed.  This defaults to 15 seconds, but can be changed or disabled by
       the Timeout game option.

       Irregularities in Play (M 66-81): the server does not  permit  unlawful
       moves, and so no irregularities can arise.

       False  Declaration  of  Mah  Jong  (M 82-83): such declarations are not
       permitted by the server.

       False Naming of Discards (M 84-88): this also cannot happen.

       Incorrect Hands (M 89): cannot happen.

       Letting Off a Cannon (M 90-96): as in M. However, if a player  makes  a
       dangerous  discard,  but has no choice, the server will determine this;
       it is not necessary to plead "no choice" explicitly, and neither is the
       player’s hand revealed to the other players.

       Wash-Out (M 97-99): standard.

       Points of Etiquette (M 100-102): not applicable.

       Displaying  the Hand (M 103-106): The format of display is a matter for
       the client program, and cannot be controlled by the server.
       After Mah Jong, the players are  responsible  for  declaring  concealed
       sets  in  whatever way they wish. The winner, of course, is required to
       declare a complete hand; but the losers may declare as they wish.  Once
       a  set  is  declared,  it  cannot  be revoked. Note that the losers may
       declare multiple scoring pairs.

       Procedure in Settlement (M 107-111): The settlement is classical:  that
       is,  the  winner  gets  the  value  of their hand from all players; the
       losers pay one another the differences between their scores; except all
       payments  to or from East are doubled; and if players let off a cannon,
       they pay everybody’s debt.  Unlike normal play (M 110), all  hands  are
       scored  by  the  server, rather than by the players. Settlement is also
       computed by the server.  Some variations in settlement are provided: if
       the  LosersSettle  game  option  is set to false, there are no payments
       between losers; if  the  EastDoubles  game  option  is  set  to  false,
       payments  to  or  from  East  are  not doubled; if the DiscDoubles game
       option is set to true, then the discarder of the tile  that  gave  Mah-
       Jong  will  pay double to the winner, and a self-draw is paid double by

       Method of Scoring (M 112-122): The method  is  standard  (M  112),  viz
       calculate  points  obtained  from  sets  and  bonuses,  and  then apply

       The following points are given for tiles:

       Bonus tiles:
              4 each (M 114(a))

       Pungs: 2 for exposed minor tiles; 4  for  exposed  major  or  concealed
              minor; 8 for concealed major. (M 114(b))

       Kongs: 8 for exposed minor; 16 for exposed major or concealed minor; 32
              for concealed major. (M 114(c))

       Chows: no score. (M 114(d))

       Pair:  2 for a pair of Dragons, Own Wind, or Prevailing Wind.   A  pair
              that  is  both Own and Prevailing Wind scores 4. (M 114(e)) Non-
              winning hands may score more than one pair.

       Basic points:
              the winner gets 20 points for  going  Mah  Jong.   This  can  be
              changed  by  the  MahJongScore  game  option  (M  115(a)  has 10

       Seven Pairs hand:
              If Seven Pairs hands are allowed,  they  receive  an  additional
              score of 20 points, changed by the SevenPairsVal game option.

       Winning from wall:
              if  the final tile is drawn from the wall, 2 points are added (M

       Filling the only place:
              if the final tile is  the  only  denomination  that  could  have
              completed  the hand, 2 points are added (M 115(c)).  NOTE: As in
              M, if all four copies of a tile are exposed  on  the  table,  it
              does not count as available for completing the hand.

       Fishing the eyes:
              a  player who completes by obtaining a pair gets 2 points if the
              pair is minor, or 4 if major (M 115(d)).  Note: to obtain  these
              points for a discard, the player must actually claim the discard
              for a pair: e.g. if waiting on 5677, and  7  is  discarded,  the
              player must claim for the pair, not the chow.

       The  following  doubles apply to all hands.  All possible clauses apply
       unless stated otherwise.

       Having own flower or own season.
              No extra score. Changed by the FlowersOwnEach game option.

       Having own flower AND own season,
              1 double. (M 116(a)). Changed by the FlowersOwnBoth game option.

       Having all four flowers,
              1 double. (M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Having all four seasons,
              1 double. (M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Each set of dragons,
              1 double. (M 116(d))

       A set of the player’s own wind,
              1 double. (M 116(e))

       A set of the prevailing wind,
              1 double. (M 116(f))

       "Little Three Dragons": two sets and a pair of dragons.
              1 double. (M 116(g))

       "Big Three Dragons": three sets of dragons.
              2 doubles. (M 116(h))

       "Little Four Winds": three sets and a pair of winds.
              1 double. (M 116(i))

       "Big Four Winds": four sets of winds.
              2 doubles. (M 116(j))

              (Note:  the  definitions of these last four doubles when applied
              to non-winning hands are subject to  wide  variations.  Possibly
              there should be options to allow other possibilities.)

