bos_salvage - Restores internal consistency to a file system or volume
bos salvage -server <machine name>
[-partition <salvage partition>]
[-volume <salvage volume number or volume name>]
[-file <salvage log output file>] [-all] [-showlog]
[-parallel <# of max parallel partition salvaging>]
[-tmpdir <directory to place tmp files>]
[-orphans (ignore | remove | attach)] [-cell <cell name>]
[-noauth] [-localauth] [-help]
bos sa -se <machine name> [-part <salvage partition>]
[-v <salvage volume number or volume name>]
[-f <salvage log output file>] [-a] [-sh]
[<-para> <# of max parallel partition salvaging>]
[-t <directory to place tmp files>]
[-o (ignore | remove | attach)] [-c <cell name>] [-n]
The bos salvage command salvages (restores internal consistency to) one
or more volumes on the file server machine named by the -server
argument. When processing one or more partitions, the command restores
consistency to corrupted read/write volumes where possible. For read-
only or backup volumes, it inspects only the volume header:
· If the volume header is corrupted, the Salvager removes the volume
completely and records the removal in its log file,
/var/log/openafs/SalvageLog. Issue the vos release or vos backup
command to create the read-only or backup volume again.
· If the volume header is intact, the Salvager skips the volume (does
not check for corruption in the contents). However, if the File
Server notices corruption as it initializes, it sometimes refuses
to attach the volume or bring it online. In this case, it is
simplest to remove the volume by issuing the vos remove or vos zap
command. Then issue the vos release or vos backup command to create
Use the indicated arguments to salvage a specific number of volumes:
· To process all volumes on a file server machine, provide the
-server argument and the -all flag. No volumes on the machine are
accessible to Cache Managers during the salvage operation, because
the BOS Server stops the File Server and Volume Server processes
while the Salvager runs. The BOS Server automatically restarts them
when the operation completes.
· To process all volumes on one partition, provide the -server and
-partition arguments. As for a salvage of the entire machine, no
volumes on the machine are accessible to Cache Managers during the
salvage operation. The BOS Server automatically restarts the File
Server and Volume Server when the operation completes.
· To salvage only one read/write volume, combine the -server,
-partition, and -volume arguments. Only that volume is inaccessible
to Cache Managers, because the BOS Server does not shutdown the
File Server and Volume Server processes during the salvage of a
single volume. Do not name a read-only or backup volume with the
-volume argument. Instead, remove the volume, using the vos remove
or vos zap command. Then create a new copy of the volume with the
vos release or vos backup command.
During the salvage of an entire machine or partition, the bos status
command reports the "fs" process’s auxiliary status as "Salvaging file
The Salvager always writes a trace to the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog
file on the file server machine where it runs. To record the trace in
another file as well (either in AFS or on the local disk of the machine
where the bos salvage command is issued), name the file with the -file
argument. To display the trace on the standard output stream as it is
written to the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file, include the -showlog
By default, multiple Salvager subprocesses run in parallel: one for
each partition up to four, and four subprocesses for four or more
partitions. To increase or decrease the number of subprocesses running
in parallel, provide a positive integer value for the -parallel
If there is more than one server partition on a physical disk, the
Salvager by default salvages them serially to avoid the inefficiency of
constantly moving the disk head from one partition to another. However,
this strategy is often not ideal if the partitions are configured as
logical volumes that span multiple disks. To force the Salvager to
salvage logical volumes in parallel, provide the string "all" as the
value for the -parallel argument. Provide a positive integer to specify
the number of subprocesses to run in parallel (for example, "-parallel
5all" for five subprocesses), or omit the integer to run up to four
subprocesses, depending on the number of logical volumes being
The Salvager creates temporary files as it runs, by default writing
them to the partition it is salvaging. The number of files can be quite
large, and if the partition is too full to accommodate them, the
Salvager terminates without completing the salvage operation (it always
removes the temporary files before exiting). Other Salvager
subprocesses running at the same time continue until they finish
salvaging all other partitions where there is enough disk space for
temporary files. To complete the interrupted salvage, reissue the
command against the appropriate partitions, adding the -tmpdir argument
to redirect the temporary files to a local disk directory that has
The -orphans argument controls how the Salvager handles orphaned files
and directories that it finds on server partitions it is salvaging. An
orphaned element is completely inaccessible because it is not
referenced by the vnode of any directory that can act as its parent (is
higher in the filespace). Orphaned objects occupy space on the server
partition, but do not count against the volume’s quota.
Running this command can result in data loss if the Salvager process
can repair corruption only by removing the offending data. Consult the
IBM AFS Administration Guide for more information.
-server <machine name>
Indicates the file server machine on which to salvage volumes.
Identify the machine by IP address or its host name (either fully-
qualified or abbreviated unambiguously). For details, see bos(8).
