radiusd - Yet Another Radius Daemon (YARD RADIUS)
radiusd [ -AbchoPsvxz ] [ -a acct_dir ] [ -d db_dir ] [ -f
alt_passwd_file ] [ -i ip_addr ] [ -l log_file ] [ -p udp_port ] [ -q
max_outstanding_reqs ] [ -t max_queue_secs ] [ -w max_proxy_secs ]
YARD radiusd is a program that provides authorization and accounting
services for remote hosts, based on RADIUS protocols. RADIUS protocols
are defined in a pair of RFC documents and currently used by the
majority of network access servers and routers in order to manage
incoming dialup connections. Open source products of RADIUS clients
are also available for general use on *nix hosts.
YARD RADIUS daemon is largerly based on the original Livingston Inc.
RADIUS 2.1 daemon (currently known as Lucent Inc. Remote Access RADIUS
server 2.1 - Livingston Inc. is now disappeared...). It enhances the
original code with a number of useful features, such as control of
simultaneous logins, support of many non standard vendor clients,
autoconfiguration capabilities, PAM services, MD5 passwords, etc. All
them are very useful in real world area of application (e.g. ISPs). A
complete and up-to-date list of extensions currently present in YARD
RADIUS is available in the Changelog file, which should be enclosed in
The daemon listens to a couple of non privileged UDP ports (1645 and
1646) and possibly to other two ones (1815 and 1816), when proxy is
enabled. Those ports could also be changed at run-time, but you are
not encouraged to do this. If your authorization information are
available either as a separate passwd file or self-contained in users
file (i.e. in some form independent from system passwd file, see below)
you could run radiusd as a non privileged users.
All configuration files of YARD RADIUS are contained under
/usr/confdirectory if not spe
Sets the accounting directory instead of the builtin default.
The default is choosen at configuration time and it is generally
-A Enable accounting via PAM. See below.
-b Uses GDBM for the users file ( users.db ) instead of the plain
text version ( users ) This improve performances of users file
checking for authentication. It’s strongly suggested. But it’s
not completely equivalent to plain text, because GDBM files are
strictly unsorted. This could be ok or not, it depens on your
specific choices of attributes. You need to run builddbm to
convert the plain users file in the GDBM indexed file and this
needs to be done every time you changes users file contents.
-c Clears user stats database. This should be done to solve
troubles due to unsynchonized status among the servers and one
or more of its clients. Mabye, after a cold-reboot of an access
Sets the database directory instead of the builtin default one.
The default is choosen at configuration time and it is generally
-h Prints out usage of the command.
Sets an alternate password file name to use instead of the
system password file /etc/passwd.
Sets an alternate IP for the server host, instead of the default
one. This is useful if the host on which the daemon is runnig
has multiple interfaces or ip aliases.
Sets a logging text file, to use instead of syslog.
-o Accept all-zero accounting requests authenticator. A damned
thing to use with some old non-RFC compliant clients. Use this
if you see this kind of errors in the logging file, only.
Set an alternate radius port number. Default ports should be
(optionally) defined in /etc/services as follows:
If they are not in that file, the above ones are used. If you
specify the port ‘n’ as the argument of -p option, then radiusd
tries to use the following ports:
-P Enable authorization via PAM. See below.
Sets the incoming packets queue size. 100 is the default.
-s Forks another process for accounting. This is not generally
suggested, due to dependencies among auth and acct modules in
YARD radiusd .
Set time out for requests queue.
-v Print version. It shows also enabled features. Version number
should be a group of three point-separated numbers, such as
major.minor.patch where meaning of the three values should be
obvious. It’s not easy to define a ‘major’ advancement in
respect of a ‘minor’ one. Anyway, any minor/major number should
correspond to a different branch in the CVS repository. This is
not true for a patching release.
Set time out for proxy requests.
-x Set debug mode on. It increases verbosity level.
-z The same of -b -x -d . -a ra. This is intended for debugging.
radiusd requires a group of configuration files under /usr/conf in
order to properly work. Examples of those working files are provided
with sources and should be present under the same directory, with
extension .example. All files are well commented and it should be easy
to customize them. The work files are the following ones:
This file contains the human readable information for users’
accounting and authorization. See radius_attributes(5) for
details about its syntax.
The same of the previous one as compiled in by builddbm in GDBM
format. It needs to be compiled again every time you make
changes to the previous one and without restarting radiusd .
This read-only file contains the codes and formats for standard
and vendor RADIUS protocol attributes and values along with
their human readable representation. It is subject to change,
due to new access server supports. It is a plain text file with
a pletora of comments in it.
