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       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool


       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-E engine]
                       [-e end-time] [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-K directory]
                       [-k key] [-l domain] [-i interval] [-I input-format]
                       [-j jitter] [-N soa-serial-format] [-o origin]
                       [-O output-format] [-p] [-P] [-r randomdev] [-S]
                       [-s start-time] [-T ttl] [-t] [-u] [-v level] [-x] [-z]
                       [-3 salt] [-H iterations] [-A] {zonefile} [key...]


       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of
       delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are
       secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
       file for each child zone.


           Verify all generated signatures.

       -c class
           Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

           Compatibility mode: Generate a keyset-zonename file in addition to
           dsset-zonename when signing a zone, for use by older versions of

       -d directory
           Look for dsset- or keyset- files in directory.

       -E engine
           Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations
           it supports, for instance signing with private keys from a secure
           key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support it defaults to
           pkcs11; the empty name resets it to no engine.

           Generate DS records for child zones from dsset- or keyset- file.
           Existing DS records will be removed.

       -K directory
           Key repository: Specify a directory to search for DNSSEC keys. If
           not specified, defaults to the current directory.

       -k key
           Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
           This option may be specified multiple times.

       -l domain
           Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
           domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -s start-time
           Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become
           valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute
           start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
           20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
           start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current
           time. If no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour
           (to allow for clock skew) is used.

       -e end-time
           Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire.
           As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
           notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N,
           which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
           current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified,
           30 days from the start time is used as a default.  end-time must be
           later than start-time.

       -f output-file
           The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
           is to append .signed to the input filename.

           Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -i interval
           When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
           resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
           offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record
           expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is
           considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

           The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between
           the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
           start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
           are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days.
           Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less
           than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.

       -I input-format
           The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are "text"
           (default) and "raw". This option is primarily intended to be used
           for dynamic signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
           format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of this
           option does not make much sense for non-dynamic zones.

       -j jitter
           When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG
           records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If
           the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously-signed zone is
           passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be
           regenerated at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a
           jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature expire
           time, thus spreading incremental signature regeneration over time.

           Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators
           and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large
           numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time from all caches
           there will be less congestion than if all validators need to
           refetch at mostly the same time.

       -n ncpus
           Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is
           started for each detected CPU.

       -N soa-serial-format
           The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats
           are "keep" (default), "increment" and "unixtime".

                   Do not modify the SOA serial number.

                   Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.

                   Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since

       -o origin
           The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
           assumed to be the origin.

       -O output-format
           The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible
           formats are "text" (default) and "raw".

           Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
           less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful
           when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.

           Disable post sign verification tests.

           The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm in
           use there is at least one non revoked self signed KSK key, that all
           revoked KSK keys are self signed, and that all records in the zone
           are signed by the algorithm. This option skips these tests.

       -r randomdev
           Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
           not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source
           of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
           character device or file containing random data to be used instead
           of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
           input should be used.

           Smart signing: Instructs dnssec-signzone to search the key
           repository for keys that match the zone being signed, and to
           include them in the zone if appropriate.

           When a key is found, its timing metadata is examined to determine
           how it should be used, according to the following rules. Each
           successive rule takes priority over the prior ones:

                   If no timing metadata has been set for the key, the key is
                   published in the zone and used to sign the zone.

                   If the key's publication date is set and is in the past,
                   the key is published in the zone.

                   If the key's activation date is set and in the past, the
                   key is published (regardless of publication date) and used
                   to sign the zone.

                   If the key's revocation date is set and in the past, and
                   the key is published, then the key is revoked, and the
                   revoked key is used to sign the zone.

                   If either of the key's unpublication or deletion dates are
                   set and in the past, the key is NOT published or used to
                   sign the zone, regardless of any other metadata.

       -T ttl
           Specifies the TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records imported into
           the zone from the key repository. If not specified, the default is
           the minimum TTL value from the zone's SOA record. This option is
           ignored when signing without -S, since DNSKEY records are not
           imported from the key repository in that case. It is also ignored
           if there are any pre-existing DNSKEY records at the zone apex, in
           which case new records' TTL values will be set to match them.

           Print statistics at completion.

           Update NSEC/NSEC3 chain when re-signing a previously signed zone.
           With this option, a zone signed with NSEC can be switched to NSEC3,
           or a zone signed with NSEC3 can be switch to NSEC or to NSEC3 with
           different parameters. Without this option, dnssec-signzone will
           retain the existing chain when re-signing.

       -v level
           Sets the debugging level.

           Only sign the DNSKEY RRset with key-signing keys, and omit
           signatures from zone-signing keys. (This is similar to the
           dnssec-dnskey-kskonly yes; zone option in named.)

           Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign. This causes
           KSK-flagged keys to sign all records, not just the DNSKEY RRset.
           (This is similar to the update-check-ksk no; zone option in named.)

       -3 salt
           Generate an NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt. A dash
           (salt) can be used to indicate that no salt is to be used when
           generating the NSEC3 chain.

       -H iterations
           When generating an NSEC3 chain, use this many interations. The
           default is 10.

           When generating an NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3
           records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.

           Using this option twice (i.e., -AA) turns the OPTOUT flag off for
           all records. This is useful when using the -u option to modify an
           NSEC3 chain which previously had OPTOUT set.

           The file containing the zone to be signed.

           Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are
           specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the
           zone apex. If these are found and there are matching private keys,
           in the current directory, then these will be used for signing.


       The following command signs the zone with the DSA key
       generated by dnssec-keygen ( Because the -S
       option is not being used, the zone's keys must be in the master file
       ( This invocation looks for dsset files, in the current
       directory, so that DS records can be imported from them (-g).

           % dnssec-signzone -g -o \

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file This file should be referenced in a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
       The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.

           % cp
           % dnssec-signzone -o


       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 4033.


       Internet Systems Consortium


       Copyright (C) 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.