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       zshoptions - zsh options


       Options  are  primarily  referred  to  by  name.   These names are case
       insensitive and underscores are ignored.  For example,  `allexport'  is
       equivalent to `A__lleXP_ort'.

       The  sense of an option name may be inverted by preceding it with `no',
       so `setopt No_Beep' is equivalent to `unsetopt beep'.   This  inversion
       can  only  be  done  once,  so  `nonobeep' is not a synonym for `beep'.
       Similarly, `tify' is not a synonym for  `nonotify'  (the  inversion  of

       Some  options also have one or more single letter names.  There are two
       sets of single letter options: one used by default, and another used to
       emulate  sh/ksh  (used  when the SH_OPTION_LETTERS option is set).  The
       single letter options can be used on the shell command  line,  or  with
       the  set, setopt and unsetopt builtins, as normal Unix options preceded
       by `-'.

       The sense of the single letter options may be  inverted  by  using  `+'
       instead  of  `-'.   Some  of the single letter option names refer to an
       option being off, in which case the inversion of that  name  refers  to
       the  option  being  on.  For example, `+n' is the short name of `exec',
       and `-n' is the short name of its inversion, `noexec'.

       In strings of single letter options supplied to the shell  at  startup,
       trailing  whitespace  will  be ignored; for example the string `-f    '
       will be treated just as `-f', but the string `-f i' is an error.   This
       is  because many systems which implement the `#!' mechanism for calling
       scripts do not strip trailing whitespace.


       In the following list, options set by default  in  all  emulations  are
       marked  <D>;  those  set  by  default  only  in  csh,  ksh,  sh, or zsh
       emulations are marked <C>, <K>, <S>, <Z> as appropriate.  When  listing
       options  (by  `setopt', `unsetopt', `set -o' or `set +o'), those turned
       on by default appear in the list prefixed  with  `no'.   Hence  (unless
       KSH_OPTION_PRINT is set), `setopt' shows all options whose settings are
       changed from the default.

   Changing Directories
       AUTO_CD (-J)
              If a command is issued  that  can't  be  executed  as  a  normal
              command, and the command is the name of a directory, perform the
              cd command to that directory.

       AUTO_PUSHD (-N)
              Make cd push the old directory onto the directory stack.

       CDABLE_VARS (-T)
              If the argument to a cd command  (or  an  implied  cd  with  the
              AUTO_CD  option set) is not a directory, and does not begin with
              a slash, try to expand the expression as if it were preceded  by
              a `~' (see the section `Filename Expansion').

              When  changing  to  a  directory  containing a path segment `..'
              which would otherwise  be  treated  as  canceling  the  previous
              segment  in  the path (in other words, `foo/..' would be removed
              from the path, or if `..' is the first part  of  the  path,  the
              last part of $PWD would be deleted), instead resolve the path to
              the  physical  directory.   This   option   is   overridden   by

              For  example,  suppose  /foo/bar  is  a  link  to  the directory
              /alt/rod.  Without this option set, `cd /foo/bar/..' changes  to
              /foo;  with it set, it changes to /alt.  The same applies if the
              current directory is /foo/bar and `cd ..' is  used.   Note  that
              all other symbolic links in the path will also be resolved.

       CHASE_LINKS (-w)
              Resolve  symbolic  links  to  their  true  values  when changing
              directory.  This also has the effect of CHASE_DOTS, i.e. a  `..'
              path  segment  will  be  treated  as  referring  to the physical
              parent, even if the preceding path segment is a symbolic link.

              Don't push multiple  copies  of  the  same  directory  onto  the
              directory stack.

              Exchanges the meanings of `+' and `-' when used with a number to
              specify a directory in the stack.

       PUSHD_SILENT (-E)
              Do not print the directory stack after pushd or popd.

       PUSHD_TO_HOME (-D)
              Have pushd with no arguments act like `pushd $HOME'.

              If unset, key functions that list completions try to  return  to
              the  last  prompt  if  given  a  numeric  argument. If set these
              functions try to return to the last prompt if given  no  numeric

              If  a completion is performed with the cursor within a word, and
              a full completion is inserted, the cursor is moved to the end of
              the  word.   That is, the cursor is moved to the end of the word
              if either a single match  is  inserted  or  menu  completion  is

       AUTO_LIST (-9) <D>
              Automatically list choices on an ambiguous completion.

       AUTO_MENU <D>
              Automatically  use  menu completion after the second consecutive
              request for completion, for example  by  pressing  the  tab  key
              repeatedly. This option is overridden by MENU_COMPLETE.

              Any  parameter  that  is set to the absolute name of a directory
              immediately becomes a name for that directory, that will be used
              by  the `%~' and related prompt sequences, and will be available
              when completion is  performed  on  a  word  starting  with  `~'.
              (Otherwise,  the  parameter  must  be  used in the form `~param'

              If a parameter name was  completed  and  a  following  character
              (normally   a   space)  automatically  inserted,  and  the  next
              character typed is one of those that have to come directly after
              the   name  (like  `}',  `:',  etc.),  the  automatically  added
              character  is  deleted,  so  that  the  character  typed   comes
              immediately  after  the  parameter  name.  Completion in a brace
              expansion is affected similarly: the added character is  a  `,',
              which will be removed if `}' is typed next.

