bozohttpd - hyper text transfer protocol version 1.1 daemon
bozohttpd [-HVXbefnrus] [-C suffix cgihandler] [-I port]
[-M suffix type encoding encoding11] [-S server_software]
[-c cgibin] [-i address] [-p pubdir] [-t chrootdir]
[-v virtualroot] [-x index] [-Z cert privkey] slashdir [myname]
The bozohttpd program reads a HTTP request from the standard input, and
sends a reply to the standard output. Besides ~user translation and
virtual hosting support (see below), all file requests are from slashdir
directory. The server uses myname as its name, which defaults to the
local hostname, obtained from gethostname(3) (but see the -v option for
virtual hosting.) bozohttpd writes logs to syslog(3) using the ftp
facaility (but see the -s option for testing.) bozohttpd is designed to
be small, simple and relatively featureless, hopefully increasing its
The following options are available:
-b This option enables daemon mode, where bozohttpd detaches from
the current terminal, running in the background and servicing
-C suffix cgihandler
This option adds a new CGI handler program for a particular
file type. The suffix should be any normal file suffix, and
the cgihandler should be a full path to an interpreter. This
option is the only way to enable CGI programs that exist
outside of the cgibin directory to be executed. Multiple -C
options may be passed.
-c cgibin This option enables the CGI/1.1 interface. The cgibin
directory is expected to contain the CGI programs to be used.
bozohttpd looks for URL's in the form of /cgi-bin/<scriptname>
where <scriptname> is a valid CGI program in the cgibin
directory. In other words, all CGI URL's must begin with
/cgi-bin/. Note that the CGI/1.1 interface is not available
with ~user translation.
-e This option causes bozohttpd to not clear the environment when
used with either the -t or -U options.
-f This option stops the -b flag from bozohttpd detaching from
the tty and going into the background.
-H This option causes directory index mode to hide files and
directories that start with a period, except for ... Also see
-I port This option is only valid with the -b option. It causes port
to use used as the port to bind daemon mode. The default is
the ``http'' port.
This option is only valid with the -b option. It causes
address to use used as the address to bind daemon mode. If
otherwise unspecified, the address used to bind is derived
from the myname, which defaults to the name returned by
gethostname(3). Only the last -i option is used.
-M suffix type encoding encoding11
This option adds a new entry to the table that converts file
suffixes to content type and encoding. This option takes four
additional arguments containing the file prefix, its
``Content-Type'', ``Content-Encoding'', and
``Content-Encoding'' for HTTP/1.1 connections, respectively.
If any of these are a single dash (``-''), the empty string is
used instead. Multiple -M options may be passed.
-n This option stops bozohttpd from doing IP address to name
resolution of hosts for setting the REMOTE_HOST variable
before running a CGI program. This option has no effect
without the -c option.
-p pubdir This option changes the default user directory for /~user/
translations from ``public_html'' to pubdir.
-r This option forces pages besides the ``index.html'' (see the
-X option) page to require that the Referrer: header be
present and refer to this web server, otherwise a redirect to
the ``index.html'' page will be returned instead.
This option sets the internal server version to
-s This option forces logging to be set to stderr always.
When this option is used, bozohttpd will chroot to the
specified directory before answering requests. Every other
path should be specified relative to the new root, if this
option is used. Note that the current environment is normally
replaced with an empty environment with this option, unless
the -e option is also used.
This option causes bozohttpd to switch to the user and the
groups of username after initialization. This option, like -t
above, causes bozohttpd to clear the environment unless the -e
option is given.
-u This option enables the transformation of Uniform Resource
Locators of the form /~user/ into the the directory
~user/public_html (but see the -p option above).
-V This option sets the default virtual host directory to
slashdir. If no directory exists in virtualroot for the
request, then slashdir will be used. The default behaviour is
to return 404 (Not Found.)
This option enables virtual hosting support. Directories in
virtualroot will be searched for a matching virtual host name,
when parsing the HTML request. If a matching name is found,
it will be used as both the server's real name, [myname], and
as the slashdir. See the EXAMPLES section for an example of
using this option.
-X This option enables directory indexing. A directory index
will be generated only when the default file (i.e. index.html
normally) is not present.
-x index This option changes the default file read for directories from
``index.html'' to index.
-Z certificate_path privatekey_path
This option sets the path to the server certificate file and
the private key file in pem format. It also causes bozohttpd
to start SSL mode.
Note that in bozohttpd versions 20031005 and prior that supported the -C
and -M options, they took a single space-separated argument that was
parsed. since version 20040828, they take multiple options (2 in the
case of -C and 4 in the case of -M.)
As bozohttpd uses inetd(8) by default to process incoming TCP connections
for HTTP requests (but see the -b option), bozohttpd has little internal
networking knowledge. (Indeed, you can run it on the command line with
little change of functionality.) A typical inetd.conf(5) entry would be:
http stream tcp nowait:600 httpd /usr/pkg/libexec/bozohttpd bozohttpd /var/www
http stream tcp6 nowait:600 httpd /usr/pkg/libexec/bozohttpd bozohttpd /var/www
This would serve web pages from /var/www on both IPv4 and IPv6 ports.
The :600 changes the requests per minute to 600, up from the inetd(8)
default of 40.
