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       pivot_root - change the root file system


       int pivot_root(const char *new_root, const char *put_old);


       pivot_root()  moves  the root file system of the calling process to the
       directory put_old and makes new_root the new root file  system  of  the
       calling process.

       The  typical  use  of  pivot_root()  is during system startup, when the
       system mounts a temporary root file  system  (e.g.,  an  initrd),  then
       mounts  the real root file system, and eventually turns the latter into
       the current root of all relevant processes or threads.

       pivot_root() may or may not change the current  root  and  the  current
       working  directory  of  any processes or threads which use the old root
       directory.  The caller of pivot_root() must ensure that processes  with
       root  or current working directory at the old root operate correctly in
       either case.  An easy way to ensure this is to change  their  root  and
       current working directory to new_root before invoking pivot_root().

       The  paragraph  above is intentionally vague because the implementation
       of pivot_root() may change in the future.   At  the  time  of  writing,
       pivot_root() changes root and current working directory of each process
       or thread to new_root if they point to the old root directory.  This is
       necessary  in order to prevent kernel threads from keeping the old root
       directory busy with their root and current working directory,  even  if
       they never access the file system in any way.  In the future, there may
       be a mechanism for kernel threads to explicitly relinquish  any  access
       to  the  file  system, such that this fairly intrusive mechanism can be
       removed from pivot_root().

       Note that this also applies to the calling process: pivot_root() may or
       may  not  affect  its  current  working  directory.   It  is  therefore
       recommended to call chdir("/") immediately after pivot_root().

       The following restrictions apply to new_root and put_old:

       -  They must be directories.

       -  new_root and put_old must not be on the  same  file  system  as  the
          current root.

       -  put_old  must  be  underneath  new_root,  that  is, adding a nonzero
          number of /.. to the string pointed to by  put_old  must  yield  the
          same directory as new_root.

       -  No other file system may be mounted on put_old.

       See also pivot_root(8) for additional usage examples.

       If  the  current  root  is  not a mount point (e.g., after chroot(2) or
       pivot_root(), see also below), not the  old  root  directory,  but  the
       mount point of that file system is mounted on put_old.

       new_root does not have to be a mount point.  In this case, /proc/mounts
       will show the mount point of the file  system  containing  new_root  as
       root (/).


       On  success,  zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is
       set appropriately.


       pivot_root() may return (in  errno)  any  of  the  errors  returned  by
       stat(2).  Additionally, it may return:

       EBUSY  new_root  or  put_old  are on the current root file system, or a
              file system is already mounted on put_old.

       EINVAL put_old is not underneath new_root.

              new_root or put_old is not a directory.

       EPERM  The calling process does not have the CAP_SYS_ADMIN  capability.


       pivot_root() was introduced in Linux 2.3.41.


       pivot_root() is Linux-specific and hence is not portable.


       Glibc  does  not  provide a wrapper for this system call; call it using


       pivot_root() should  not  have  to  change  root  and  current  working
       directory of all other processes in the system.

       Some  of  the  more  obscure  uses  of pivot_root() may quickly lead to


       chdir(2), chroot(2), stat(2), initrd(4), pivot_root(8)


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