smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks
smartctl [options] device
smartmontools-5.40 released 2010-03-16 at 20:48:06
smartctl controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting
Technology (SMART) system built into many ATA-3 and later ATA, IDE and
SCSI-3 hard drives. The purpose of SMART is to monitor the reliability
of the hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out
different types of drive self-tests. This version of smartctl is
compatible with ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier standards (see REFERENCES
smartctl is a command line utility designed to perform SMART tasks such
as printing the SMART self-test and error logs, enabling and disabling
SMART automatic testing, and initiating device self-tests. Note: if the
user issues a SMART command that is (apparently) not implemented by the
device, smartctl will print a warning message but issue the command
anyway (see the -T, --tolerance option below). This should not cause
problems: on most devices, unimplemented SMART commands issued to a
drive are ignored and/or return an error.
smartctl also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
tape drives and changers.
The user must specify the device to be controlled or interrogated as
the final argument to smartctl. The command set used by the device is
often derived from the device path but may need help with the ´-d´
option (for more information see the section on "ATA, SCSI command sets
and SAT" below). Device paths are as follows:
LINUX: Use the forms "/dev/hd[a-t]" for IDE/ATA devices, and
"/dev/sd[a-z]" for SCSI devices. For SCSI Tape Drives and
Changers with TapeAlert support use the devices "/dev/nst*"
and "/dev/sg*". For SATA disks accessed with libata, use
"/dev/sd[a-z]" and append "-d ata". For disks behind 3ware
controllers you may need "/dev/sd[a-z]" or "/dev/twe[0-9]" or
"/dev/twa[0-9]": see details below. For disks behind HighPoint
RocketRAID controllers you may need "/dev/sd[a-z]". For disks
behind Areca SATA RAID controllers, you need "/dev/sg[2-9]"
(note that smartmontools interacts with the Areca controllers
via a SCSI generic device which is different than the SCSI
device used for reading and writing data)!
DARWIN: Use the forms /dev/disk[0-9] or equivalently disk[0-9] or
equivalently /dev/rdisk[0-9]. Long forms are also available:
please use ´-h´ to see some examples. Note that there is
currently no Darwin SCSI support.
FREEBSD: Use the forms "/dev/ad[0-9]+" for IDE/ATA devices and
"/dev/da[0-9]+" for SCSI devices.
Use the form "/dev/wd[0-9]+c" for IDE/ATA devices. For SCSI
disk and tape devices, use the device names "/dev/sd[0-9]+c"
and "/dev/st[0-9]+c" respectively. Be sure to specify the
correct "whole disk" partition letter for your architecture.
SOLARIS: Use the forms "/dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?" for IDE/ATA and SCSI disk
devices, and "/dev/rmt/*" for SCSI tape devices.
Use the forms "/dev/hd[a-d]" for standard IDE/ATA devices
accessed via SMARTVSD.VXD, and "/dev/hd[e-h]" for additional
devices accessed via a patched SMARTVSE.VXD (see INSTALL file
for details). Use the form "/dev/scsi[0-9][0-f]" for SCSI
devices via an aspi dll on ASPI adapter 0-9, ID 0-15. The
prefix "/dev/" is optional.
Use the forms "/dev/sd[a-z]" for IDE/(S)ATA and SCSI disks
"\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]" (where "a" maps to "0"). These
disks can also be referred to as "/dev/pd[0-255]" for
"\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-255]". ATA disks can also be referred to
as "/dev/hd[a-z]" for "\\.\PhysicalDrive[0-25]". Use one the
forms "/dev/tape[0-255]", "/dev/st[0-255]", or
"/dev/nst[0-255]" for SCSI tape drives "\\.\Tape[0-255]".
Alternatively, drive letters "X:" or "X:\" may be used to
specify the (´basic´) disk behind a mounted partition. This
does not work with ´dynamic´ disks.
For disks behind 3ware 9000 controllers use "/dev/sd[a-z],N"
where N specifies the disk number (3ware ´port´) behind the
controller providing the logical drive (´unit´) specified by
"/dev/sd[a-z]". Alternatively, use "/dev/tw_cli/cx/py" for
controller x, port y to run the ´tw_cli´ tool and parse the
output. This provides limited monitoring (´-i´, ´-c´, ´-A´
below) if SMART support is missing in the driver. Use
"/dev/tw_cli/stdin" or "/dev/tw_cli/clip" to parse CLI or 3DM
output from standard input or clipboard. The option ´-d
3ware,N´ is not necessary on Windows. The prefix "/dev/" is
CYGWIN: See "WINDOWS NT4/2000/XP/2003/Vista" above.
Use the form "/dev/hd[a-z]" for IDE/ATA devices.
if ´-´ is specified as the device path, smartctl reads and interprets
it’s own debug output from standard input. See ´-r ataioctl´ below for
Based on the device path, smartctl will guess the device type (ATA or
SCSI). If necessary, the ´-d´ option can be used to over-ride this
Note that the printed output of smartctl displays most numerical values
in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in base 16
(hexadecimal). To distinguish them, the base 16 values are always
displayed with a leading "0x", for example: "0xff". This man page
follows the same convention.
The options are grouped below into several categories. smartctl will
execute the corresponding commands in the order: INFORMATION,
ENABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.
Long options are not supported on all systems. Use ´smartctl
-h´ to see the available options.
SHOW INFORMATION OPTIONS:
-h, --help, --usage
Prints a usage message to STDOUT and exits.
-V, --version, --copyright, --license
Prints version, copyright, license, home page and SVN revision
information for your copy of smartctl to STDOUT and then exits.
Please include this information if you are reporting bugs or
Prints the device model number, serial number, firmware version,
and ATA Standard version/revision information. Says if the
device supports SMART, and if so, whether SMART support is
currently enabled or disabled. If the device supports Logical
Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive capacity
in bytes. (If drive is has a user protected area reserved, or is
"clipped", this may be smaller than the potential maximum drive
capacity.) Indicates if the drive is in the smartmontools
database (see ´-v´ options below). If so, the drive model
family may also be printed. If ´-n´ (see below) is specified,
the power mode of the drive is printed.
Prints all SMART information about the disk, or TapeAlert
information about the tape drive or changer. For ATA devices
this is equivalent to
´-H -i -c -A -l error -l selftest -l selective´
and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest´.
Note that for ATA disks this does not enable the non-SMART
options and the SMART options which require support for 48-bit
Prints all SMART and non-SMART information about the device. For
ATA devices this is equivalent to
´-H -i -c -A -l xerror,error -l xselftest,selftest -l selective
-l directory -l scttemp -l scterc -l sataphy´.
and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest -l background -l sasphy´.
RUN-TIME BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:
-q TYPE, --quietmode=TYPE
Specifies that smartctl should run in one of the two quiet modes
described here. The valid arguments to this option are:
errorsonly - only print: For the ´-l error´ option, if nonzero,
the number of errors recorded in the SMART error log and the
power-on time when they occurred; For the ´-l selftest´ option,
errors recorded in the device self-test log; For the ´-H´
option, SMART "disk failing" status or device Attributes
(pre-failure or usage) which failed either now or in the past;
For the ´-A´ option, device Attributes (pre-failure or usage)
which failed either now or in the past.
silent - print no output. The only way to learn about what was
found is to use the exit status of smartctl (see RETURN VALUES
noserial - Do not print the serial number of the device.
-d TYPE, --device=TYPE
Specifies the type of the device. The valid arguments to this
option are ata, scsi, sat, marvell, 3ware,N, areca,N,
usbcypress, usbjmicron, usbsunplus, cciss,N, hpt,L/M (or
hpt,L/M/N), and test.