It contains names or ip addresses of remote clients authorized
to use the server for authentication and accounting, along with
their passwords in clear text. So this file should be protected
with mode 600.
The same of the previous file as cached in GDBM format for fast
access at daemon startup. With the same recommendations for file
This file is used to collect proxy hosts and their associated
realms and passwords. It contains a list of remote servers to
forward to authentication and accounting requests.
Every line refers to a different proxy server: the first field
is a valid hostname or ip address; the second field (seperated
by blanks or tabs) is the shared secret); the third field is the
named or numeric authentication realm; the fourth field can
contain the optional RADIUS UDP Port number of the remote
server, the RADIUS and RADIUS Accounting Port numbers, and any
of following optional keywords:
old Strip realm and do not attach Proxy-State
secure Allow remote server to authorize admin
logins for your client
ipass Use the ipass protocol
The realm string must follow an ‘@’ sign after the username to
identify the correct proxy server.
You can list here (one per line) usernames/groupnames who are
granted for having access (if their password are correct). Each
entry must respect one of the following syntaxes:
so you can match users by usernames, groupnames, gcos substrings
(i.e. case-sensitive sub-strings in the fifth field of the
system /etc/passwd file or the alternate password file), or
shell paths. You can use the special string ‘ANY’ as a matching
argument too (e.g. ‘USER: ANY’). An empty or missing file grants
access to anyone which is not listed in the next file.
The same syntax of allowuser can be used to deny access to
specific classes of users, with the same previous matching
criteria. An empty or missing file grants access to anyone which
is listed in the previous file or not.
Note that all users have always to match their password with the
authorization module selected in their ‘users’ file entry, after the
above files allowed to login. You cannot use these files to grant
access without any other additional authentication.
This text file is created by radwatch to deny access to users,
when certain conditions are reached (as selected in the radwatch
configuration file). The authentication daemon radiusd consults
that file along with ‘denyuser’ in order to grant access or not.
It has an entry per line, which should be a valid system or
This is the configuration file for radwatch. It is a text files
each line of which is of the form:
user_list:restriction:time_list where ‘user_list’ is a comma-
separated list of usernames for which this line apply. You can
use @group syntax to denote the standard UNIX user groups. The
field ‘restriction’ is the value in seconds of the maximum
permitted online time within the ‘time_list’. This one is the
third colon separated field and is a list of days of the week
and times during which this restriction apply to this user. The
valid days are ’Su’, ’Mo’, ’Tu’, ’We’, ’Th’, ’Fr’, and ’Sa’. In
addition, the value ’Al’ represents all 7 days, and ’Wk’
represents the 5 weekdays. Times are given as HHMM-HHMM. The
ending time may be before the starting time. Days are presumed
to wrap at 0000.
This text file contains the configuration information necessary
for radiusd to connect to the ActivEngine, which is the
ActivCard Authentication Server. See comments contained in the
example file provided for details.
All logging and accounting files of YARD RADIUS are stored under
‘/usr/logs’. Accounting files are organized on a per-month and per-year
basis. All files written by Livingston’s server are also written by
YARD, but it also creates some specific binary files to store the on-
line status of users, and collect users statistics.
It’s important to ensure that those files are synchronized with the
real status of the clients, to avoid annoying denial-of-service
troubles to your users (e.g. in conjunction with a Yard-Simultaneuous-
Use attribute). This could happen when one or more clients reboots
without sending suitable stop accouting records before. In those cases,
YARD has to be killed too and restarted with a ‘clean up’ argument
‘-c’, in order to reset its internal status.
The logging file structure is as follows:
<year>/user-stats GDBM yearly file
<year>/radlast-XX Binary compact monthly file
<nas>/<year>/detail-XX Livingston-like logging text file
This allows very fast computing of statistics and maintaining on-line
Bugs? What’s a bug?
builddbm(8), radlast(1), radlist(1), radtest(1), radwatch(1),
Francesco Paolo Lovergine <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
A complete list of contributors is contained in CREDITS file. You
should get that file among other ones within your distribution and
possibly installed under /usr/docs directory
Copyright (C) 1992-1999 Lucent Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright (C) 1999-2004 Francesco Paolo Lovergine. All rights reserved.
See the LICENSE file enclosed within this software for conditions of
use and distribution. This is a pure ISO BSD Open Source License .
The configuration of a RADIUS server is an argument too long to deal
with it here. Please, refer to the official Livingston documentation,
which includes the RADIUS for UNIX Administrators Guide. It is freely
available at http://www.livingston.com/tech/docs/manuals.html at the
time of this document.
It’s a very good point to start with.