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       wchar.h - wide-character handling


       #include <wchar.h>


       Some  of the functionality described on this reference page extends the
       ISO C standard. Applications shall define the appropriate feature  test
       macro  (see  the  System  Interfaces  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 2.2, The Compilation Environment) to enable the  visibility  of
       these symbols in this header.

       The <wchar.h> header shall define the following types:

              As described in <stddef.h> .

       wint_t An integer type capable of storing any valid value of wchar_t or

              A scalar type of a  data  object  that  can  hold  values  which
              represent locale-specific character classification.

              An  object  type  other  than  an  array  type that can hold the
              conversion  state  information  necessary  to  convert   between
              sequences   of   (possibly   multi-byte)   characters  and  wide
              characters.    If a codeset is being used such that an mbstate_t
              needs  to  preserve  more  than  2 levels of reserved state, the
              results are unspecified.

       FILE   As described in <stdio.h> .

       size_t As described in <stddef.h> .

              As described in <stdarg.h> .

       The implementation shall support one or more  programming  environments
       in which the width of wint_t is no greater than the width of type long.
       The names of these programming environments can be obtained  using  the
       confstr() function or the getconf utility.

       The following shall be declared as functions and may also be defined as
       macros. Function prototypes shall be provided.

              wint_t        btowc(int);
              wint_t        fgetwc(FILE *);
              wchar_t      *fgetws(wchar_t *restrict, int, FILE *restrict);
              wint_t        fputwc(wchar_t, FILE *);
              int           fputws(const wchar_t *restrict, FILE *restrict);
              int           fwide(FILE *, int);
              int           fwprintf(FILE *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, ...);
              int           fwscanf(FILE *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, ...);
              wint_t        getwc(FILE *);
              wint_t        getwchar(void);

              int           iswalnum(wint_t);
              int           iswalpha(wint_t);
              int           iswcntrl(wint_t);
              int           iswctype(wint_t, wctype_t);
              int           iswdigit(wint_t);
              int           iswgraph(wint_t);
              int           iswlower(wint_t);
              int           iswprint(wint_t);
              int           iswpunct(wint_t);
              int           iswspace(wint_t);
              int           iswupper(wint_t);
              int           iswxdigit(wint_t);

              size_t        mbrlen(const char *restrict, size_t, mbstate_t *restrict);
              size_t        mbrtowc(wchar_t *restrict, const char *restrict, size_t,
                                mbstate_t *restrict);
              int           mbsinit(const mbstate_t *);
              size_t        mbsrtowcs(wchar_t *restrict, const char **restrict, size_t,
                                mbstate_t *restrict);
              wint_t        putwc(wchar_t, FILE *);
              wint_t        putwchar(wchar_t);
              int           swprintf(wchar_t *restrict, size_t,
                                const wchar_t *restrict, ...);
              int           swscanf(const wchar_t *restrict,
                                const wchar_t *restrict, ...);

              wint_t        towlower(wint_t);
              wint_t        towupper(wint_t);

              wint_t        ungetwc(wint_t, FILE *);
              int           vfwprintf(FILE *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, va_list);
              int           vfwscanf(FILE *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, va_list);
              int           vwprintf(const wchar_t *restrict, va_list);
              int           vswprintf(wchar_t *restrict, size_t,
                                const wchar_t *restrict, va_list);
              int           vswscanf(const wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict,
              int           vwscanf(const wchar_t *restrict, va_list);
              size_t        wcrtomb(char *restrict, wchar_t, mbstate_t *restrict);
              wchar_t      *wcscat(wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict);
              wchar_t      *wcschr(const wchar_t *, wchar_t);
              int           wcscmp(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *);
              int           wcscoll(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *);
              wchar_t      *wcscpy(wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict);
              size_t        wcscspn(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *);
              size_t        wcsftime(wchar_t *restrict, size_t,
                                const wchar_t *restrict, const struct tm *restrict);
              size_t        wcslen(const wchar_t *);
              wchar_t      *wcsncat(wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, size_t);
              int           wcsncmp(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *, size_t);
              wchar_t      *wcsncpy(wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, size_t);
              wchar_t      *wcspbrk(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *);
              wchar_t      *wcsrchr(const wchar_t *, wchar_t);
              size_t        wcsrtombs(char *restrict, const wchar_t **restrict,
                                size_t, mbstate_t *restrict);
              size_t        wcsspn(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *);
              wchar_t      *wcsstr(const wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict);
              double        wcstod(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict);
              float         wcstof(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict);
              wchar_t      *wcstok(wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict,
                                wchar_t **restrict);
              long          wcstol(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict, int);
              long double   wcstold(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict);
              long long     wcstoll(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict, int);
              unsigned long wcstoul(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict, int);
              unsigned long long
                            wcstoull(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict, int);