If this option is not used then smartctl will attempt to guess
the device type from the device name or from controller type
info provided by the operating system.
If ´test´ is used as the TYPE name, smartctl prints the guessed
TYPE name, then opens the device and prints the (possibly
changed) TYPE name and then exists without performing any
The ´sat´ device type is for ATA disks that have a SCSI to ATA
Translation (SAT) Layer (SATL) between the disk and the
operating system. SAT defines two ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI
commands, one 12 bytes long and the other 16 bytes long that
smartctl will utilize when this device type is selected. The
default is the 16 byte variant which can be overridden with
either ´-d sat,12´ or ´-d sat,16´.
The ´usbcypress´ device type is for ATA disks that are behind a
Cypress usb-pata bridge. This will use the ATACB proprietary
scsi pass through command. There is no autodetection at the
moment. The best way to know if your device support it, is to
check your device usb id (most Cypress usb ata bridge got
vid=0x04b4, pid=0x6830) or to try it (if the usb device doesn’t
support ATACB, smartmontools print an error). The default scsi
operation code is 0x24, but although it can be overridden with
´-d usbcypress,0xn´, where n is the scsi operation code, you’re
running the risk of damage to the device or filesystems on it.
[NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] The ´usbjmicron´ device type
is for SATA disks that are behind a JMicron USB to PATA/SATA
bridge. The 48-bit ATA commands (required e.g. for ´-l xerror´,
see below) do not work with all of these bridges and are
therefore disabled by default. These commands can be enabled by
´-d usbjmicron,x´. CAUTION: Specifying ´,x´ for a device which
do not support it results in I/O errors and may disconnect the
drive. The port can be specified by ´-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT´
where PORT is 0 (master) or 1 (slave). This is not necessary if
only one disk is connected to the USB bridge. If two disks are
connected, an error message is printed if no PORT is specified.
[NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] The ´usbsunplus´ device type
is for SATA disks that are behind a SunplusIT USB to SATA
Under Linux, to look at SATA disks behind Marvell SATA
controllers (using Marvell’s ´linuxIAL´ driver rather than
libata driver) use ´-d marvell´. Such controllers show up as
Marvell Technology Group Ltd. SATA I or II controllers using
lspci, or using lspci -n show a vendor ID 0x11ab and a device ID
of either 0x5040, 0x5041, 0x5080, 0x5081, 0x6041 or 0x6081. The
´linuxIAL´ driver seems not (yet?) available in the Linux kernel
source tree, but should be available from system vendors
(ftp://ftp.aslab.com/ is known to provide a patch with the
Under Linux , to look at SCSI/SAS disks behind LSI MegaRAID
controllers, use syntax such as:
smartctl -a -d megaraid,2 /dev/sda
smartctl -a -d megaraid,0 /dev/sdb
where in the argument megaraid,N, the integer N is the physical
disk number within the MegaRAID controller. This interface will
also work for Dell PERC controllers. The following /dev/XXX
entry must exist:
For PERC2/3/4 controllers: /dev/megadev0
For PERC5/6 controllers: /dev/megaraid_sas_ioctl_node
Under Linux and FreeBSD, to look at ATA disks behind 3ware SCSI
RAID controllers, use syntax such as:
smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda
smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
where in the argument 3ware,N, the integer N is the disk number
(3ware ´port´) within the 3ware ATA RAID controller. The
allowed values of N are from 0 to 127 inclusive. The first two
forms, which refer to devices /dev/sda-z and /dev/twe0-15, may
be used with 3ware series 6000, 7000, and 8000 series
controllers that use the 3x-xxxx driver. Note that the
/dev/sda-z form is deprecated starting with the Linux 2.6 kernel
series and may not be supported by the Linux kernel in the near
future. The final form, which refers to devices /dev/twa0-15,
must be used with 3ware 9000 series controllers, which use the
Note that if the special character device nodes /dev/twa? and
/dev/twe? do not exist, or exist with the incorrect major or
minor numbers, smartctl will recreate them on the fly.
Typically /dev/twa0 refers to the first 9000-series controller,
/dev/twa1 refers to the second 9000 series controller, and so
on. Likewise /dev/twe0 refers to the first 6/7/8000-series
controller, /dev/twa1 refers to the second 6/7/8000 series
controller, and so on.
Note that for the 6/7/8000 controllers, any of the physical
disks can be queried or examined using any of the 3ware’s SCSI
logical device /dev/sd? entries. Thus, if logical device
/dev/sda is made up of two physical disks (3ware ports zero and
one) and logical device /dev/sdb is made up of two other
physical disks (3ware ports two and three) then you can examine
the SMART data on any of the four physical disks using either
SCSI device /dev/sda or /dev/sdb. If you need to know which
logical SCSI device a particular physical disk (3ware port) is
associated with, use the dmesg or SYSLOG output to show which
SCSI ID corresponds to a particular 3ware unit, and then use the
3ware CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical disks)
correspond to particular 3ware units.
If the value of N corresponds to a port that does not exist on
the 3ware controller, or to a port that does not physically have
a disk attached to it, the behavior of smartctl depends upon the
specific controller model, firmware, Linux kernel and platform.
In some cases you will get a warning message that the device
does not exist. In other cases you will be presented with ´void´
data for a non-existent device.
Note that if the /dev/sd? addressing form is used, then older
3w-xxxx drivers do not pass the "Enable Autosave" (´-S on´) and
"Enable Automatic Offline" (´-o on´) commands to the disk, and
produce these types of harmless syslog error messages instead:
"3w-xxxx: tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big". This can
be fixed by upgrading to version 1.02.00.037 or later of the
3w-xxxx driver, or by applying a patch to older versions. See
http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ for instructions.
Alternatively, use the character device /dev/twe0-15 interface.
The selective self-test functions (´-t select,A-B´) are only
supported using the character device interface /dev/twa0-15 and
/dev/twe0-15. The necessary WRITE LOG commands can not be
passed through the SCSI interface.
Areca SATA RAID controllers are currently supported under Linux
only. To look at SATA disks behind Areca RAID controllers, use
syntax such as:
smartctl -a -d areca,2 /dev/sg2
smartctl -a -d areca,3 /dev/sg3
where in the argument areca,N, the integer N is the disk number
(Areca ´port´) within the Areca SATA RAID controller. The
allowed values of N are from 1 to 24 inclusive. The first line
above addresses the second disk on the first Areca RAID
controller. The second line addresses the third disk on the
second Areca RAID controller. To help identify the correct
device, use the command:
cat /proc/scsi/sg/device_hdr /proc/scsi/sg/devices
to show the SCSI generic devices (one per line, starting with
/dev/sg0). The correct SCSI generic devices to address for
smartmontools are the ones with the type field equal to 3. If
the incorrect device is addressed, please read the warning/error
messages carefully. They should provide hints about what
devices to use.
Important: the Areca controller must have firmware version 1.46
or later. Lower-numbered firmware versions will give (harmless)
SCSI error messages and no SMART information.
To look at (S)ATA disks behind HighPoint RocketRAID controllers,
use syntax such as:
smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
where in the argument hpt,L/M or hpt,L/M/N, the integer L is the
controller id, the integer M is the channel number, and the
integer N is the PMPort number if it is available. The allowed
values of L are from 1 to 4 inclusive, M are from 1 to 8
inclusive and N from 1 to 5 if PMPort available. Note that the
/dev/sda-z form should be the device node which stands for the
disks derived from the HighPoint RocketRAID controllers under
Linux and under FreeBSD, it is the character device which the
driver registered (eg, /dev/hptrr, /dev/hptmv6). And also these
values are limited by the model of the HighPoint RocketRAID
HighPoint RocketRAID controllers are currently ONLY supported
under Linux and FreeBSD.
cciss controllers are currently ONLY supported under Linux and
-T TYPE, --tolerance=TYPE
[ATA only] Specifies how tolerant smartctl should be of ATA and
SMART command failures.
