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       sendmail - an electronic mail transport agent


       sendmail [flags] [address ...]
       mailq [-v]


       Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever  networks  are  necessary.   Sendmail  does  internetwork
       forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail  is  not  intended as a user interface routine; other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no  flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot  and  sends  a  copy  of  the
       message  found there to all of the addresses listed.  It determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in  a  file  and  aliased  appropriately.
       Aliasing  can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the sender is included in  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  `john'  sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

       -Ac    Use even if the operation mode does  not  indicate  an
              initial mail submission.

       -Am    Use even if the operation mode indicates an initial
              mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type to type.  Current legal  values  are  7BIT  or

       -ba    Go  into  ARPANET  mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF,
              and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF  at  the  end.
              Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
              name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.  Sendmail  will  fork  and  run  in  background
              listening  on  socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is
              normally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the persistent host status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent host status  database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print  number  of  entries  in the queue(s); only available with
              shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on  standard  input
              and  output.   This  flag  implies all the operations of the -ba
              flag that are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses  and  shows
              the  steps  in  parsing;  it is used for debugging configuration

       -bv    Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a  message.
              Verify  mode  is  normally  used for validating users or mailing

       -Cfile Use  alternate  configuration  file.   Sendmail  gives  up   any
              enhanced   (set-user-ID   or   set-group-ID)  privileges  if  an
              alternate configuration file is specified.

       -D logfile
              Send debugging output to  the  indicated  log  file  instead  of

              Set  the  debugging  flag  for  category  to level.  Category is
              either an integer or a name specifying the topic, and  level  an
              integer  specifying  the  level  of  debugging  output  desired.
              Higher levels generally mean more output.  More  than  one  flag
              can  be  specified  by  separating  them with commas.  A list of
              numeric debugging categories can be found in the TRACEFLAGS file
              in the sendmail source distribution.
              The  option -d0.1 prints the version of sendmail and the options
              it was compiled with.
              Most other categories are only useful with, and  documented  in,
              sendmail's source code.

              Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname Sets  the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope sender
              of the mail).  This address may also be used in the From: header
              if  that  header  is  missing  during  initial  submission.  The
              envelope sender address is used as the  recipient  for  delivery
              status  notifications  and  may  also  appear  in a Return-Path:
              header.  -f should only be used by ``trusted''  users  (normally
              root,  daemon,  and  network) or if the person you are trying to
              become is the same as the person  you  are.   Otherwise,  an  X-
              Authentication-Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay  (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail calls
              sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time
              the  mail  is  processed.   When it reaches a limit, the mail is
              returned with an error message, the victim of an aliasing  loop.
              If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines  in  the  message  are

       -i     Ignore dots alone on lines by themselves in  incoming  messages.
              This should be set if you are reading data from a file.

       -L tag Set  the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which can be
              `never'  for  no  notifications or a comma separated list of the
              values `failure' to be notified if delivery failed,  `delay'  to
              be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success' to be notified
              when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
              Set option option to the specified value.  This form  uses  long
              names.  See below for more details.

       -ox value
              Set  option  x  to  the  specified value.  This form uses single
              character names only.  The short names are not described in this
              manual  page;  see the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide
              for details.

              Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message.   This
              can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or a protocol and
              hostname, such as ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

              Process saved messages in the queue at given intervals.  If time
              is  omitted,  process the queue once.  Time is given as a tagged
              number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being minutes (default), `h'
              being  hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.  For example,
              `-q1h30m' or `-q90m' would both set  the  timeout  to  one  hour
              thirty   minutes.    By   default,  sendmail  will  run  in  the
              background.  This option can be used safely with -bd.

              Similar to -qtime, except that instead of periodically forking a
              child  to  process the queue, sendmail forks a single persistent
              child for each queue  that  alternates  between  processing  the
              queue and sleeping.  The sleep time is given as the argument; it
              defaults to 1 second.  The process will always sleep at least  5
              seconds if the queue was empty in the previous queue run.

       -qf    Process  saved messages in the queue once and do not fork(), but
              run in the foreground.

              Process jobs in queue group called name only.

              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the queue id or not when !  is specified.

              Limit  processed jobs to quarantined jobs containing substr as a
              substring of the quarantine reason or not when !  is  specified.

              Limit  processed  jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of one of the recipients or not when !  is specified.

              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the sender or not when !  is specified.

              Quarantine  a  normal  queue  items  with  the  given  reason or
              unquarantine quarantined queue items  if  no  reason  is  given.
              This  should  only be used with some sort of item matching using
              as described above.

       -R return
              Set the amount of the message to  be  returned  if  the  message
              bounces.   The  return  parameter  can  be  `full' to return the
              entire message or `hdrs' to return only  the  headers.   In  the
              latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t     Read  message  for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be
              scanned for recipient addresses.  The Bcc: line will be  deleted
              before transmission.

       -V envid
              Set the original envelope id.  This is propagated across SMTP to
              servers that support DSNs and is returned in DSN-compliant error

       -v     Go  into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
              Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.
              This  should  only be used as a last resort for debugging mailer
              bugs.  It will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the  arguments
              as addresses.

       There  are  also  a  number  of  processing  options  that  may be set.
       Normally these will only be used by a  system  administrator.   Options
       may  be  set  either  on  the command line using the -o flag (for short
       names), the -O flag (for long names), or  in  the  configuration  file.
       This  is  a partial list limited to those options that are likely to be
       useful on the command line  and  only  shows  the  long  names;  for  a
       complete  list  (and  details),  consult  the Sendmail Installation and
       Operation Guide.  The options are:

              Use alternate alias file.