       Three concealed pungs:
              1  double. (M 116(k)) (Note: if the KongHas3Types game option is
              set, a claimed kong counts as concealed for this hand;  see  the
              note above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles apply to the winning hand only:

       No score hand: four chows and a non-scoring pair.
              1  double.  (M  117(a)) (Note: like M, we allow any of the extra
              points (Fishing the Eyes, etc) to  go  with  this  double.  Some
              rules  say  that the extra points invalidate this hand. Possibly
              there should be an option for this.)

       No chows:
              1 double. (M 117(b))

       Concealed hand:
              1 double (M 117(c)), changeable  with  the  ConcealedFully  game
              option.  (Note:  this means a hand that is fully concealed after
              going out. Another common value for this is 3 doubles, in  which
              case  1  double  is usually given for a semi-concealed hand (see
              below).)  (Note: if the KongHas3Types  game  option  is  set,  a
              claimed  kong  counts  as  concealed for this hand; see the note
              above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles normally apply to the winning hand only; however,
       the  LosersPurity game option can be set to allow losing hands to score
       them (this is a  highly  deprecated  American  feature,  but  has  been
       requested by a user).

       Semi-concealed hand:
              no  doubles,  changeable  with  the ConcealedAlmost game option.
              (Not in M) (Note: this means a winning hand that is concealed up
              to  the  point  of going out, or, if enabled, a concealed losing
              hand. According to a discussion on, a  winning
              semi-concealed  hand  is  classically  awarded  one double (with
              three given for fully concealed).  One  book  in  my  possession
              (U.S.A.,  early 1920s) awards this double only to a hand that is
              concealed except for the pair.)   (Note:  if  the  KongHas3Types
              game  option is set, a claimed kong counts as concealed for this
              hand; see the note above under "Kongs".)

       One suit with honours:
              1 double. (M 117(d))

       One suit only:
              3 doubles. (M 117(e))

       All majors:
              1 double. (M 117(f))

       All honours (in an unlimited game):
              2 doubles. (M 117(g)) (Note: such a hand  will  also  score  the
              double for all majors.)

       All terminals (in an unlimited game):
              2  doubles.  (Not  in  M) (Note: such a hand will also score the
              double for all majors.)

       The following doubles apply only to the winning hand:

       Winning with loose tile:
              1  double.  (M  117(h))  (Note:  with  the   default   settings,
              replacements for bonus tiles come from the live wall. Hence this
              double applies only to winning after Kong.)

       Winning from the bottom of the sea (winning with last tile),
              1 double. (M 117(i))

       Catching a fish from the bottom of the sea (winning with last discard),
              1 double. (M 117(j))

       Robbing a kong,
              1 double. (M 117(k))

       Completing Original Call,
              1 double. (M 117(l))

       Limit (M 118-120): the limit is 1000 by default, and can be changed  by
       the ScoreLimit game option. The NoLimit game option can be used to play
       a game "with the roof off".

       The following hands are limit hands:

       Heaven’s Blessing: East wins with dealt hand. (M 122(a))

       Earth’s Blessing: player wins with East’s first discard. (M 122(b))

       Gathering Plum Blossom from the Roof: winning with 5 Circles from the
              loose wall. (M 122(c))

       Catching the Moon from the Bottom of the Sea: winning with 1 Circle as
              the last tile. (M 122(d)) (Note: M says that the  tile  must  be
              drawn.  It seems more reasonable also to allow it to be the last
              discard, which is what we do. Objections?)

       Scratching a Carrying Pole: robbing a kong of 2 Bamboos. (M 122(e))

       (Note: these last three limits are rather arbitrary, but of the
              arbitrary limits they are  apparently  the  most  common.  There
              should be options to disable them.)

       Kong upon Kong: making a Kong, making another Kong with the loose
              tile,  and with the second loose tile obtaining Mah Jong. (Also,
              of course, with three or four successive kongs.) (M 122(f))

       Four Kongs. (M 122(g))

       Buried Treasure: all concealed and no chows. (M 122(h))

       The Three Great Scholars: three  sets  of  dragons  and  no  chows.  (M
              (Note: in most rules I have seen, there is no restriction  to  a
              no  chow  hand. Since in M’s rules, three sets and a chow scores
              at least (10 (M has 10 for Mah Jong) + 12 (at  least  3  pungs))
              times  8  (2  for  each  set  of dragons) times 4 (for Big Three
              Dragons) = 704, this is significant with the default limit.  For
              us, with 20 for going out, Big Three Dragons is over the default
              limit anyway.)