The behavior of smartctl depends upon whether the command is
"optional" or "mandatory". Here "mandatory" means "required by
the ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification if the device implements the SMART
command set" and "optional" means "not required by the
ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification even if the device implements the
SMART command set." The "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are:
(1) ATA IDENTIFY DEVICE, (2) SMART ENABLE/DISABLE ATTRIBUTE
AUTOSAVE, (3) SMART ENABLE/DISABLE, and (4) SMART RETURN STATUS.
The valid arguments to this option are:
normal - exit on failure of any mandatory SMART command, and
ignore all failures of optional SMART commands. This is the
default. Note that on some devices, issuing unimplemented
optional SMART commands doesn´t cause an error. This can result
in misleading smartctl messages such as "Feature X not
implemented", followed shortly by "Feature X: enabled". In most
such cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X is not
conservative - exit on failure of any optional SMART command.
permissive - ignore failure(s) of mandatory SMART commands.
This option may be given more than once. Each additional use of
this option will cause one more additional failure to be
ignored. Note that the use of this option can lead to messages
like "Feature X not implemented", followed shortly by "Error:
unable to enable Feature X". In a few such cases, contrary to
the final message, Feature X is enabled.
verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of ´-T
permissive´ options: ignore failures of any number of mandatory
SMART commands. Please see the note above.
-b TYPE, --badsum=TYPE
[ATA only] Specifies the action smartctl should take if a
checksum error is detected in the: (1) Device Identity
Structure, (2) SMART Self-Test Log Structure, (3) SMART
Attribute Value Structure, (4) SMART Attribute Threshold
Structure, or (5) ATA Error Log Structure.
The valid arguments to this option are:
warn - report the incorrect checksum but carry on in spite of
it. This is the default.
exit - exit smartctl.
ignore - continue silently without issuing a warning.
-r TYPE, --report=TYPE
Intended primarily to help smartmontools developers understand
the behavior of smartmontools on non-conforming or poorly
conforming hardware. This option reports details of smartctl
transactions with the device. The option can be used multiple
times. When used just once, it shows a record of the ioctl()
transactions with the device. When used more than once, the
detail of these ioctl() transactions are reported in greater
detail. The valid arguments to this option are:
ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.
ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.
scsiioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI devices.
Invoking this once shows the SCSI commands in hex and the
corresponding status. Invoking it a second time adds a hex
listing of the first 64 bytes of data send to, or received from
Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
of detail that should be reported. The argument should be
followed by a comma then the integer with no spaces. For
example, ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so ´-r ataioctl,1´
and ´-r ataioctl´ are equivalent.
For testing purposes, the output of ´-r ataioctl,2´ can later be
parsed by smartctl itself if ´-´ is used as device path
argument. The ATA command input parameters, sector data and
return values are reconstructed from the debug report read from
stdin. Then smartctl internally simulates an ATA device with
the same behaviour. This is does not work for SCSI devices yet.
-n POWERMODE, --nocheck=POWERMODE
[ATA only] Specifies if smartctl should exit before performing
any checks when the device is in a low-power mode. It may be
used to prevent a disk from being spun-up by smartctl. The power
mode is ignored by default. The allowed values of POWERMODE are:
never - check the device always, but print the power mode if
´-i´ is specified.
sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.
standby - check the device unless it is in SLEEP or STANDBY
mode. In these modes most disks are not spinning, so if you
want to prevent a disk from spinning up, this is probably what
idle - check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE
mode. In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this
is probably not what you want.
SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:
Note: if multiple options are used to both enable and disable a
feature, then both the enable and disable commands will be
issued. The enable command will always be issued before the
corresponding disable command.
-s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
Enables or disables SMART on device. The valid arguments to
this option are on and off. Note that the command ´-s on´
(perhaps used with with the ´-o on´ and ´-S on´ options) should
be placed in a start-up script for your machine, for example in
rc.local or rc.sysinit. In principle the SMART feature settings
are preserved over power-cycling, but it doesn´t hurt to be
sure. It is not necessary (or useful) to enable SMART to see the
-o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
[ATA only] Enables or disables SMART automatic offline test,
which scans the drive every four hours for disk defects. This
command can be given during normal system operation. The valid
arguments to this option are on and off.
Note that the SMART automatic offline test command is listed as
"Obsolete" in every version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI
Specifications. It was originally part of the SFF-8035i
Revision 2.0 specification, but was never part of any ATA
specification. However it is implemented and used by many
vendors. [Good documentation can be found in IBM´s Official
Published Disk Specifications. For example the IBM Travelstar
40GNX Hard Disk Drive Specifications (Revision 1.1, 22 April
2002, Publication # 1541, Document S07N-7715-02) page 164. You
can also read the SFF-8035i Specification -- see REFERENCES
below.] You can tell if automatic offline testing is supported
by seeing if this command enables and disables it, as indicated
by the ´Auto Offline Data Collection´ part of the SMART
capabilities report (displayed with ´-c´).
SMART provides three basic categories of testing. The first
category, called "online" testing, has no effect on the
performance of the device. It is turned on by the ´-s on´
The second category of testing is called "offline" testing. This
type of test can, in principle, degrade the device performance.
The ´-o on´ option causes this offline testing to be carried
out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis. Normally, the
disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses are taking
place, and then automatically resume it when the disk would
otherwise be idle, so in practice it has little effect. Note
that a one-time offline test can also be carried out immediately
upon receipt of a user command. See the ´-t offline´ option
below, which causes a one-time offline test to be carried out
The choice (made by the SFF-8035i and ATA specification authors)
of the word testing for these first two categories is
unfortunate, and often leads to confusion. In fact these first
two categories of online and offline testing could have been
more accurately described as online and offline data collection.
The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
collection) are reflected in the values of the SMART Attributes.
Thus, if problems or errors are detected, the values of these
Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
errors may also appear in the SMART error log. These are visible
with the ´-A´ and ´-l error´ options respectively.
Some SMART attribute values are updated only during off-line
data collection activities; the rest are updated during normal
operation of the device or during both normal operation and
off-line testing. The Attribute value table produced by the
´-A´ option indicates this in the UPDATED column. Attributes of
the first type are labeled "Offline" and Attributes of the
second type are labeled "Always".
The third category of testing (and the only category for which
the word ´testing´ is really an appropriate choice) is "self"
testing. This third type of test is only performed
(immediately) when a command to run it is issued. The ´-t´ and
´-X´ options can be used to carry out and abort such self-tests;
please see below for further details.
Any errors detected in the self testing will be shown in the
SMART self-test log, which can be examined using the ´-l
Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
with the second category just described, e.g. for the "offline"
testing. The words "Self-test" are used in connection with the
-S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
Enables or disables SMART autosave of device vendor-specific
Attributes. The valid arguments to this option are on and off.
Note that this feature is preserved across disk power cycles, so
you should only need to issue it once.
For SCSI devices this toggles the value of the Global Logging
Target Save Disabled (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode Page. Some
disk manufacturers set this bit by default. This prevents error
counters, power-up hours and other useful data from being placed
in non-volatile storage, so these values may be reset to zero
the next time the device is power-cycled. If the GLTSD bit is
set then ´smartctl -a´ will issue a warning. Use on to clear the
GLTSD bit and thus enable saving counters to non-volatile
storage. For extreme streaming-video type applications you might
consider using off to set the GLTSD bit.
SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:
Check: Ask the device to report its SMART health status or
pending TapeAlert messages. SMART status is based on
information that it has gathered from online and offline tests,
which were used to determine/update its SMART vendor-specific
Attribute values. TapeAlert status is obtained by reading the
TapeAlert log page.
If the device reports failing health status, this means either
that the device has already failed, or that it is predicting its
own failure within the next 24 hours. If this happens, use the
´-a´ option to get more information, and get your data off the
disk and to someplace safe as soon as you can.
[ATA only] Prints only the generic SMART capabilities. These
show what SMART features are implemented and how the device will
respond to some of the different SMART commands. For example it
shows if the device logs errors, if it supports offline surface
scanning, and so on. If the device can carry out self-tests,
this option also shows the estimated time required to run those
Note that the time required to run the Self-tests (listed in
minutes) are fixed. However the time required to run the
Immediate Offline Test (listed in seconds) is variable. This
means that if you issue a command to perform an Immediate
Offline test with the ´-t offline´ option, then the time may
jump to a larger value and then count down as the Immediate
Offline Test is carried out. Please see REFERENCES below for
further information about the the flags and capabilities
described by this option.
[ATA] Prints only the vendor specific SMART Attributes. The
Attributes are numbered from 1 to 253 and have specific names
and ID numbers. For example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
how many times has the disk been powered up.
Each Attribute has a "Raw" value, printed under the heading
"RAW_VALUE", and a "Normalized" value printed under the heading
"VALUE". [Note: smartctl prints these values in base-10.] In
the example just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute 12 would
be the actual number of times that the disk has been
power-cycled, for example 365 if the disk has been turned on
once per day for exactly one year. Each vendor uses their own
algorithm to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in
the range from 1 to 254. Please keep in mind that smartctl only
reports the different Attribute types, values, and thresholds as
read from the device. It does not carry out the conversion
between "Raw" and "Normalized" values: this is done by the
The conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical units
is not specified by the SMART standard. In most cases, the
values printed by smartctl are sensible. For example the
temperature Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the
temperature in Celsius. However in some cases vendors use
unusual conventions. For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop
reports its power-on hours in minutes, not hours. Some IBM disks
track three temperatures rather than one, in their raw values.
And so on.
Each Attribute also has a Threshold value (whose range is 0 to
255) which is printed under the heading "THRESH". If the
Normalized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value,
then the Attribute is said to have failed. If the Attribute is
a pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.
Each Attribute also has a "Worst" value shown under the heading
"WORST". This is the smallest (closest to failure) value that
the disk has recorded at any time during its lifetime when SMART
was enabled. [Note however that some vendors firmware may
actually increase the "Worst" value for some "rate-type"
The Attribute table printed out by smartctl also shows the
"TYPE" of the Attribute. Attributes are one of two possible
types: Pre-failure or Old age. Pre-failure Attributes are ones
which, if less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
pending disk failure. Old age, or usage Attributes, are ones
which indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal aging
and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal to the
threshold. Please note: the fact that an Attribute is of type
’Pre-fail’ does not mean that your disk is about to fail! It
only has this meaning if the Attribute´s current Normalized
value is less than or equal to the threshold value.
If the Attribute´s current Normalized value is less than or
equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
display "FAILING_NOW". If not, but the worst recorded value is
less than or equal to the threshold value, then this column will
display "In_the_past". If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
(indicated by a dash: ´-´) then this Attribute is OK now (not
failing) and has also never failed in the past.
The table column labeled "UPDATED" shows if the SMART Attribute
values are updated during both normal operation and off-line
testing, or only during offline testing. The former are labeled
"Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".
So to summarize: the Raw Attribute values are the ones that
might have a real physical interpretation, such as "Temperature
Celsius", "Hours", or "Start-Stop Cycles". Each manufacturer
converts these, using their detailed knowledge of the disk´s
operations and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values in
the range 1-254. The current and worst (lowest measured) of
these Normalized Attribute values are stored on the disk, along
with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
indicate that the disk is going to fail, or that it has exceeded
its design age or aging limit. smartctl does not calculate any
of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it merely reports
them from the SMART data on the device.
Note that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the meaning of
these Attribute fields has been made entirely vendor-specific.
However most ATA/ATAPI-5 disks seem to respect their meaning, so
we have retained the option of printing the Attribute values.
[SCSI] For SCSI devices the "attributes" are obtained from the
temperature and start-stop cycle counter log pages. Certain
vendor specific attributes are listed if recognised. The
attributes are output in a relatively free format (compared with
ATA disk attributes).
-l TYPE, --log=TYPE
Prints either the SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test Log, the
SMART Selective Self-Test Log [ATA only], the Log Directory [ATA
only], or the Background Scan Results Log [SCSI only]. The
valid arguments to this option are:
error - [ATA] prints the Summary SMART error log. SMART disks
maintain a log of the most recent five non-trivial errors. For
each of these errors, the disk power-on lifetime at which the
error occurred is recorded, as is the device status (idle,
standby, etc) at the time of the error. For some common types
of errors, the Error Register (ER) and Status Register (SR)
values are decoded and printed as text. The meanings of these
ABRT: Command ABoRTed
AMNF: Address Mark Not Found
CCTO: Command Completion Timed Out
EOM: End Of Media
ICRC: Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
IDNF: IDentity Not Found
ILI: (packet command-set specific)
MC: Media Changed
MCR: Media Change Request
NM: No Media
TK0NF: TracK 0 Not Found
UNC: UNCorrectable Error in Data
WP: Media is Write Protected
In addition, up to the last five commands that preceded the
error are listed, along with a timestamp measured from the start
of the corresponding power cycle. This is displayed in the form
Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec where D is the number of days, HH is hours, MM
is minutes, SS is seconds and msec is milliseconds. [Note: this
time stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours 2
minutes and 47.296 seconds.] The key ATA disk registers are
also recorded in the log. The final column of the error log is
a text-string description of the ATA command defined by the
Command Register (CR) and Feature Register (FR) values.
Commands that are obsolete in the most current (ATA-7) spec are
listed like this: READ LONG (w/ retry) [OBS-4], indicating that
the command became obsolete with or in the ATA-4 specification.
Similarly, the notation [RET-N] is used to indicate that a
command was retired in the ATA-N specification. Some commands
are not defined in any version of the ATA specification but are
in common use nonetheless; these are marked [NS], meaning
The ATA Specification (ATA-5 Revision 1c, Section 220.127.116.11.2)
says: "Error log structures shall include UNC errors, IDNF
errors for which the address requested was valid, servo errors,
write fault errors, etc. Error log data structures shall not
include errors attributed to the receipt of faulty commands such
as command codes not implemented by the device or requests with
invalid parameters or invalid addresses." The definitions of
these terms are:
UNC (UNCorrectable): data is uncorrectable. This refers to data
which has been read from the disk, but for which the Error
Checking and Correction (ECC) codes are inconsistent. In
effect, this means that the data can not be read.
IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be found.
For READ LOG type commands, IDNF can also indicate that a device
data log structure checksum was incorrect.
If the command that caused the error was a READ or WRITE
command, then the Logical Block Address (LBA) at which the error
occurred will be printed in base 10 and base 16. The LBA is a
linear address, which counts 512-byte sectors on the disk,
starting from zero. (Because of the limitations of the SMART
error log, if the LBA is greater than 0xfffffff, then either no
error log entry will be made, or the error log entry will have
an incorrect LBA. This may happen for drives with a capacity
greater than 128 GiB or 137 GB.) On Linux systems the
smartmontools web page has instructions about how to convert the
LBA address to the name of the disk file containing the
erroneous disk sector.