              If  a  parameter  is  completed  whose  content is the name of a
              directory, then add a trailing slash instead of a space.

              When the last character resulting from a completion is  a  slash
              and  the next character typed is a word delimiter, a slash, or a
              character that ends  a  command  (such  as  a  semicolon  or  an
              ampersand), remove the slash.

              On  an ambiguous completion, automatically list choices when the
              completion function is called twice in succession.   This  takes
              precedence  over  AUTO_LIST.   The  setting of LIST_AMBIGUOUS is
              respected.  If AUTO_MENU is set, the menu  behaviour  will  then
              start  with  the third press.  Note that this will not work with
              MENU_COMPLETE, since repeated completion calls immediately cycle
              through the list in that case.

              Prevents  aliases  on  the  command  line  from being internally
              substituted before completion is attempted.  The  effect  is  to
              make the alias a distinct command for completion purposes.

              If unset, the cursor is set to the end of the word if completion
              is started. Otherwise it stays there and completion is done from
              both ends.

              When  the current word has a glob pattern, do not insert all the
              words resulting from the expansion but generate matches  as  for
              completion  and  cycle  through  them  like  MENU_COMPLETE.  The
              matches are generated as if a `*' was added to the  end  of  the
              word,  or  inserted  at the cursor when COMPLETE_IN_WORD is set.
              This actually uses pattern matching, not globbing, so  it  works
              not only for files but for any completion, such as options, user
              names, etc.

              Note that when the pattern matcher  is  used,  matching  control
              (for  example,  case-insensitive or anchored matching) cannot be
              used.  This  limitation  only  applies  when  the  current  word
              contains  a  pattern; simply turning on the GLOB_COMPLETE option
              does not have this effect.

       HASH_LIST_ALL <D>
              Whenever a command completion is attempted, make sure the entire
              command  path  is hashed first.  This makes the first completion

              This option works when AUTO_LIST or BASH_AUTO_LIST is also  set.
              If there is an unambiguous prefix to insert on the command line,
              that is done without a completion list being displayed; in other
              words,  auto-listing  behaviour  only  takes  place when nothing
              would be inserted.  In the case of  BASH_AUTO_LIST,  this  means
              that the list will be delayed to the third call of the function.

       LIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep on an ambiguous completion.  More accurately,  this  forces
              the  completion  widgets  to  return  status  1  on an ambiguous
              completion, which causes the shell to beep if the option BEEP is
              also  set;  this  may be modified if completion is called from a
              user-defined widget.

              Try to make the completion list smaller (occupying  less  lines)
              by printing the matches in columns with different widths.

              Lay  out  the  matches  in completion lists sorted horizontally,
              that is, the second match is to the right of the first one,  not
              under it as usual.

       LIST_TYPES (-X) <D>
              When  listing files that are possible completions, show the type
              of each file with a trailing identifying mark.

              On an ambiguous completion, instead of listing possibilities  or
              beeping,   insert   the  first  match  immediately.   Then  when
              completion is requested again, remove the first match and insert
              the  second match, etc.  When there are no more matches, go back
              to the first one again.  reverse-menu-complete may  be  used  to
              loop  through  the  list  in  the  other  direction. This option
              overrides AUTO_MENU.

       REC_EXACT (-S)
              In  completion,  recognize  exact  matches  even  if  they   are

   Expansion and Globbing
       BAD_PATTERN (+2) <C> <Z>
              If  a  pattern for filename generation is badly formed, print an
              error message.  (If this option is unset, the  pattern  will  be
              left unchanged.)

              In  a  glob  pattern,  treat  a trailing set of parentheses as a
              qualifier list, if it contains no `|', `(' or (if  special)  `~'
              characters.  See the section `Filename Generation'.

              Expand  expressions  in braces which would not otherwise undergo
              brace  expansion  to  a  lexically  ordered  list  of  all   the
              characters.  See the section `Brace Expansion'.

       CASE_GLOB <D>
              Make  globbing  (filename  generation)  sensitive to case.  Note
              that other uses of patterns are always sensitive  to  case.   If
              the  option  is  unset,  the  presence of any character which is
              special  to  filename  generation  will  cause  case-insensitive
              matching.  For example, cvs(/) can match the directory CVS owing
              to  the  presence  of  the  globbing  flag  (unless  the  option
              BARE_GLOB_QUAL is unset).

       CASE_MATCH <D>
              Make  regular  expressions using the zsh/regex module (including
              matches with =~) sensitive to case.