       Four Blessings o’er the Door: four sets of winds and a pair. (M 122(j))

       All Honours. (M 122(k))

       Heads and Tails: all terminals. (M 122(l))

       Imperial Jade: contains only Green  Dragon  and  2,3,4,6,8  Bamboo.  (M
              (Note: another rather arbitrary hand, but widely adopted.)

       Nine Gates:  calling  on  1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9  of  one  suit.  (M

       Wriggling Snake: 1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9 plus 2, 5 or 8 of
              one suit (M 122(o)).  (Note: another rather arbitrary hand.)

       Concealed Clear Suit: one suit only and all concealed. (M 122(p))

       Thirteen Unique Wonders: one of each major tile, and a match to any of
              them. (M 122(q))

       East’s 13th consecutive Mah-Jong. (M 122(r))

       General note: there are many other doubles and limits kicking around. I
       welcome opinions on which should be possible options; and also on which
       of the above I should eject from the default set.  I  dislike  Imperial
       Jade,  Wriggling  Snake,  and  the  ones  depending  on a specific tile
       (Gathering Plum Blossom,  Catching  the  Moon,  Scratching  a  Carrying
       Pole):  which  of  these are so commonly adopted that they should be in
       even a fairly minimalist default set?


       This section describes the options that can be set in the game. Whether
       an  option can be used, depends on the version of the programs. This is
       described by a "protocol version number"; this is not strictly speaking
       a  version  just  of  the  communication protocol, but a version number
       reflecting the combination of protocol and programs.  When  playing  by
       oneself,  this  does  not  matter, but in the case of a networked game,
       players might have different versions of the software,  in  which  case
       the game is played according to the lowest version of any player.

       Game  options can be controlled in two ways: the --option-file argument
       to the mj-server program gives options to be applied to  the  game,  or
       options can be set by the players, using the interface described in the
       manual section for xmj.

       In the user interface, the options  are  referred  to  by  a  one  line
       description, but each option also has a short name, given here.

       Options are of several types:

       bool   boolean, or on/off, options.

       int    integer options

       nat    non-negative integer options

       string is a miscellaneous type, whose values are strings of at most 127
              characters which must not contain white space

       score  is the type used  for  options  that  give  the  score  of  some
              combination  or feature in a hand. A score is either a limit (or
              a half-limit; the underlying protocol  supports  percentages  of
              limits,  but  the  current user programs only support limits and
              half limits); or a number of doubles to be awarded; or a  number
              of  points  to be added. It is possible (though never needed) to
              have both points and doubles. If points/doubles are specified as
              well  as  a  limit,  they  will be used in a no-limit game. (The
              server implements a hard limit of 100000000  on  all  scores  to
              avoid   arithmetic   overflow,  but  that’s  unlikely  to  worry

   Currently supported options
       The following options are implemented in the versions  of  the  program
       with which this document is distributed. If playing against people with
       older versions of the software, some options may not be available.  The
       list gives for each option the short name, type, and short description,
       followed by a detailed explanation.

       Timeout (nat) time limit for claims
              This is the time in seconds allowed to claim a  discard,  or  to
              rob  a kong. If set to zero, there is no timeout. The default is
              15 seconds.

       TimeoutGrace (nat) grace period when clients handle timeouts
              This period (in seconds) is added to the  Timeout  above  before
              the  server  actually forces a timeout. This is for when clients
              handle timeouts locally, and allows for network  lags.  If  this
              option  is  zero,  clients  are not permitted to handle timeouts
              locally. The current server also only allows players  to  handle
              timeouts locally if all of them wish to do so.

       ScoreLimit (nat) limit on hand score
              This  is  the limit for the score of a hand. In a no-limit game,
              it is the notional value of a "limit" hand. The default is 1000.

       NoLimit (bool) no-limit game
              If this option is set, the game has no limit on hand scores. The
              default is unset.

       MahJongScore (score) base score for going out
              This is the  number  of  points  for  obtaining  Mah-Jong.   The
              default is 20.

       SevenPairs (bool) seven pairs hand allowed
              If  this  option is set, then Mah-Jong hands of seven pairs (any
              seven pairs) are allowed. The default is unset.

       SevenPairsVal (score) score for a seven pair hand
              This gives the score (in addition to the  base  Mah-Jong  score)
              for a seven pairs hand. The default is 20.