Please note that some manufacturers ignore the ATA
specifications, and make entries in the error log if the device
receives a command which is not implemented or is not valid.
error - [SCSI] prints the error counter log pages for reads,
write and verifies. The verify row is only output if it has an
element other than zero.
xerror[,NUM][,error] - [ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL
FEATURE] prints the Extended Comprehensive SMART error log
(General Purpose Log address 0x03). Unlike the Summary SMART
error log (see ´-l error´ above), it provides sufficient space
to log the contents of the 48-bit LBA register set introduced
with ATA-6. It also supports logs with more than one sector.
Each sector holds up to 4 log entries. The actual number of log
sectors is vendor specific, typical values for HDD are 2
(Samsung), 5 (Seagate) or 6 (WD). Some recent SSD devices have
much larger error logs.
Only the 8 most recent error log entries are printed by default.
This number can be changed by the optional parameter NUM.
If ’,error’ is appended and the Extended Comprehensive SMART
error log is not supported, the Summary SMART self-test log is
Please note that some recent (e.g. Samsung) drives report errors
only in the Comprehensive SMART error log. The Summary SMART
error log can be read but is always empty.
selftest - [ATA] prints the SMART self-test log. The disk
maintains a self-test log showing the results of the self tests,
which can be run using the ´-t´ option described below. For
each of the most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log shows the
type of test (short or extended, off-line or captive) and the
final status of the test. If the test did not complete
successfully, then the percentage of the test remaining is
shown. The time at which the test took place, measured in hours
of disk lifetime, is also printed. [Note: this time stamp wraps
after 2^16 hours, or 2730 days and 16 hours, or about 7.5
years.] If any errors were detected, the Logical Block Address
(LBA) of the first error is printed in decimal notation. On
Linux systems the smartmontools web page has instructions about
how to convert this LBA address to the name of the disk file
containing the erroneous block.
selftest - [SCSI] the self-test log for a SCSI device has a
slightly different format than for an ATA device. For each of
the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
the status (final or in progress) of the test. SCSI standards
use the terms "foreground" and "background" (rather than ATA´s
corresponding "captive" and "off-line") and "short" and "long"
(rather than ATA´s corresponding "short" and "extended") to
describe the type of the test. The printed segment number is
only relevant when a test fails in the third or later test
segment. It identifies the test that failed and consists of
either the number of the segment that failed during the test, or
the number of the test that failed and the number of the segment
in which the test was run, using a vendor-specific method of
putting both numbers into a single byte. The Logical Block
Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in hexadecimal
notation. On Linux systems the smartmontools web page has
instructions about how to convert this LBA address to the name
of the disk file containing the erroneous block. If provided,
the SCSI Sense Key (SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC) and
Additional Sense Code Qualifier (ASQ) are also printed. The self
tests can be run using the ´-t´ option described below (using
the ATA test terminology).
xselftest[,NUM][,selftest] - [ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL
SMARTCTL FEATURE] prints the Extended SMART self-test log
(General Purpose Log address 0x07). Unlike the SMART self-test
log (see ´-l selftest´ above), it supports 48-bit LBA and logs
with more than one sector. Each sector holds up to 19 log
entries. The actual number of log sectors is vendor specific,
typical values are 1 (Seagate) or 2 (Samsung).
Only the 25 most recent log entries are printed by default. This
number can be changed by the optional parameter NUM.
If ’,selftest’ is appended and the Extended SMART self-test log
is not supported, the old SMART self-test log is printed.
selective - [ATA only] Please see the ´-t select´ option below
for a description of selective self-tests. The selective
self-test log shows the start/end Logical Block Addresses (LBA)
of each of the five test spans, and their current test status.
If the span is being tested or the remainder of the disk is
being read-scanned, the current 65536-sector block of LBAs being
tested is also displayed. The selective self-test log also
shows if a read-scan of the remainder of the disk will be
carried out after the selective self-test has completed (see ´-t
afterselect´ option) and the time delay before restarting this
read-scan if it is interrupted (see ´-t pending´ option). This
is a new smartmontools feature; please report unusual or
incorrect behavior to the smartmontools-support mailing list.
directory[,gs] - [ATA only] if the device supports the General
Purpose Logging feature set (ATA-6 and above) then this prints
the Log Directory (the log at address 0). The Log Directory
shows what logs are available and their length in sectors (512
bytes). The contents of the logs at address 1 [Summary SMART
error log] and at address 6 [SMART self-test log] may be printed
using the previously-described error and selftest arguments to
this option. If your version of smartctl supports 48-bit ATA
commands, both the General Purpose Log (GPL) and SMART Log (SL)
directories are printed in one combined table. The output can be
restricted to the GPL directory or SL directory by ´-l
directory,q´ or ´-l directory,s´ respectively.
background - [SCSI only] the background scan results log outputs
information derived from Background Media Scans (BMS) done after
power up and/or periodocally (e.g. every 24 hours) on recent
SCSI disks. If supported, the BMS status is output first,
indicating whether a background scan is currently underway (and
if so a progress percentage), the amount of time the disk has
been powered up and the number of scans already completed. Then
there is a header and a line for each background scan "event".
These will typically be either recovered or unrecoverable
errors. That latter group may need some attention. There is a
description of the background scan mechansim in section 4.18 of
SBC-3 revision 6 (see www.t10.org ).
scttemp, scttempsts, scttemphist - [ATA only] prints the disk
temperature information provided by the SMART Command Transport
(SCT) commands. The option ´scttempsts´ prints current
temperature and temperature ranges returned by the SCT Status
command, ´scttemphist´ prints temperature limits and the
temperature history table returned by the SCT Data Table
command, and ´scttemp´ prints both. The temperature values are
preserved across power cycles. The default temperature logging
interval is 1 minute and can be configured with the ´-t
scttempint,N[,p]´ option, see below. The SCT commands are
specified in the proposed ATA-8 Command Set (ACS), and are
already implemented in some recent ATA-7 disks.
scterc[,READTIME,WRITETIME] - [ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL
SMARTCTL FEATURE] prints values and descriptions of the SCT
Error Recovery Control settings. These are equivalent to TLER
(as used by Western Digital), CCTL (as used by Samsung and
Hitachi) and ERC (as used by Seagate. READTIME and WRITETIME
arguments (deciseconds) set the specified values. Values of 0
disable the feature, other values less than 65 are probably not
supported. For RAID configurations, this is typically set to
sataphy[,reset] - [SATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL
FEATURE] prints values and descriptions of the SATA Phy Event
Counters (General Purpose Log address 0x11). If ´-l
sataphy,reset´ is specified, all counters are reset after
reading the values.
sasphy[,reset] - [SAS (SCSI) only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL
FEATURE] prints values and descriptions of the SAS (SSP)
Protocol Specific log page (log page 0x18). If ´-l sasphy,reset´
is specified, all counters are reset after reading the values.
gplog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] - [ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL
SMARTCTL FEATURE] prints a hex dump of any log accessible via
General Purpose Logging (GPL) feature. The log address ADDR is
the hex address listed in the log directory (see ´-l directory´
above). The range of log sectors (pages) can be specified by
decimal values FIRST-LAST or FIRST+SIZE. FIRST defaults to 0,
SIZE defaults to 1. LAST can be set to ´max´ to specify the last
page of the log.
smartlog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] - [ATA only] [NEW
EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] prints a hex dump of any log
accessible via SMART Read Log command. See ´-l gplog,...´ above
for parameter syntax.
