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       pg_createcluster - create a new PostgreSQL cluster


       pg_createcluster [options] version name


       pg_createcluster creates a new PostgreSQL server cluster (i. e. a
       collection of databases served by a postmaster(1) instance) and
       integrates it into the multi-version/multi-cluster architecture of the
       postgresql-common package.

       Every cluster is uniquely identified by its version and name. The name
       can be arbitrary. The default cluster that is created on installation
       of a server package is main. However, you might wish to create other
       clusters for testing, with other superusers, a cluster for each user on
       a shared server, etc. pg_createcluster will abort with an error if you
       try to create a cluster with a name that already exists for that

       Given a major PostgreSQL version (like "8.2" or "8.3") and a cluster
       name, it creates the necessary configuration files in
       /etc/postgresql/version/name/; in particular these are postgresql.conf,
       pg_ident.conf, pg_hba.conf, a postgresql-common specific configuration
       file start.conf (see STARTUP CONTROL below), pg_ctl.conf, and a
       symbolic link log which points to the log file (by default,

       postgresql.conf is automatically adapted to use the next available
       port, i.  e. the first port (starting from 5432) which is not yet used
       by an already existing cluster.

       If the data directory does not yet exist, PostgreSQL's initdb(1)
       command is used to generate a new cluster structure. If the data
       directory already exists, it is integrated into the postgresql-common
       structure by moving the configuration file and setting the
       data_directory option. Please note that this only works for data
       directories which were created directly with initdb, i.  e. all the
       configuration files (postgresql.conf etc.) must be present in the data

       If a custom socket directory is given and it does not exist, it is

       If the log file does not exist, it is created. In any case the
       permissions are adjusted to allow write access to the cluster owner.
       Please note that postgresql.conf can be customized to specify
       log_directory and/or log_filename; if at least one of these options is
       present, then the symbolic link log in the cluster configuration
       directory is ignored.

       If the default snakeoil SSL certificate exists
       (/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem and
       /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key), this program creates symlinks
       to these files in the data directory (server.crt and server.key) and
       enables SSL for that cluster (option ssl in postgresql.conf). Therefore
       all clusters will use the same SSL certificate by default. Of course
       you can replace these symlinks with a cluster specific certificate.


       -u user, --user=user
           Set the user who owns the cluster and becomes the database
           superuser to the given name or uid.  By default, this is the user
           postgres.  A cluster must not be owned by root.

       -g group, --group=group
           Change the group of the cluster related data files. By default this
           will be the primary group of the database owner.

       -d dir, --datadir=dir
           Explicitly set the data directory path, which is used to store all
           the actual databases and tables. This will become quite big (easily
           in the order of five times the amount of actual data stored in the
           cluster). Defaults to /var/lib/postgresql/version/cluster.

       -s dir, --socketdir=dir
           Explicitly set the directory where the postmaster(1) server stores
           the Unix socket for local connections. Defaults to
           /var/run/postgresql/ for clusters owned by the user postgres, and
           /tmp for clusters owned by other users.  Please be aware that /tmp
           is an unsafe directory since everybody can create a socket there
           and impersonate the database server. If the given directory does
           not exist, it is created with appropriate permissions.

       -l path, --logfile=path
           Explicitly set the path for the postmaster(1) server log file.
           Defaults to /var/log/postgresql/postgresql-version-cluster.log.

           Set the default locale for the database cluster. If this option is
           not specified, the locale is inherited from the environment that
           pg_createcluster runs in.

           Like --locale, but only sets the locale in the specified category.

       -e encoding, --encoding=encoding
           Select the encoding of the template database. This will also be the
           default encoding of any database you create later, unless you
           override it there. The default is derived from the locale, or
           SQL_ASCII if that does not work.  The character sets supported by
           the PostgreSQL server are described in the documentation.

           Note: It is not recommended to set this option directly! Set the
           locale instead.

       -p port, --port=port
           Select the port the new cluster listens on (for the Unix socket and
           the TCP port); this must be a number between 1024 and 65535, since
           PostgreSQL does not run as root and thus needs an unprivileged port
           number. By default the next free port starting from 5432 is

           Immediately start a server for the cluster after creating it (i. e.
           call pg_ctlcluster version cluster start on it). By default, the
           cluster is not started.

           Set the initial value in the start.conf configuration file. See
           STARTUP CONTROL below. By default, auto is used, which means that
           the cluster is handled by /etc/init.d/postgresql-version, i. e.
           starts and stops automatically on system boot.


       The start.conf file in the cluster configuration directory controls the
       start/stop behavior of that cluster's postmaster process. The file can
       contain comment lines (started with '#'), empty lines, and must have
       exactly one line with one of the following keywords:

           The postmaster process is started/stopped automatically in the init
           script.  This is also the default if the file is missing.

           The postmaster process is not handled by the init script, but
           manually controlling the cluster with pg_ctlcluster(1) is

           Neither the init script nor pg_ctlcluster(1) are permitted to
           start/stop the cluster. Please be aware that this will not stop the
           cluster owner from calling lower level tools to control the
           postmaster process; this option is only meant to prevent accidents
           during maintenance, not more.

           The pg_ctl.conf file in the cluster configuration directory can
           contain additional options passed to pg_ctl of that cluster.


       pg_ctlcluster(8), pg_lsclusters(1), pg_wrapper(1)


       Martin Pitt <>