       Flowers (bool) play using flowers and seasons
              If  this  option is set, the deal includes four flowers and four
              seasons in the Chinese Classical style. If unset, only  the  136
              standard tiles are used. The default is set.

       FlowersLoose (bool) flowers replaced by loose tiles
              If  playing with flowers, this option determines whether flowers
              and seasons are replaced from the live wall (unset), or by loose
              tiles (set). The default is unset.

       FlowersOwnEach (score) score for each own flower or season
              This  option  gives  the  score  for  having one’s own flower or
              season.  If one has both, this score will be  given  twice.  The
              default is no score.

       FlowersOwnBoth (score) score for own flower and own season
              This is the score for having both one’s own flower and one’s own
              season. Note that this is  awarded  in  addition  to  twice  the
              previous score. The default is 1 double.

       FlowersBouquet (score) score for all four flowers or all four seasons
              This  is  the  score  for  having  all  four flowers or all four
              seasons.  The default is 1 double.

       DeadWall (bool) there is a dead wall
              This determines whether there is a dead wall, so that play  ends
              when  it  is  reached  (set),  or whether all tiles may be drawn
              (unset).  The default is set.

       DeadWall16 (bool) dead wall is 16 tiles, unreplenished
              If this option is set, then  the  dead  wall  initially  has  16
              tiles, and does not have any more tiles added to it (this is the
              set-up described by Millington). If the option  is  unset,  then
              the dead wall initially  has 14 tiles, and after two loose tiles
              have been taken, two tiles are moved from the live wall  to  the
              dead  wall  (this  is  the  set-up  described by almost everyone
              else). The default is unset in versions  1.1  onwards,  and  set
              previously.  (To  be precise, the protocol level default is set,
              but all servers from 1.1 onwards will change this to unset.)

       ConcealedFully (score) score for fully concealed hand
              This is the score for a winning hand with  no  open  sets.   The
              default is 1 double.

       ConcealedAlmost (score) score for almost concealed hand
              This  is  the score for a hand that is concealed up to the point
              of going out.  The default is no additional score.

       LosersPurity (bool) losing hands score doubles for pure, concealed etc.
              If this option is set, losing hands will score  various  doubles
              for  one suit, almost concealed, etc. See the rules for details.
              This option is an (Anglo-)Americanism alien to Chinese Classical
              (see  Foster  for  a spirited but faulty argument in its favour,
              and Millington for the rejoinder).  The default is unset.

       KongHas3Types (bool) claimed kongs count as concealed for doubling
              If this option is set, claimed  kongs  count  as  concealed  for
              various  doubling  combinations,  although they score as exposed
              for basic points. See the note above under "Kongs".  The default
              is unset.

       LosersSettle (bool) losers pay each other
              If  this option is set, the losers pay each other the difference
              between their scores. If it unset, they  pay  only  the  winner.
              The default is set.

       EastDoubles (bool) east pays and receives double
              If  this  option  is  set,  payments  to  and from East Wind are
              doubled, as in the Chinese Classical game.  The default is  set.

       DiscDoubles (bool) the discarder pays double
              If  this option is set, the settlement procedure is changed to a
              style common in Singapore. That is, if the winning  player  wins
              off a discard, the discarder pays double the hand value, and the
              other players pay the hand value. If the winner  wins  from  the
              wall,  then  all  other  players pay double the hand value.  The
              default is unset.  Note: EastDoubles and DiscDoubles can be  set
              together, but nobody plays such a rule.

       ShowOnWashout (bool) reveal tiles on washout
              If  this  option  is set, the players’ hands will be revealed in
              the event of a washout.

       NumRounds (nat) number of rounds to play
              This option says how many  rounds  to  play  in  the  game.  For
              aesthetic  reasons,  the possible values are 1, 2, or a multiple
              of 4. In the 2 round case, the East and  South  rounds  will  be
              played. It defaults to the usual 4 rounds.

   Option file format
       Both in the option file and in the .xmjrc file, options are recorded in
       the format used by the server protocol. This is a line of the form

       GameOption 0 name type minprot enabled value desc

       The meanings of the elements are:

       GameOption 0
              identifies this as a game option line (the 0  is  an  irrelevant
              field from the protocol).

       name   is the name of the option.

       type   is the type of the option.

              is  the  minimum  protocol  version with which the option can be
              used (which is not necessarily  the  version  at  which  it  was

              will always be 1.

       value  is the value: a decimal (signed) integer for nat and int; 0 or 1
              for bool; the string for string; and for score, if the score  is
              c centi-limits, d doubles and p points, the value is c*1000000 +
              d*10000 + p.

       desc   is a short description of the option, which is not required  but
              is usually copied in from the server.