For example, all these commands:
smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10+6 /dev/sda
smartctl -l smartlog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
print pages 10-15 of log 0x80 (first host vendor specific log).
The hex dump format is compatible with the ´xxd -r´ command.
smartctl -l gplog,0x11 /dev/sda | grep ^0 | xxd -r >log.bin
writes a binary representation of the one sector log 0x11 (SATA
Phy Event Counters) to file log.bin.
[ATA only] Sets a vendor-specific raw value print FORMAT, an
optional BYTEORDER and an optional NAME for Attribute ID. This
option may be used multiple times.
The Attribute ID can be in the range 1 to 255. If ´N´ is
specified as ID, the settings for all Attributes are changed.
The optional BYTEORDER consists of 1 to 8 characters from the
set ´012345rvwz´. The characters ´0´ to ´5´ select the byte 0 to
5 from the 48-bit raw value, ´r´ selects the reserved byte of
the attribute data block, ´v´ selects the normalized value, ´w´
selects the worst value and ´z´ inserts a zero byte. The
default BYTEORDER is ´543210´ for all 48-bit formats, and
´543210wv´ for the 64-bit formats. For example, ´-v
5,raw48:012345´ prints the raw value of attribute 5 with big
endian instead of little endian byte ordering.
The NAME is a string of letters, digits and underscore.
-v help - Prints (to STDOUT) a list of all valid arguments to
this option, then exits.
Valid arguments for FORMAT are:
raw8 - Print the Raw value as six 8-bit unsigned base-10
integers. This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the
raw16 - Print the Raw value as three 16-bit unsigned base-10
integers. This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the
raw48 - Print the Raw value as a 48-bit unsigned base-10
integer. This is the default for most attributes.
hex48 - Print the Raw value as a 12 digit hexadecimal number.
This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.
raw64 - Print the Raw value as a 64-bit unsigned base-10
integer. This includes two bytes from the normalized and worst
attribute value. This new raw format is used by some recent SSD
hex64 - Print the Raw value as a 16 digit hexadecimal number.
This includes two bytes from the normalized and worst attribute
value. This new raw format is used by some recent SSD devices.
min2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time in minutes. Its raw
value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym". Here X is hours,
and Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive. Y is always
printed with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".
sec2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time in seconds. Its raw
value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym+Zs". Here X is
hours, Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z is
seconds in the range 0-59 inclusive. Y and Z are always printed
with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".
halfmin2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time, measured in units
of 30 seconds. This format is used by some Samsung disks. Its
raw value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym". Here X is
hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive. Y is
always printed with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or
tempminmax - Raw Attribute is the disk temperature in Celsius.
Info about Lifetime Min/Max temperature is printed if available.
This is the default for Attributes 190 and 194.
temp10x - Raw Attribute is ten times the disk temperature in
raw16(raw16) - Print the raw attribute as a 16-bit value and two
optional 16-bit values if these words are nonzero. This is the
default for Attributes 5 and 196.
raw16(avg16) - Raw attribute is spin-up time. It is printed as
a 16-bit value and an optional "Average" 16-bit value if the
word is nonzero. This is the default for Attribute 3.
raw24/raw24 - Raw Attribute contains two 24-bit values. The
first is the number of load cycles. The second is the number of
unload cycles. The difference between these two values is the
number of times that the drive was unexpectedly powered off
(also called an emergency unload). As a rule of thumb, the
mechanical stress created by one emergency unload is equivalent
to that created by one hundred normal unloads.
The following old arguments to ´-v´ are also still valid:
9,minutes - same as: 9,min2hour,Power_On_Minutes.
9,seconds - same as: 9,sec2hour,Power_On_Seconds.
9,halfminutes - same as: 9,halfmin2hour,Power_On_Half_Minutes.
9,temp - same as: 9,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.
192,emergencyretractcyclect - same as:
193,loadunload - same as: 193,raw24/raw24.
194,10xCelsius - same as: 194,temp10x,Temperature_Celsius_x10.
194,unknown - same as: 194,raw48,Unknown_Attribute.
197,increasing - same as: 197,raw48,Total_Pending_Sectors. Also
means that Attribute number 197 (Current Pending Sector Count)
is not reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated (see
smartd.conf(5) man page).
198,increasing - same as: 198,raw48,Total_Offl_Uncorrectabl.
Also means that Attribute number 198 (Offline Uncorrectable
Sector Count) is not reset if uncorrectable sectors are
reallocated (see smartd.conf(5) man page).
198,offlinescanuncsectorct - same as:
200,writeerrorcount - same as: 200,raw48,Write_Error_Count.
201,detectedtacount - same as: 201,raw48,Detected_TA_Count.
220,temp - same as: 220,raw48,Temperature_Celsius.
Note: a table of hard drive models, listing which Attribute
corresponds to temperature, can be found at:
-F TYPE, --firmwarebug=TYPE
[ATA only] Modifies the behavior of smartctl to compensate for
some known and understood device firmware or driver bug. Except
´swapid´, the arguments to this option are exclusive, so that
only the final option given is used. The valid values are:
none - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA
specifications. This is the default, unless the device has
presets for ´-F´ in the device database (see note below).
samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities in
the SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
specification). Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate
these quantities in byte-reversed order. Some signs that your
disk needs this option are (1) no self-test log printed, even
though you have run self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA
errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
values for the ATA error log timestamps.
samsung2 - In more recent Samsung disks (firmware revisions
ending in "-23") the number of ATA errors reported is byte
swapped. Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate this
quantity in byte-reversed order. An indication that your Samsung
disk needs this option is that the self-test log is printed
correctly, but there are a very large number of errors in the
SMART error log. This is because the error count is byte
swapped. Thus a disk with five errors (0x0005) will appear to
have 20480 errors (0x5000).
samsung3 - Some Samsung disks (at least SP2514N with Firmware
VF100-37) report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
when the test was already completed. Enabling this option
modifies the output of the self-test execution status (see
options ´-c´ or ´-a´ above) accordingly.
Note that an explicit ´-F´ option on the command line will
over-ride any preset values for ´-F´ (see the ´-P´ option
swapid - Fixes byte swapped ATA identify strings (device name,
serial number, firmware version) returned by some buggy device
-P TYPE, --presets=TYPE
[ATA only] Specifies whether smartctl should use any preset
options that are available for this drive. By default, if the
drive is recognized in the smartmontools database, then the
presets are used.
smartctl can automatically set appropriate options for known
drives. For example, the Maxtor 4D080H4 uses Attribute 9 to
stores power-on time in minutes whereas most drives use that
Attribute to store the power-on time in hours. The command-line
option ´-v 9,minutes´ ensures that smartctl correctly interprets
Attribute 9 in this case, but that option is preset for the
Maxtor 4D080H4 and so need not be specified by the user on the
smartctl command line.
The argument show will show any preset options for your drive
and the argument showall will show all known drives in the
smartmontools database, along with their preset options. If
there are no presets for your drive and you think there should
be (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl to
display correct values) then please contact the smartmontools
developers so that this information can be added to the
smartmontools database. Contact information is at the end of
this man page.
The valid arguments to this option are:
use - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets for
it. This is the default. Note that presets will NOT over-ride
additional Attribute interpretation (´-v N,something´)
command-line options or explicit ´-F´ command-line options..
ignore - do not use presets.
show - show if the drive is recognized in the database, and if
so, its presets, then exit.
showall - list all recognized drives, and the presets that are
set for them, then exit.
