makefs - create a file system image from a directory tree
makefs [-x] [-B byte-order] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask]
[-F specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size]
[-N userdb-dir] [-o fs-options] [-S sector-size] [-s image-size]
[-t fs-type] image-file directory
The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the
directory tree directory. No special devices or privileges are required
to perform this task.
The options are as follows:
Set the byte order of the image to byte-order. Valid byte orders
are ‘4321’, ‘big’, or ‘be’ for big endian, and ‘1234’, ‘little’, or
‘le’ for little endian. Some file systems may have a fixed byte
order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.
Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the
image. An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that
free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are
set in debug-mask. XXX: document these
Use specfile as an mtree(8) ‘specfile’ specification.
If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its
permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically
overridden by the specfile. An error will be raised if the type of
entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.
In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry
in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the
specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored.
Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is
necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the
specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in
the case of block or character devices), and link (in the case of
symbolic links). If time isn’t provided, the current time will be
used. If flags isn’t provided, the current file flags will be
used. Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length
Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in
the image. An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that
free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.
Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size. An
error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger
than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.
Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
text file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from the
system’s getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.
Set file system specific options. fs-options is a comma separated
list of options. Valid file system specific options are detailed
Set the file system sector size to sector-size. Defaults to 512.
Set the size of the file system image to image-size.
Create an fs-type file system image. The following file system
types are supported:
ffs BSD fast file system (default).
cd9660 ISO 9660 file system.
-x Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.
Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or
more numbers may be separated by an “x” to indicate a product. Each
number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
b Block; multiply by 512
k Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
m Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
g Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
t Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
w Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer
ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (‘=’), and a
value. The following keywords are supported:
avgfilesize Expected average file size.
avgfpdir Expected number of files per directory.
bsize Block size.
density Bytes per inode.
fsize Fragment size.
maxbpg Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
minfree Minimum % free.
optimization Optimization preference; one of ‘space’ or ‘time’.
extent Maximum extent size.
maxbpcg Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
version UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.
cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be
provided. The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal
sign (‘=’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:
allow-deep-trees Allow the directory structure to exceed the
maximum specified in the spec.
allow-max-name Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for
filenames by omitting the version id.
allow-multidot Allow multiple dots in a filename.
applicationid Application ID of the image.
archimedes Use the ‘ARCHIMEDES’ extension to encode RISC
boot-info-table Write a legacy 56-byte table at offset 8 into
the boot image (see below).
boot-load-segment Set load segment for the boot image.
bootimage Filename of a boot image in the format
“sysid;filename”, where “sysid” is one of
‘i386’, ‘mac68k’, ‘macppc’, or ‘powerpc’.
creation-date Override PVD creation date.
effective-date Override PVD effective date.
expiration-date Override PVD expiration date.
generic-bootimage Load a generic boot image into the first 32K
of the cd9660 image.
hard-disk-boot Boot image is a hard disk image.
hide-rr-moved Assign the RR_MOVED directory a rock ridge
name of the empty string instead of the
keep-bad-images Don’t throw away images whose write was
aborted due to an error. For debugging
label Label name of the image.
modification-date Override PVD modification date.
no-boot Boot image is not bootable.
no-emul-boot Boot image is a “no emulation” ElTorito
no-trailing-padding Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs
omit-trailing-period Violate the standard, do not append a
trailing period to filenames without an
preparer Preparer ID of the image.
publisher Publisher ID of the image.
rockridge Use RockRidge extensions (for longer
rr-squash Force uid 0, gid 0, and rationalised
permission bits for RockRidge entries.
volumeid Volume set identifier of the image.
The boot-info-table currently consists of the following fields (all 7.3.1
numbers), offsets relative to the boot image:
0 8 bytes: kept as is, not part of checksum
8 LBA of PVD
12 LBA of boot image
16 Size in bytes of boot image
20 32-bit additive sum of all 32-bit words of boot image
24 40 reserved bytes (MBZ)
64 Begin of checksummed data, kept as is
Dates (to override) are in 22.214.171.124 format (YYYYmmddHHMMSS00) and
Universal Time, i.e. with zero offset from Greenwich Mean Time.
strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8)
The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.
Support for overriding PVD dates and the boot info table was added in
Luke Mewburn 〈lukem@NetBSD.org〉 (original program)
Ram Vedam (cd9660 support)
Thorsten Glaser 〈firstname.lastname@example.org〉
makefs may be limited to images less than 2 GiB in size due to internal
use of the long type.