              On mailers that are  considered  ``expensive''  to  connect  to,
              don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

              Checkpoint  the  queue  file after every N successful deliveries
              (default 10).  This avoids excessive duplicate  deliveries  when
              sending to long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes.

              Set  the  delivery  mode  to  x.   Delivery  modes  are  `i' for
              interactive   (synchronous)   delivery,   `b'   for   background
              (asynchronous)  delivery,  `q'  for  queue  only  - i.e., actual
              delivery is done the next time the queue is  run,  and  `d'  for
              deferred - the same as `q' except that database lookups for maps
              which have set the -D option (default  for  the  host  map)  are

              Set  error  processing  to  mode x.  Valid modes are `m' to mail
              back the error message, `w' to ``write'' back the error  message
              (or  mail  it back if the sender is not logged in), `p' to print
              the errors on the terminal (default), `q' to  throw  away  error
              messages  (only  exit status is returned), and `e' to do special
              processing for the BerkNet.  If the text of the message  is  not
              mailed  back  by  modes `m' or `w' and if the sender is local to
              this machine, a copy of the message  is  appended  to  the  file
              dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

              Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

              The  maximum  number  of  times  a message is allowed to ``hop''
              before we decide it is in a loop.

              Do  not  take  dots  on  a  line  by  themselves  as  a  message

              Send  error  messages  in  MIME  format.   If  not  set, the DSN
              (Delivery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

              Set connection cache timeout.

              Set connection cache size.

              The log level.

              Don't send to ``me'' (the sender) if I am in an alias expansion.

              Validate  the  right hand side of aliases during a newaliases(1)

              If set, this message may have old style headers.   If  not  set,
              this  message  is  guaranteed  to  have new style headers (i.e.,
              commas  instead  of  spaces  between  addresses).   If  set,  an
              adaptive  algorithm  is  used  that will correctly determine the
              header format in most cases.

              Select the directory in which to queue messages.

              Save statistics in the named file.

              Set the timeout on undelivered messages  in  the  queue  to  the
              specified  time.   After delivery has failed (e.g., because of a
              host being down) for this amount of time, failed  messages  will
              be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

              If   set,  a  user  database  is  consulted  to  get  forwarding
              information.  You can consider this an adjunct to  the  aliasing
              mechanism,   except   that   the  database  is  intended  to  be
              distributed; aliases are local to a particular host.   This  may
              not  be  available  if  your  sendmail  does not have the USERDB
              option compiled in.

              Fork each job during queue runs.  May be convenient  on  memory-
              poor machines.

              Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

              Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations to
              mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p (pass)
              will  pass  it  as  eight  bits  (but violates protocols), and s
              (strict) will bounce the message.

              Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue  between  attempts
              to send it.

              Sets  the default character set used to label 8-bit data that is
              not otherwise labelled.

              If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime  seconds  and
              try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

              Set  the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:, Cc:
              or Bcc:) in the message  to  action:  none  leaves  the  message
              unchanged,   add-to   adds   a  To:  header  with  the  envelope
              recipients, add-apparently-to adds an Apparently-To: header with
              the  envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty Bcc: header, and
              add-to-undisclosed  adds  a  header  reading  `To:  undisclosed-

              Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP daemon
              will allow to spawn at any time to N.

              Sets the maximum number of connections per second  to  the  SMTP
              port to N.

       In  aliases,  the  first  character  of a name may be a vertical bar to
       cause interpretation of the rest of the name as a command to  pipe  the
       mail  to.   It may be necessary to quote the name to keep sendmail from
       suppressing the blanks from between arguments.  For example,  a  common
       alias is:

              msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases  may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask sendmail
       to read the named file for a list of recipients.  For example, an alias
       such as:

              poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would  read  /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses making
       up the group.

       Sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes  are
       defined in <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

              User name not recognized.

              Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

              Syntax error in address.

              Internal software error, including bad arguments.

              Temporary operating system error, such as ``cannot fork''.

              Host name not recognized.

              Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked as mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the  mail  queue.
       If  invoked as hoststat, sendmail will print the persistent host status
       database.  If invoked as purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries
       from  the  persistent  host  status  database.   If  invoked  as smtpd,
       sendmail will act as a daemon, as if the -bd option were specified.


       sendmail often gets blamed for many  problems  that  are  actually  the
       result   of   other  problems,  such  as  overly  permissive  modes  on
       directories.  For this reason, sendmail  checks  the  modes  on  system
       directories  and  files  to determine if they can be trusted.  Although
       these checks can be turned off and  your  system  security  reduced  by
       setting the DontBlameSendmail option, the permission problems should be
       fixed.  For more information, see:


       Except  for  the  file  /etc/mail/  itself   the   following
       pathnames  are  all  specified  in  /etc/mail/  Thus, these
       values are only approximations.

              raw data for alias names

              data base of alias names

              configuration file

              help file

              collected statistics

              temp files


       binmail(1),  mail(1),  rmail(1),  syslog(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),

       DARPA  Internet  Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822.  Sendmail
       Installation and Operation Guide, No. 8, SMM.


       The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.

                         $Date: 2007/08/02 05:42:33 $              SENDMAIL(8)