The ´-P showall´ option takes up to two optional arguments to
match a specific drive type and firmware version. The command:
smartctl -P showall
lists all entries, the command:
smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´
lists all entries matching MODEL, and the command:
smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´ ´FIRMWARE´
lists all entries for this MODEL and a specific FIRMWARE
-B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
[ATA only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] Read the drive
database from FILE. The new database replaces the built in
database by default. If ´+´ is specified, then the new entries
prepend the built in entries.
If this option is not specified, optional entries are read from
the file /etc/smart_drivedb.h (Windows: ./smart_drivedb.conf).
If /usr/share/smartmontools/drivedb.h is present, the contents
of this file is used instead of the built in table.
Run the script /usr/sbin/update-smart-drivedb to update this
file from the smartmontools SVN repository.
The database files use the same C/C++ syntax that is used to
initialize the built in database array. C/C++ style comments are
/* Full entry: */
"Model family", // Info about model family/series.
"MODEL1.*REGEX", // Regular expression to match model of device.
"VERSION.*REGEX", // Regular expression to match firmware version(s).
"Some warning", // Warning message.
"-v 9,minutes" // String of preset -v and -F options.
/* Minimal entry: */
"", // No model family/series info.
"MODEL2.*REGEX", // Regular expression to match model of device.
"", // All firmware versions.
"", // No warning.
"" // No options preset.
/* ... */
SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND SELF-TEST OPTIONS:
-t TEST, --test=TEST
Executes TEST immediately. The ´-C´ option can be used in
conjunction with this option to run the short or long (and also
for ATA devices, selective or conveyance) self-tests in captive
mode (known as "foreground mode" for SCSI devices). Note that
only one test type can be run at a time, so only one test type
should be specified per command line. Note also that if a
computer is shutdown or power cycled during a self-test, no harm
should result. The self-test will either be aborted or will
The valid arguments to this option are:
offline - runs SMART Immediate Offline Test. This immediately
starts the test described above. This command can be given
during normal system operation. The effects of this test are
visible only in that it updates the SMART Attribute values, and
if errors are found they will appear in the SMART error log,
visible with the ´-l error´ option. [In the case of SCSI devices
runs the default self test in foreground. No entry is placed in
the self test log.]
If the ´-c´ option to smartctl shows that the device has the
"Suspend Offline collection upon new command" capability then
you can track the progress of the Immediate Offline test using
the ´-c´ option to smartctl. If the ´-c´ option show that the
device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command"
capability then most commands will abort the Immediate Offline
Test, so you should not try to track the progress of the test
with ´-c´, as it will abort the test.
short - runs SMART Short Self Test (usually under ten minutes).
[Note: in the case of SCSI devices, this command option runs the
"Background short" self-test.] This command can be given during
normal system operation (unless run in captive mode - see the
´-C´ option below). This is a test in a different category than
the immediate or automatic offline tests. The "Self" tests
check the electrical and mechanical performance as well as the
read performance of the disk. Their results are reported in the
Self Test Error Log, readable with the ´-l selftest´ option.
Note that on some disks the progress of the self-test can be
monitored by watching this log during the self-test; with other
disks use the ´-c´ option to monitor progress.
long - runs SMART Extended Self Test (tens of minutes). [Note:
in the case of SCSI devices, this command option runs the
"Background long" self-test.] This is a longer and more
thorough version of the Short Self Test described above. Note
that this command can be given during normal system operation
(unless run in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).
conveyance - [ATA only] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test
(minutes). This self-test routine is intended to identify
damage incurred during transporting of the device. This
self-test routine should take on the order of minutes to
complete. Note that this command can be given during normal
system operation (unless run in captive mode - see the ´-C´
select,N-M, select,N+SIZE - [ATA only] runs a SMART Selective
Self Test, to test a range of disk Logical Block Addresses
(LBAs), rather than the entire disk. Each range of LBAs that is
checked is called a "span" and is specified by a starting LBA
(N) and an ending LBA (M) with N less than or equal to M. The
range can also be specified as N+SIZE. A span at the end of a
disk can be specified by N-max.
For example the commands:
smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/hda
both runs a self test on one span consisting of LBAs ten to
twenty (inclusive). The command:
smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/hda
run a self test from LBA 100000000 up to the end of the disk.
The ´-t´ option can be given up to five times, to test up to
five spans. For example the command:
smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/hda
runs a self test on two spans. The first span consists of 101
LBAs and the second span consists of 1001 LBAs. Note that the
spans can overlap partially or completely, for example:
smartctl -t select,0-10 -t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
The results of the selective self-test can be obtained (both
during and after the test) by printing the SMART self-test log,
using the ´-l selftest´ option to smartctl.
Selective self tests are particularly useful as disk capacities
increase: an extended self test (smartctl -t long) can take
several hours. Selective self-tests are helpful if (based on
SYSLOG error messages, previous failed self-tests, or SMART
error log entries) you suspect that a disk is having problems at
a particular range of Logical Block Addresses (LBAs).
Selective self-tests can be run during normal system operation
(unless done in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).
[Note: To use this feature on Linux, the kernel must be compiled
with the configuration option CONFIG_IDE_TASKFILE_IO enabled.
Please report unusual or incorrect behavior to the
smartmontools-support mailing list.]
The following variants of the selective self-test command use
spans based on the ranges from past tests already stored on the
select,redo[+SIZE] - [ATA only] redo the last SMART Selective
Self Test using the same LBA range. The starting LBA is
identical to the LBA used by last test, same for ending LBA
unless a new span size is specified by optional +SIZE argument.
For example the commands:
smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,redo /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/hda
have the same effect as:
smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/hda
select,next[+SIZE] - [ATA only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test
on the LBA range which follows the range of the last test. The
starting LBA is set to (ending LBA +1) of the last test. A new
span size may be specified by the optional +SIZE argument.
For example the commands:
smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,next /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/hda
have the same effect as:
smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/hda
smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/hda
If the last test ended at the last LBA of the disk, the new
range starts at LBA 0. The span size of the last span of a disk
is adjusted such that the total number of spans to check the
full disk will not be changed by future uses of ´-t
select,cont[+SIZE] - [ATA only] performs a ´redo´ (above) if the
self test status reports that the last test was aborted by the
host. Otherwise it run the ´next´ (above) test.
afterselect,on - [ATA only] perform an offline read scan after a
Selective Self-test has completed. This option must be used
together with one or more of the select,N-M options above. If
the LBAs that have been specified in the Selective self-test
pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder
of the disk. If the device is powered-cycled while this read
scan is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed
after a time specified by the pending timer (see below). The
value of this option is preserved between selective self-tests.
afterselect,off - [ATA only] do not read scan the remainder of
the disk after a Selective self-test has completed. This option
must be use together with one or more of the select,N-M options
above. The value of this option is preserved between selective
pending,N - [ATA only] set the pending offline read scan timer
to N minutes. Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
inclusive. If the device is powered off during a read scan
after a Selective self-test, then resume the test automatically
N minutes after power-up. This option must be use together with
one or more of the select,N-M options above. The value of this
option is preserved between selective self-tests.
scttempint,N[,p] - [ATA only] set the time interval for SCT
temperature logging to N minutes. If ´,p´ is specified, the
setting is preserved across power cycles. Otherwise, the setting
is volatile and will be reverted to default (1 minute), or last
non-volatile setting by the next hard reset. This command also
clears the temperature history table. See ´-l scttemp´ above for
more information about SCT temperature logging.