Using the NetBSD inetd(8), you can provide multiple IP-address based HTTP
servers by having multiple listening ports with different configurations.
This server supports the HTTP/0.9, HTTP/1.0, and HTTP/1.1 standards.
Support for these protocols is very minimal and many optional features
are not supported.
bozohttpd can be compiled without CGI support (NO_CGIBIN_SUPPORT), user
transformations (NO_USER_SUPPORT), directory index support
(NO_DIRINDEX_SUPPORT), daemon mode support (NO_DAEMON_MODE), and dynamic
MIME content (NO_DYNAMIC_CONTENT), and SSL support (NO_SSL_SUPPORT) by
defining the listed macros when building bozohttpd.
HTTP BASIC AUTHORISATION
bozohttpd has support for HTTP Basic Authorisation. If a file named
.htpasswd exists in the directory of the current request, bozohttpd will
restrict access to documents in that directory using the RFC 2617 HTTP
``Basic'' authentication scheme.
Note: This does not recursively protect any sub-directories.
The .htpasswd file contains lines delimited with a colon containing
usernames and passwords hashed with crypt(3), for example:
On NetBSD, the pwhash(1) utility may be used to generate hashed
While bozohttpd distributed with NetBSD has support for HTTP Basic
Authorisation enabled by default, in the portable distribution it is
excluded. Compile bozohttpd with ``-DDO_HTPASSWD'' on the compiler
command line to enable this support. It may require linking with the
crypt library, using ``-lcrypt''.
bozohttpd has support for SSLv2, SSLv3, and TLSv1 protocols that is
included by default. It requires linking with the crypto and ssl
library, using ``-lcrypto -lssl''. To disable SSL SUPPORT compile
bozohttpd with ``-DNO_SSL_SUPPORT'' on the compiler command line.
bozohttpd looks for a couple of special files in directories that allow
certain features to be provided on a per-directory basis. In addition to
the .htpasswd used by HTTP basic authorisation, if a .bzdirect file is
found (contents are irrelevant) bozohttpd will allow direct access even
with the -r option. If a .bzredirect symbolic link is found, bozohttpd
will perform a smart redirect to the target of this symlink. The target
is assumed to live on the same server. If a .bzabsredirect symbolic link
is found, bozohttpd will redirect to the absolute url pointed to by this
symlink. This is useful to redirect to different servers.
To configure set of virtual hosts, one would use an inetd.conf(5) entry
http stream tcp nowait:600 httpd /usr/pkg/libexec/bozohttpd bozohttpd -v /var/vroot /var/www
and inside /var/vroot create a directory (or a symlink to a directory)
with the same name as the virtual host, for each virtual host. Lookups
for these names are done in a case-insensitive manner.
To use bozohttpd with PHP, one must use the -C option to specify a CGI
handler for a particular file type. Typically this, this will be like:
bozohttpd -C .php /usr/pkg/bin/php /var/www
The bozohttpd program was first written in perl, based on another perl
http server called ``tinyhttpd''. It was then rewritten from scratch in
perl, and then once again in C. The focus has always been simplicity and
security, with minimal features and regular code audits. This manual
documents bozohttpd version 20100621.
bozohttpd was written by Matthew R. Green <email@example.com>.
The large list of contributors includes:
- Arnaud Lacombe <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided some clean up for memory
- Christoph Badura <email@example.com> provided Range: header support
- Julian Coleman <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided an IPv6 bugfix
- Chuck Cranor <email@example.com> provided cgi-bin support fixes,
- DEGROOTE Arnaud <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided a fix for daemon mode
- Andrew Doran <email@example.com> provided directory indexing support
- Per Ekman <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided a fix for a minor (non-security)
buffer overflow condition
- Alistair G. Crooks <email@example.com> cleaned up many internal
interfaces, made bozohttpd linkable as a library and provided the lua
- Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino, KAME <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided initial
- Martin Husemann <email@example.com> provided .bzabsredirect support
- Arto Huusko <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided fixes cgi-bin
- Roland Illig <email@example.com> provided some off-by-one fixes
- Zak Johnson <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided cgi-bin enhancements
- Nicolas Jombart <email@example.com> provided fixes for HTTP basic
- Thomas Klausner <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided many fixes
and enhancements for the man page
- Johnny Lam <email@example.com> provided man page fixes
- Luke Mewburn <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided many various fixes,
including cgi-bin fixes and enhancements, HTTP basic authorisation
support and much code clean up
- Jeremy C. Reed <email@example.com> provided several clean up fixes, and
man page updates
- Scott Reynolds <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided various fixes
- Tyler Retzlaff <email@example.com> provided SSL support, cgi-bin
fixes and much other random other stuff
- Steve Rumble <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided the -V option.
- Joerg Sonnenberger <email@example.com> implemented If-Modified-Since
- ISIHARA Takanori <firstname.lastname@example.org> provided a man page fix
- Holger Weiss <holger@CIS.FU-Berlin.DE> provided http authorisation
- <email@example.com> provided chroot and change-to-user support, and
other various fixes
- Coyote Point provided various CGI fixes
There are probably others I have forgotten (let me know if you care)
Please send all updates to bozohttpd to <firstname.lastname@example.org> for inclusion
in future releaases.
bozohttpd does not handled HTTP/1.1 chunked input from the client yet.