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       ldap_init, ldap_initialize, ldap_open - Initialize the LDAP library and
       open a connection to an LDAP server


       OpenLDAP LDAP (libldap, -lldap)


       #include <ldap.h>

       LDAP *ldap_open(host, port)
       char *host;
       int port;

       LDAP *ldap_init(host, port)
       char *host;
       int port;

       int ldap_initialize(ldp, uri)
       LDAP **ldp;
       char *uri;

       #include <ldap_pvt.h>

       int ldap_init_fd(fd, proto, uri, ldp)
       ber_socket_t fd;
       int proto;
       char *uri;
       LDAP **ldp;


       ldap_open() opens a connection to an LDAP server and allocates an  LDAP
       structure which is used to identify the connection and to maintain per-
       connection information.  ldap_init() allocates an  LDAP  structure  but
       does  not  open  an initial connection.  ldap_initialize() allocates an
       LDAP structure but does not open an initial connection.  ldap_init_fd()
       allocates  an  LDAP  structure  using  an  existing  connection  on the
       provided socket.  One of these  routines  must  be  called  before  any
       operations are attempted.

       ldap_open()  takes  host,  the  hostname  on  which  the LDAP server is
       running, and port, the port number to which to connect.  If the default
       IANA-assigned port of 389 is desired, LDAP_PORT should be specified for
       port.  The host parameter may contain a blank-separated list  of  hosts
       to  try  to  connect  to,  and  each host may optionally by of the form
       host:port.  If present, the  :port  overrides  the  port  parameter  to
       ldap_open().   Upon successfully making a connection to an LDAP server,
       ldap_open() returns a pointer to an opaque LDAP structure, which should
       be  passed  to  subsequent  calls  to  ldap_bind(), ldap_search(), etc.
       Certain fields in the LDAP structure can be set to indicate size limit,
       time  limit,  and  how  aliases are handled during operations; read and
       write access to those fields must occur by  calling  ldap_get_option(3)
       and ldap_set_option(3) respectively, whenever possible.

       ldap_init()  acts just like ldap_open(), but does not open a connection
       to the LDAP server.  The actual connection open  will  occur  when  the
       first operation is attempted.

       ldap_initialize()  acts  like  ldap_init(),  but  it returns an integer
       indicating either success or the  failure  reason,  and  it  allows  to
       specify  details  for  the connection in the schema portion of the URI.
       The uri parameter may be a comma- or whitespace-separated list of  URIs
       containing  only the schema, the host, and the port fields.  Apart from
       ldap, other (non-standard) recognized values of the  schema  field  are
       ldaps (LDAP over TLS), ldapi (LDAP over IPC), and cldap (connectionless
       LDAP).  If other fields are present, the behavior is undefined.

       At this time, ldap_open() and ldap_init() are deprecated  in  favor  of
       ldap_initialize(),  essentially  because the latter allows to specify a
       schema in the URI and it explicitly returns an error code.

       ldap_init_fd() allows an LDAP structure  to  be  initialized  using  an
       already-opened  connection.  The  proto  parameter  should  be  one  of
       LDAP_PROTO_TCP, LDAP_PROTO_UDP,  or  LDAP_PROTO_IPC  for  a  connection
       using TCP, UDP, or IPC, respectively. The value LDAP_PROTO_EXT may also
       be specified if user-supplied sockbuf handlers are going  to  be  used.
       Note  that  support for UDP is not implemented unless libldap was built
       with LDAP_CONNECTIONLESS defined.  The uri parameter may optionally  be
       provided for informational purposes.

       Note:  the first call into the LDAP library also initializes the global
       options for the library. As such  the  first  call  should  be  single-
       threaded or otherwise protected to insure that only one call is active.
       It is recommended that ldap_get_option() or ldap_set_option()  be  used
       in the program's main thread before any additional threads are created.
       See ldap_get_option(3).


       If an error occurs, ldap_open() and ldap_init() will  return  NULL  and
       errno    should    be   set   appropriately.    ldap_initialize()   and
       ldap_init_fd() will directly return the LDAP  code  associated  to  the
       error (or LDAP_SUCCESS in case of success); errno should be set as well
       whenever appropriate.


       ldap(3), ldap_bind(3),  ldap_get_option(3),  ldap_set_option(3),  lber-
       sockbuf(3), errno(3)


       OpenLDAP  Software  is developed and maintained by The OpenLDAP Project
       <>.   OpenLDAP   Software   is   derived   from
       University of Michigan LDAP 3.3 Release.