Runs self-tests in captive mode. This has no effect with ´-t
offline´ or if the ´-t´ option is not used. [Note: in the case
of SCSI devices, this command option runs the self-test in
WARNING: Tests run in captive mode may busy out the drive for
the length of the test. Only run captive tests on drives
without any mounted partitions!
Aborts non-captive SMART Self Tests. Note that this command
will abort the Offline Immediate Test routine only if your disk
has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capability.
ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT
In the past there has been a clear distinction between storage devices
that used the ATA and SCSI command sets. This distinction was often
reflected in their device naming and hardware. Now various SCSI
transports (e.g. SAS, FC and iSCSI) can interconnect to both SCSI disks
(e.g. FC and SAS) and ATA disks (especially SATA). USB and IEEE 1394
storage devices use the SCSI command set externally but almost always
contain ATA or SATA disks (or flash). The storage subsystems in some
operating systems have started to remove the distinction between ATA
and SCSI in their device naming policies.
99% of operations that an OS performs on a disk involve the SCSI
INQUIRY, READ CAPACITY, READ and WRITE commands, or their ATA
equivalents. Since the SCSI commands are slightly more general than
their ATA equivalents, many OSes are generating SCSI commands (mainly
READ and WRITE) and letting a lower level translate them to their ATA
equivalents as the need arises. An important note here is that "lower
level" may be in external equipment and hence outside the control of an
SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) is a standard (ANSI INCITS 431-2007) that
specifies how this translation is done. For the other 1% of operations
that an OS performs on a disk, SAT provides two options. First is an
optional ATA PASS-THROUGH SCSI command (there are two variants). The
second is a translation from the closest SCSI command. Most current
interest is in the "pass-through" option.
The relevance to smartmontools (and hence smartctl) is that its
interactions with disks fall solidly into the "1%" category. So even if
the OS can happily treat (and name) a disk as "SCSI", smartmontools
needs to detect the native command set and act accordingly. As more
storage manufacturers (including external SATA drives) comply with SAT,
smartmontools is able to automatically distinguish the native command
set of the device. In some cases the ’-d sat’ option is needed on the
There are also virtual disks which typically have no useful information
to convey to smartmontools, but could conceivably in the future. An
example of a virtual disk is the OS’s view of a RAID 1 box. There are
most likely two SATA disks inside a RAID 1 box. Addressing those SATA
disks from a distant OS is a challenge for smartmontools. Another
approach is running a tool like smartmontools inside the RAID 1 box
(e.g. a Network Attached Storage (NAS) box) and fetching the logs via
smartctl -a /dev/hda
Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/hda which is
typically an ATA (IDE) or SATA disk in Linux.
smartctl -a /dev/sdb
Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/sda . This may
be a SCSI disk or an ATA (SATA) disk.
smartctl -s off /dev/hdd
Disable SMART monitoring and data log collection on drive /dev/hdd .
smartctl --smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/hda
Enable SMART on drive /dev/hda, enable automatic offline testing every
four hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes. This is a good
start-up line for your system´s init files. You can issue this command
on a running system.
smartctl -t long /dev/hdc
Begin an extended self-test of drive /dev/hdc. You can issue this
command on a running system. The results can be seen in the self-test
log visible with the ´-l selftest´ option after it has completed.
smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/hda
Enable SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of drive
/dev/hda. You can issue this command on a running system. The results
are only used to update the SMART Attributes, visible with the ´-A´
option. If any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
log, which can be seen with the ´-l error´ option.
smartctl -A -v 9,minutes /dev/hda
Shows the vendor Attributes, when the disk stores its power-on time
internally in minutes rather than hours.
smartctl -q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/hda
Produces output only if the device returns failing SMART status, or if
some of the logged self-tests ended with errors.
smartctl -q silent -a /dev/hda
Examine all SMART data for device /dev/hda, but produce no printed
output. You must use the exit status (the $? shell variable) to learn
if any Attributes are out of bound, if the SMART status is failing, if
there are errors recorded in the self-test log, or if there are errors
recorded in the disk error log.
smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/sda
Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
6000/7000/8000 controller card.
smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twa0
Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
9000 controller card.
smartctl -t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
Start a short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected to the 3ware
RAID controller card which is the second SCSI device /dev/sdb.
smartctl -t long -d areca,4 /dev/sg2
Start a long self-test on the fourth SATA disk connected to an Areca
RAID controller addressed by /dev/sg2.
smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
Examine all SMART data for the (S)ATA disk directly connected to the
third channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.
smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda (under Linux)
smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
Start a short self-test on the (S)ATA disk connected to second pmport
on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.
smartctl -t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/hda
Run a selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300. After the
these LBAs have been tested, read-scan the remainder of the disk. If
the disk is power-cycled during the read-scan, resume the scan 45
minutes after power to the device is restored.
smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
Examine all SMART data for the first SCSI disk connected to a cciss
RAID controller card.
The return values of smartctl are defined by a bitmask. If all is well
with the disk, the return value (exit status) of smartctl is 0 (all
bits turned off). If a problem occurs, or an error, potential error,
or fault is detected, then a non-zero status is returned. In this
case, the eight different bits in the return value have the following
meanings for ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for
Bit 0: Command line did not parse.
Bit 1: Device open failed, or device did not return an IDENTIFY DEVICE
Bit 2: Some SMART command to the disk failed, or there was a checksum
error in a SMART data structure (see ´-b´ option above).
Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK FAILING".
Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.
Bit 5: SMART status check returned "DISK OK" but we found that some
(usage or prefail) Attributes have been <= threshold at some
time in the past.
Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.
Bit 7: The device self-test log contains records of errors.
To test within the shell for whether or not the different bits
are turned on or off, you can use the following type of
construction (this is bash syntax):
smartstat=$(($? & 8))
This looks at only at bit 3 of the exit status $? (since
8=2^3). The shell variable $smartstat will be nonzero if SMART
status check returned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.
The TapeAlert log page flags are cleared for the initiator when the
page is read. This means that each alert condition is reported only
once by smartctl for each initiator for each activation of the
Bruce Allen email@example.com
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department
The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
Christian Franke (Windows interface, C++ redesign, USB support, ...)
Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
Frederic L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
Gabriele Pohl (Web site and Wiki, conversion from CVS to SVN)
Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
Manfred Schwarb (Drive database)
Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
Yuri Dario (OS/2, eComStation interface)
Shengfeng Zhou (Linux/FreeBSD HighPoint RocketRAID interface)
Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.
This code was derived from the smartsuite package, written by Michael
Cornwell, and from the previous UCSC smartsuite package. It extends
these to cover ATA-5 disks. This code was originally developed as a
Senior Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems Laboratory
(now part of the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack Baskin School
of Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz.
HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:
Please see the following web site for updates, further documentation,
bug reports and patches: http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/
smartd(8), badblocks(8), ide-smart(8).
REFERENCES FOR SMART
An introductory article about smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks
with SMART, by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages 74-77.
This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6983 online.
If you would like to understand better how SMART works, and what it
does, a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first
volume of the ´AT Attachment with Packet Interface-7´ (ATA/ATAPI-7)
specification. This documents the SMART functionality which the
smartmontools utilities provide access to. You can find Revision 4b of
this document at http://www.t13.org/docs2004/d1532v1r4b-ATA-ATAPI-7.pdf
. Earlier and later versions of this Specification are available from
the T13 web site http://www.t13.org/ .
The functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i
revision 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications. These are
publications of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee. Links to these
documents may be found in the References section of the smartmontools
home page at http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/ .
SVN ID OF THIS PAGE:
$Id: smartctl.8.in 3072 2010-03-04 21:56:41Z chrfranke $