srec_mos_tech - MOS Technology file format
The MOS Technology format allows binary files to be uploaded and
downloaded between between a computer system (such as a PC, Macintosh,
or workstation) and an emulator or evaluation board for
microcontrollers and microprocessors.
Each line consists of 5 fields. These are the length field, address
field, data field, and the checksum. The lines always start with a
semicolon (;) character.
|; | Length | Address | Data | Checksum | CRLF |
Length The record length field is a 2 character (1 byte) field that
specifies the number of data bytes in the record. Typically
this is 24 or less.
Address This is a 2‐byte address that specifies where the data in the
record is to be loaded into memory, big‐endian.
Data The data field contains the executable code, memory‐loadable
data or descriptive information to be transferred.
The checksum is an 2‐byte field that represents the least
significant two bytes of the the sum of the values represented
by the pairs of characters making up the record’s length,
address, and data fields, big‐endian.
End of File
The final line should have a data length of zero, and the data line
count in the address field. The checksum is not the usual checksum, it
is instead a repeat of the data line count.
In general, binary data will expand in sized by approximately 2.54
times when represented with this format.
Here is an example MOS Technology format file. It contains the data
“Hello, World” to be loaded at address 0.
srec_cat version 1.55
Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Peter Miller
The srec_cat program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details use
the ’srec_cat -VERSion License’ command. This is free software and you
are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; for details
use the ’srec_cat -VERSion License’ command.
Peter Miller E‐Mail: email@example.com
/\/\* WWW: http://miller.emu.id.au/pmiller/
KIM‐1 User Manual - Appendix F - Paper Tape Format
(The following information is reproduced from
http://users.telenet.be/kim16502/6502/usrman.html#F just in case it
vanishes from the Web.)
The paper tape LOAD and DUMP routines store and retrieve data in a
specific format designed to insure error free recovery. Each byte of
data to be stored is converted to two half bytes. The half bytes
(whose possible values are 0 to F HEX) are translated into their ASCII
equivalents and written out onto paper tape in this form.
Each record outputted begins with a “;” character (ASCII 3B) to mark
the start of a valid record. The next byte transmitted (18HEX) or (24
decimal) is the number of data bytes contained in the record. The
record’s starting address High (1 byte, 2 characters), starting address
Lo (1 byte, 2 characters), and data (24 bytes, 48 characters) follow.
Each record is terminated by the record’s check‐sum (2 bytes, 4
characters), a carriage return (ASCII 0D), line feed (ASCII 0A), and
six “NULL” characters (ASCII 00). (NULL characters cause a blank area
on the paper tape.)
The last record transmitted has zero data bytes (indicated by ;00) The
starting address field is replaced by a four digit Hex number
representing the total number of data records contained in the
transmission, followed by the records usual check‐sum digits. An
“XOFF” character ends the transmission.
During a “LOAD” all incoming data is ignored until a “;” character is
received. The receipt of non ASCII data or a mismatch between a
records calculated check‐sum and the check‐sum read from tape will
cause an error condition to be recognized by KIM. The check‐sum is
calculated by adding all data in the record except the “;” character.
The paper tape format described is compatible with all other MOS
Technology, Inc. software support programs.