-partition <salvage partition>
Specifies a single partition on which to salvage all volumes.
Provide the complete partition name (for example /vicepa) or one of
the following abbreviated forms:
/vicepa = vicepa = a = 0
/vicepb = vicepb = b = 1
After /vicepz (for which the index is 25) comes
/vicepaa = vicepaa = aa = 26
/vicepab = vicepab = ab = 27
and so on through
/vicepiv = vicepiv = iv = 255
-volume <salvage volume id or name>
Specifies the name or volume ID number of a read/write volume to
salvage. The -partition argument must be provided along with this
-file <salvage log output file>
Specifies the complete pathname of a file into which to write a
trace of the salvage operation, in addition to the
/var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file on the server machine. If the file
pathname is local, the trace is written to the specified file on
the local disk of the machine where the bos salvage command is
issued. If the -volume argument is included, the file can be in
AFS, though not in the volume being salvaged. Do not combine this
argument with the -showlog flag.
Salvages all volumes on all of the partitions on the machine named
by the -server argument.
Displays the trace of the salvage operation on the standard output
stream, as well as writing it to the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog
file. Do not combine this flag with the -file argument.
-parallel <# of max parallel partition salvaging>
Specifies the maximum number of Salvager subprocesses to run in
parallel. Provide one of three values:
· An integer from the range 1 to 32. A value of 1 means that a
single Salvager process salvages the partitions sequentially.
· The string "all" to run up to four Salvager subprocesses in
parallel on partitions formatted as logical volumes that span
multiple physical disks. Use this value only with such logical
· The string all followed immediately (with no intervening space)
by an integer from the range 1 to 32, to run the specified
number of Salvager subprocesses in parallel on partitions
formatted as logical volumes. Use this value only with such
The BOS Server never starts more Salvager subprocesses than there
are partitions, and always starts only one process to salvage a
single volume. If this argument is omitted, up to four Salvager
subprocesses run in parallel.
-tmpdir <directory to place tmp files>
Specifies the full pathname of a local disk directory to which the
Salvager process writes temporary files as it runs. If this
argument is omitted, or specifies an ineligible or nonexistent
directory, the Salvager process writes the files to the partition
it is currently salvaging.
-orphans (ignore | remove | attach)
Controls how the Salvager handles orphaned files and directories.
Choose one of the following three values:
Leaves the orphaned objects on the disk, but prints a message
to the /var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file reporting how many
orphans were found and the approximate number of kilobytes they
are consuming. This is the default if the -orphans argument is
Removes the orphaned objects, and prints a message to the
/var/log/openafs/SalvageLog file reporting how many orphans
were removed and the approximate number of kilobytes they were
Attaches the orphaned objects by creating a reference to them
in the vnode of the volume’s root directory. Since each
object’s actual name is now lost, the Salvager assigns each one
a name of the following form:
· "__ORPHANFILE__.index" for files.
· "__ORPHANDIR__.index" for directories.
where index is a two-digit number that uniquely identifies each
object. The orphans are charged against the volume’s quota and
appear in the output of the ls command issued against the
volume’s root directory.
-cell <cell name>
Names the cell in which to run the command. Do not combine this
argument with the -localauth flag. For more details, see bos(8).
Assigns the unprivileged identity "anonymous" to the issuer. Do not
combine this flag with the -localauth flag. For more details, see
Constructs a server ticket using a key from the local
/etc/openafs/server/KeyFile file. The bos command interpreter
presents the ticket to the BOS Server during mutual authentication.
Do not combine this flag with the -cell or -noauth options. For
more details, see bos(8).
Prints the online help for this command. All other valid options
The following command salvages all volumes on the /vicepd partition of
the machine "db3.abc.com":
% bos salvage -server db3.abc.com -partition /vicepd
The following command salvages the volume with volume ID number
536870988 on partition /vicepb of the machine "fs2.abc.com":
% bos salvage -server fs2.abc.com -partition /vicepb -volume 536870988
The following command salvages all volumes on the machine
"fs4.abc.com". Six Salvager processes run in parallel rather than the
% bos salvage -server fs4.abc.com -all -parallel 6
The issuer must be listed in the /etc/openafs/server/UserList file on
the machine named by the -server argument, or must be logged onto a
server machine as the local superuser "root" if the -localauth flag is
KeyFile(5), SalvageLog(5), UserList(5), bos(8), salvager(8),
vos_backup(1), vos_release(1), vos_remove(1), vos_zap(1)
IBM AFS Administration Guide
IBM Corporation 2000. <http://www.ibm.com/> All Rights Reserved.
This documentation is covered by the IBM Public License Version 1.0.
It was converted from HTML to POD by software written by Chas Williams
and Russ Allbery, based on work by Alf Wachsmann and Elizabeth Cassell.