monkeysphere-host - Monkeysphere host key administration tool.
monkeysphere-host subcommand [args]
Monkeysphere is a framework to leverage the OpenPGP web of trust for
SSH and TLS key-based authentication.
monkeysphere-host stores and manages OpenPGP certificates for various
services offered by the host.
Most subcommands take a KEYID argument, which identifies (by OpenPGP
key ID (e.g. 0xDEADBEEF) or full OpenPGP fingerprint) which certificate
is to be operated upon. If only one certificate is currently managed
by monkeysphere-host, the KEYID argument may be omitted, and
monkeysphere-host will operate on it.
monkeysphere-host takes various subcommands:
import-key FILE SCHEME://HOSTNAME[:PORT]
Import a PEM-encoded host secret key from file FILE. If FILE is
‘-’, then the key will be imported from stdin. Only RSA keys
are supported at the moment. SCHEME://HOSTNAME[:PORT] is used
to specify the scheme (e.g. ssh or https), fully-qualified
hostname (and port) used in the user ID of the new OpenPGP key
(e.g. ssh://example.net or https://www.example.net). If PORT is
not specified, then no port is added to the user ID, which means
the default port for that service (e.g. 22 for ssh) is assumed.
‘i’ may be used in place of ‘import-key’.
show-keys [KEYID ...]
Output information about the OpenPGP certificate(s) for services
offered by the host, including their KEYIDs. If no KEYID is
specified (or if the special string ‘--all’ is used), output
information about all certificates managed by monkeysphere-host.
‘s’ may be used in place of ‘show-keys’.
set-expire EXPIRE [KEYID]
Extend the validity of the OpenPGP certificate specified until
EXPIRE from the present. Expiration is specified as with GnuPG
(measured from today’s date):
0 = key does not expire
<n> = key expires in n days
<n>w = key expires in n weeks
<n>m = key expires in n months
<n>y = key expires in n years
‘e’ may be used in place of ‘set-expire’.
add-servicename SCHEME://HOSTNAME[:PORT] [KEYID]
Add a service-specific user ID to the specified certificate.
For example, the operator of ‘https://example.net’ may wish to
add an additional servicename of ‘https://www.example.net’ to
the certificate corresponding to the secret key used by the
TLS-enabled web server. ‘add-name’ or ‘n+’ may be used in place
revoke-servicename SCHEME://HOSTNAME[:PORT] [KEYID]
Revoke a service-specific user ID from the specified
certificate. ‘revoke-name’ or ‘n-’ may be used in place of
add-revoker REVOKER_KEYID|FILE [KEYID]
Add a revoker to the specified OpenPGP certificate. The revoker
can be specified by their own REVOKER_KEYID (in which case it
will be loaded from an OpenPGP keyserver), or by specifying a
path to a file containing the revoker’s OpenPGP certificate, or
by specifying ‘-’ to load from stdin. ‘r+’ may be be used in
place of ‘add-revoker’.
Generate (with the option to publish) a revocation certificate
for given OpenPGP certificate. If such a certificate is
published, the given key will be permanently revoked, and will
no longer be accepted by monkeysphere-enabled clients. This
subcommand will ask you a series of questions, and then generate
a key revocation certificate, sending it to stdout. You might
want to store these certificates safely offline, to publish in
case of compromise). If you explicitly tell it to publish the
revocation certificate immediately, it will send it to the
public keyservers. PUBLISH THESE CERTIFICATES ONLY IF YOU ARE
SURE THE CORRESPONDING KEY WILL NEVER BE RE-USED!
publish-keys [KEYID ...]
Publish the specified OpenPGP certificates to the public
keyservers. If the special string ‘--all’ is specified, all of
the host’s OpenPGP certificates will be published. ‘p’ may be
used in place of ‘publish-keys’. NOTE: that there is no way to
remove a key from the public keyservers once it is published!
Show the monkeysphere version number. ‘v’ may be used in place
help Output a brief usage summary. ‘h’ or ‘?’ may be used in place
Review the state of the monkeysphere server host key and report
on suggested changes. Among other checks, this includes making
sure there is a valid host key, that the key is not expired,
that the sshd configuration points to the right place, etc. ‘d’
may be used in place of ‘diagnostics’.
