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       accept - accept a connection on a socket


       #include <sys/types.h>          /* See NOTES */
       #include <sys/socket.h>

       int accept(int sockfd, struct sockaddr *addr, socklen_t *addrlen);

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include <sys/socket.h>

       int accept4(int sockfd, struct sockaddr *addr,
                   socklen_t *addrlen, int flags);


       The  accept()  system  call  is used with connection-based socket types
       (SOCK_STREAM,  SOCK_SEQPACKET).   It  extracts  the  first   connection
       request  on  the queue of pending connections for the listening socket,
       sockfd, creates  a  new  connected  socket,  and  returns  a  new  file
       descriptor  referring  to that socket.  The newly created socket is not
       in the listening state.  The original socket sockfd  is  unaffected  by
       this call.

       The  argument  sockfd is a socket that has been created with socket(2),
       bound to a local address with bind(2), and is listening for connections
       after a listen(2).

       The argument addr is a pointer to a sockaddr structure.  This structure
       is filled in with the address of the  peer  socket,  as  known  to  the
       communications layer.  The exact format of the address returned addr is
       determined by the  socket’s  address  family  (see  socket(2)  and  the
       respective  protocol  man pages).  When addr is NULL, nothing is filled
       in; in this case, addrlen is not used, and should also be NULL.

       The addrlen argument  is  a  value-result  argument:  the  caller  must
       initialize  it  to contain the size (in bytes) of the structure pointed
       to by addr; on return it will contain  the  actual  size  of  the  peer

       The  returned address is truncated if the buffer provided is too small;
       in this case, addrlen will return a value greater than was supplied  to
       the call.

       If  no  pending connections are present on the queue, and the socket is
       not  marked  as  nonblocking,  accept()  blocks  the  caller  until   a
       connection  is  present.   If  the  socket is marked nonblocking and no
       pending connections are present on the queue, accept() fails  with  the
       error EAGAIN or EWOULDBLOCK.

       In  order  to  be notified of incoming connections on a socket, you can
       use select(2) or poll(2).  A readable event will be  delivered  when  a
       new  connection  is  attempted  and you may then call accept() to get a
       socket for that connection.  Alternatively, you can set the  socket  to
       deliver  SIGIO  when  activity  occurs  on  a socket; see socket(7) for

       For certain protocols which require an explicit confirmation,  such  as
       DECNet,  accept()  can  be  thought  of  as  merely  dequeuing the next
       connection request and not implying confirmation.  Confirmation can  be
       implied  by  a  normal  read  or  write on the new file descriptor, and
       rejection can be implied by closing the  new  socket.   Currently  only
       DECNet has these semantics on Linux.

       If  flags  is 0, then accept4() is the same as accept().  The following
       values can be bitwise ORed in flags to obtain different behavior:

       SOCK_NONBLOCK   Set the O_NONBLOCK file status flag  on  the  new  open
                       file description.  Using this flag saves extra calls to
                       fcntl(2) to achieve the same result.

       SOCK_CLOEXEC    Set the close-on-exec (FD_CLOEXEC) flag on the new file
                       descriptor.   See the description of the O_CLOEXEC flag
                       in open(2) for reasons why this may be useful.


       On success, these system calls return a nonnegative integer that  is  a
       descriptor  for  the  accepted  socket.   On error, -1 is returned, and
       errno is set appropriately.

   Error Handling
       Linux accept() (and accept4()) passes already-pending network errors on
       the  new  socket as an error code from accept().  This behavior differs
       from other BSD socket  implementations.   For  reliable  operation  the
       application  should  detect the network errors defined for the protocol
       after accept() and treat them like EAGAIN  by  retrying.   In  case  of


              The socket is marked nonblocking and no connections are  present
              to be accepted.  POSIX.1-2001 allows either error to be returned
              for this case, and does not require these constants to have  the
              same  value,  so  a  portable  application should check for both

       EBADF  The descriptor is invalid.

              A connection has been aborted.

       EFAULT The addr argument is not in a writable part of the user  address

       EINTR  The  system  call  was  interrupted  by a signal that was caught
              before a valid connection arrived; see signal(7).

       EINVAL Socket is not listening for connections, or addrlen  is  invalid
              (e.g., is negative).

       EINVAL (accept4()) invalid value in flags.

       EMFILE The per-process limit of open file descriptors has been reached.

       ENFILE The system limit on the total number  of  open  files  has  been

              Not  enough  free  memory.   This  often  means  that the memory
              allocation is limited by the socket buffer limits,  not  by  the
              system memory.

              The descriptor references a file, not a socket.

              The referenced socket is not of type SOCK_STREAM.

       EPROTO Protocol error.

       In addition, Linux accept() may fail if:

       EPERM  Firewall rules forbid connection.

       In  addition,  network errors for the new socket and as defined for the
       protocol may be returned.   Various  Linux  kernels  can  return  other
       value ERESTARTSYS may be seen during a trace.


       The accept4() system call is  available  starting  with  Linux  2.6.28;
       support in glibc is available starting with version 2.10.


       accept():  POSIX.1-2001,  SVr4,  4.4BSD,  (accept()  first  appeared in

       accept4() is a nonstandard Linux extension.

       On Linux, the new socket returned by accept()  does  not  inherit  file
       status  flags such as O_NONBLOCK and O_ASYNC from the listening socket.
       This behavior differs from the canonical  BSD  sockets  implementation.
       Portable  programs  should not rely on inheritance or noninheritance of
       file status flags and always explicitly set all required flags  on  the
       socket returned from accept().


       POSIX.1-2001  does not require the inclusion of <sys/types.h>, and this
       header file is not required on Linux.  However, some  historical  (BSD)
       implementations  required  this  header file, and portable applications
       are probably wise to include it.

       There may not always be a connection waiting after a SIGIO is delivered
       or  select(2)  or  poll(2)  return  a  readability  event  because  the
       connection might have been removed by an asynchronous network error  or
       another  thread  before  accept()  is called.  If this happens then the
       call will block waiting for the next connection to arrive.   To  ensure
       that  accept() never blocks, the passed socket sockfd needs to have the
       O_NONBLOCK flag set (see socket(7)).

   The socklen_t type
       The third argument of accept() was originally declared as an int * (and
       is  that  under libc4 and libc5 and on many other systems like 4.x BSD,
       SunOS 4, SGI); a POSIX.1g draft standard wanted to  change  it  into  a
       size_t  *, and that is what it is for SunOS 5.  Later POSIX drafts have
       socklen_t *, and so  do  the  Single  Unix  Specification  and  glibc2.
       Quoting Linus Torvalds:

       "_Any_  sane  library  _must_ have "socklen_t" be the same size as int.
       Anything else breaks any BSD socket layer stuff.  POSIX  initially  did
       make  it  a  size_t, and I (and hopefully others, but obviously not too
       many) complained to them very loudly indeed.  Making  it  a  size_t  is
       completely  broken, exactly because size_t very seldom is the same size
       as "int" on 64-bit architectures, for example.  And it has  to  be  the
       same  size  as  "int"  because that’s what the BSD socket interface is.
       Anyway,  the  POSIX  people  eventually  got  a   clue,   and   created
       "socklen_t".   They  shouldn’t  have touched it in the first place, but
       once they did  they  felt  it  had  to  have  a  named  type  for  some
       unfathomable  reason  (probably  somebody  didn’t like losing face over
       having done the original stupid thing, so they  silently  just  renamed
       their blunder)."


       See bind(2).


       bind(2), connect(2), listen(2), select(2), socket(2), socket(7)


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