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       bing  -  compute  point  to  point  throughput  using two sizes of ICMP
       ECHO_REQUEST packets to pairs of remote hosts.


       bing [dDnrRPvVwz] [-c count] [-e samples] [-f samplefile] [-i wait] [-p
       pattern] [-s small packetsize] [-S big packetsize] host1 host2 [...]


       Bing  determines  bandwidth  on  a  point-to-point link by sending ICMP
       ECHO_REQUEST packets and measuring their roundtrip times for  different
       packet sizes on each end of the link.

       host1 is supposed to be the nearest end of the link, while host2 is the
       other end.

       The options are as follows:

       -c count
            Stop after count resets of the stats. Useful only  in  conjunction
            with the -e option. Defaults to 1.

       -d   Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.

       -D   Display  the  measured  throughput  at  every  received packet. By
            default, it is displayed only when  the  computed  value  changes,
            which  itself changes only when the minimum roundtrip time for one
            of the packet sizes changes.

       -e samples
            Reset stats after sending samples ECHO_REQUEST packets.

       -f samplefile
            Saves the bandwidth measurements to the file samplefile.

       -i wait
            Wait wait seconds for each ECHO_REPLY packet. The  default  is  to
            wait for four seconds.

       -n   Numeric  output  only.  No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic
            names for host addresses.

       -P   Be pedantic regarding round-trip times.

            Normally, bing assumes that the roundtrip time for a small  packet
            should  always be smaller than the roundtrip time for a big packet
            to the same host, that for a given size  the  roundtrip  time  for
            host1  should always be smaller than the roundtrip time for host2,
            and that the increase in the  roundtrip  time  between  host1  and
            host2  should  always  be  bigger  for  big packets than for small

            Bing takes advantage of  this  to  better  determine  the  minimum
            roundtrip times.

            Option  -P disables this behaviour, in the unlikely event it could
            be of any use someday. Even IP/X25 links are not weird  enough  to
            require this, though.

       -p pattern
            You  may specify up to 16 ‘‘pad’’ bytes to fill out the packet you
            send.  This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in  a
            network.   For example, ‘‘-p ff’’ will cause the sent packet to be
            filled with all ones.

       -R   Record route. Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
            packet  and  displays  the  route buffer on returned packets. Note
            that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes. Many
            hosts ignore or discard this option.

       -r   Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an
            attached network. If  the  host  is  not  on  a  directly-attached
            network,  an  error is returned. This option can be used to ping a
            local host through an interface  that  has  no  route  through  it
            (e.g., after the interface was dropped by routed(8)).

       -s small packetsize
            Specifies  the  number  of  data  bytes  to  be  sent in the small
            packets. The default and minimum value is 44.

       -S big packetsize
            Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent in the big  packets.
            The  default  is 108. The size should be chosen so that big packet
            roundtrip  times  are  long  enough  to  be  accurately   measured
            (depending on clock resolution and number of hops).

       -u size increment
            Specifies  that  bing  should start sending packets of the size of
            small packetsize and then increase  the  size  by  size  increment
            until it reaches big packetsize.

       -v   Verbose  output.  ICMP  packets  other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are
            received are listed.

       -V   Very verbose output. The roundtrip time of each received  echo  is

       -w   Display  possible warnings about roundtrip times all the time.  By
            default, warnings are printed only at the end.

       -z   Fill packets with uncompressible (pseudo-random) data.

       Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed. If  duplicate
       packets  are  received,  they  are  not  included  in  the  packet loss
       calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is  used  in
       calculating  the  minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers. When
       the specified number of loops have been  made  or  if  the  program  is
       terminated with a SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed.

       This  program  is  intended for use in network testing, measurement and
       management. Because of the load it can impose on  the  network,  it  is
       unwise  to use bing during normal operations or from automated scripts.


       Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.

       The maximum IP header length is too small for options like RECORD_ROUTE
       to  be  completely useful. There’s not much that that can be done about
       this, however.

       Some of the final stats (average throughputs) almost never give a  even
       marginally correct result.


       netstat(1), ifconfig(8), ping(8), routed(8), traceroute(8)


       Pierre Beyssac <>

       Port to Windows: Francois Gouget <>

                                 April 3, 1995