SETUP SSH SERVER CERTIFICATES
To enable users to verify your SSH host’s key via the monkeysphere, an
OpenPGP certificate must be made out of the host’s RSA ssh key, and the
certificate must be published to the Web of Trust. Certificate
publication is not done by default. The first step is to import the
host’s ssh key into a monkeysphere-style OpenPGP certificate. This is
done with the import-key command. For example:
# monkeysphere-host import-key /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
On most systems, sshd’s RSA secret key is stored at
See PUBLISHING AND CERTIFYING MONKEYSPHERE SERVICE CERTIFICATES for how
to make sure your users can verify the ssh service offered by your host
once the key is imported into monkeysphere-host.
SETUP WEB SERVER CERTIFICATES
You can set up your HTTPS-capable web server so that your users can
verify it via the monkeysphere, without changing your server’s software
at all. You just need access to a (PEM-encoded) version of the
server’s RSA secret key (most secret keys are already stored
PEM-encoded). The first step is to import the web server’s key into a
monkeysphere-style OpenPGP certificate. This is done with the
import-key command. For example:
# monkeysphere-host import-key
If you don’t know where the web server’s key is stored on your machine,
consult the configuration files for your web server. Debian-based
systems using the ‘ssl-cert’ packages often have a default self-signed
certificate stored in ‘/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key’ ; if
you’re using that key, your users are getting browser warnings about
it. You can keep using the same key, but help them use the OpenPGP WoT
to verify that it does belong to your web server by using something
# monkeysphere-host import-key /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
If you offer multiple HTTPS websites using the same secret key, you
should add the additional website names with the ‘add-servicename’
See PUBLISHING AND CERTIFYING MONKEYSPHERE SERVICE CERTIFICATES (the
next section) for how to make sure your users can verify the https
service offered by your host once the key is imported and any extra
site names have been added. Note that you can add or remove additional
servicenames at any time, but you’ll need to certify any new ones
PUBLISHING AND CERTIFYING MONKEYSPHERE SERVICE CERTIFICATES
Once the host key has been imported, the corresponding certificate must
be published to the Web of Trust so that users can retrieve the cert
when connecting to the host. The host certificates are published to
the keyserver with the publish-key command:
$ monkeysphere-host publish-key --all
In order for users accessing the system to be able to identify the
host’s service via the monkeysphere, at least one person (e.g. a server
admin) will need to sign the host’s certificate. This is done using
standard OpenPGP keysigning techniques. Usually: pull the host’s
OpenPGP certificate from the keyserver, verify and sign it, and then
re-publish your signature. More than one person can certify any
certificate. Please see
http://web.monkeysphere.info/signing-host-keys/ for more information
and details. Once an admin’s signature is published, users accessing
the host can use the certificate to validate the host’s key without
having to manually check the host key’s fingerprint (in the case of
ssh) or without seeing a nasty "security warning" in their browsers (in
the case of https).
Note that monkeysphere-host currently caches a copy of all imported
secret keys (stored in OpenPGP form for future manipulation) in
/var/lib/monkeysphere/host/secring.gpg. Cleartext backups of this file
could expose secret key material if not handled sensitively.
The following environment variables will override those specified in
the config file (defaults in parentheses):
Set the log level. Can be SILENT, ERROR, INFO, VERBOSE, DEBUG,
in increasing order of verbosity. (INFO)
OpenPGP keyserver to use. (pool.sks-keyservers.net)
If set to ‘false’, never prompt the user for confirmation.
System monkeysphere-host config file.
A world-readable copy of the host’s OpenPGP certificates in
ASCII armored format. This includes the certificates (including
the public keys, servicename-based User IDs, and most recent
relevant self-signatures) corresponding to every key used by
Monkeysphere-enabled services on the host.
A locked directory (readable only by the superuser) containing
copies of all imported secret keys (this is the host’s GNUPGHOME
This man page was written by: Jameson Rollins
<email@example.com>, Daniel Kahn Gillmor
<firstname.lastname@example.org>, Matthew Goins <email@example.com>
monkeysphere(1), monkeysphere(7), gpg(1),
monkeysphere-authentication(8), ssh(1), sshd(8)