              wchar_t      *wcswcs(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *);
              int           wcswidth(const wchar_t *, size_t);

              size_t        wcsxfrm(wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, size_t);
              int           wctob(wint_t);

              wctype_t      wctype(const char *);
              int           wcwidth(wchar_t);

              wchar_t      *wmemchr(const wchar_t *, wchar_t, size_t);
              int           wmemcmp(const wchar_t *, const wchar_t *, size_t);
              wchar_t      *wmemcpy(wchar_t *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, size_t);
              wchar_t      *wmemmove(wchar_t *, const wchar_t *, size_t);
              wchar_t      *wmemset(wchar_t *, wchar_t, size_t);
              int           wprintf(const wchar_t *restrict, ...);
              int           wscanf(const wchar_t *restrict, ...);

       The <wchar.h> header shall define the following macros:

              The maximum value representable by an object of type wchar_t.

              The minimum value representable by an object of type wchar_t.

       WEOF   Constant expression of type wint_t that is returned  by  several
              WP functions to indicate end-of-file.

       NULL   As described in <stddef.h> .

       The  tag  tm  shall be declared as naming an incomplete structure type,
       the contents of which are described in the header <time.h> .

       Inclusion of the <wchar.h> header may make visible all symbols from the
       headers   <ctype.h>,  <string.h>,  <stdarg.h>,  <stddef.h>,  <stdio.h>,
       <stdlib.h>, and <time.h>.

       The following sections are informative.


       The iswblank() function was a late addition to the ISO C  standard  and
       was  introduced  at  the  same  time  as  the ISO C standard introduced
       <wctype.h>, which contains all of the isw*() functions. The Open  Group
       Base  Specifications  had previously aligned with the MSE working draft
       and had introduced the rest of the isw*() functions into <wchar.h>. For
       backwards-compatibility,  the original set of isw*() functions, without
       iswblank(), are permitted (as  an  XSI  extension)  in  <wchar.h>.  For
       maximum portability, applications should include <wctype.h> in order to
       obtain declarations for the isw*() functions.


       In the ISO C standard, the symbols referenced as XSI extensions are  in
       <wctype.h>. Their presence here is thus an extension.




       <ctype.h>  ,  <stdarg.h>  ,  <stddef.h>  ,  <stdio.h>  ,  <stdlib.h>  ,
       <string.h> , <time.h> , <wctype.h> , the System  Interfaces  volume  of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, btowc(), confstr(), fgetwc(), fgetws(), fputwc(),
       fputws(),  fwide(),   fwprintf(),   fwscanf(),   getwc(),   getwchar(),
       iswalnum(), iswalpha(), iswcntrl(), iswctype(), iswdigit(), iswgraph(),
       iswlower(),    iswprint(),    iswpunct(),    iswspace(),    iswupper(),
       iswxdigit(),  iswctype(),  mbsinit(), mbrlen(), mbrtowc(), mbsrtowcs(),
       putwc(), putwchar(),  swprintf(),  swscanf(),  towlower(),  towupper(),
       ungetwc(), vfwprintf(), vfwscanf(), vswprintf(), vswscanf(), vwscanf(),
       wcrtomb(),  wcsrtombs(),  wcscat(),  wcschr(),   wcscmp(),   wcscoll(),
       wcscpy(),   wcscspn(),   wcsftime(),  wcslen(),  wcsncat(),  wcsncmp(),
       wcsncpy(),  wcspbrk(),   wcsrchr(),   wcsspn(),   wcsstr(),   wcstod(),
       wcstof(),   wcstok(),   wcstol(),   wcstold(),   wcstoll(),  wcstoul(),
       wcstoull(),  wcswcs(),  wcswidth(),   wcsxfrm(),   wctob(),   wctype(),
       wcwidth(),  wmemchr(),  wmemcmp(),  wmemcpy(),  wmemmove(),  wmemset(),
       wprintf(),   wscanf(),   the   Shell   and    Utilities    volume    of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, getconf


       Portions  of  this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       --  Portable  Operating  System  Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by  the  Institute  of
       Electrical  and  Electronics  Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The  Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be  obtained  online
       at .