       CSH_NULL_GLOB <C>
              If a pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete  the
              pattern  from  the  argument list; do not report an error unless
              all the patterns  in  a  command  have  no  matches.   Overrides

       EQUALS <Z>
              Perform  =  filename  expansion.   (See  the  section  `Filename

              Treat the `#', `~' and `^' characters as part  of  patterns  for
              filename  generation,  etc.   (An  initial  unquoted  `~' always
              produces named directory expansion.)

       GLOB (+F, ksh: +f) <D>
              Perform  filename  generation  (globbing).   (See  the   section
              `Filename Generation'.)

       GLOB_ASSIGN <C>
              If  this  option  is  set,  filename  generation  (globbing)  is
              performed on the right hand side of scalar parameter assignments
              of  the  form  `name=pattern  (e.g. `foo=*').  If the result has
              more than one word the parameter will become an array with those
              words  as  arguments.  This  option  is  provided  for backwards
              compatibility only: globbing is always performed  on  the  right
              hand  side of array assignments of the form `name=(value)' (e.g.
              `foo=(*)') and this form is recommended for clarity;  with  this
              option  set,  it  is  not possible to predict whether the result
              will be an array or a scalar.

       GLOB_DOTS (-4)
              Do not require a  leading  `.'  in  a  filename  to  be  matched

       GLOB_SUBST <C> <K> <S>
              Treat any characters resulting from parameter expansion as being
              eligible for file expansion and  filename  generation,  and  any
              characters resulting from command substitution as being eligible
              for filename generation.  Braces (and commas in between) do  not
              become eligible for expansion.

              Substitutions   using  the  :s  and  :&  history  modifiers  are
              performed with pattern  matching  instead  of  string  matching.
              This occurs wherever history modifiers are valid, including glob
              qualifiers  and  parameters.   See  the  section  Modifiers   in

       IGNORE_BRACES (-I) <S>
              Do not perform brace expansion.

       KSH_GLOB <K>
              In  pattern  matching,  the  interpretation  of  parentheses  is
              affected by a preceding `@', `*', `+',  `?'  or  `!'.   See  the
              section `Filename Generation'.

              All   unquoted   arguments  of  the  form  `anything=expression'
              appearing after the command name have filename  expansion  (that
              is,  where  expression  has  a  leading `~' or `=') performed on
              expression as if it were a parameter assignment.   The  argument
              is  not otherwise treated specially; it is passed to the command
              as a single argument,  and  not  used  as  an  actual  parameter
              assignment.    For   example,   in  echo  foo=~/bar:~/rod,  both
              occurrences of ~ would be  replaced.   Note  that  this  happens
              anyway with typeset and similar statements.

              This  option respects the setting of the KSH_TYPESET option.  In
              other words, if both options are in  effect,  arguments  looking
              like assignments will not undergo word splitting.

       MARK_DIRS (-8, ksh: -X)
              Append  a  trailing  `/'  to  all directory names resulting from
              filename generation (globbing).

       MULTIBYTE <C> <K> <Z>
              Respect multibyte characters when found in strings.   When  this
              option  is set, strings are examined using the system library to
              determine how many bytes form  a  character,  depending  on  the
              current  locale.  This affects the way characters are counted in
              pattern matching, parameter values and various delimiters.

              The option is on by default  if  the  shell  was  compiled  with
              MULTIBYTE_SUPPORT except in sh emulation; otherwise it is off by
              default and has no effect if turned on.  The mode is off  in  sh
              emulation  for compatibility but for interactive use may need to
              be turned on if the terminal interprets multibyte characters.

              If the option is off a single byte is always treated as a single
              character.   This  setting  is  designed  purely  for  examining
              strings known to contain raw bytes or other values that may  not
              be  characters  in  the  current locale.  It is not necessary to
              unset the option  merely  because  the  character  set  for  the
              current locale does not contain multibyte characters.

              The  option  does  not  affect the shell's editor,  which always
              uses the locale to  determine  multibyte  characters.   This  is
              because  the character set displayed by the terminal emulator is
              independent of shell settings.

       NOMATCH (+3) <C> <Z>
              If a pattern for filename generation has no  matches,  print  an
              error,  instead  of  leaving  it unchanged in the argument list.
              This also applies to file expansion of an initial `~' or `='.

       NULL_GLOB (-G)
              If a pattern for filename generation has no matches, delete  the
              pattern  from  the  argument list instead of reporting an error.
              Overrides NOMATCH.

              If numeric  filenames  are  matched  by  a  filename  generation
              pattern,    sort   the   filenames   numerically   rather   than

              Array expansions of the form `foo${xx}bar', where the  parameter
              xx  is  set  to  (a  b c), are substituted with `fooabar foobbar
              foocbar' instead of the default `fooa b  cbar'.   Note  that  an
              empty array will therefore cause all arguments to be removed.

              If  set,  regular  expression matching with the =~ operator will
              use Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions from the  PCRE  library,
              if  available.   If  not  set,  regular expressions will use the
              extended regexp syntax provided by the system libraries.

       SH_GLOB <K> <S>
              Disables the special meaning  of  `(',  `|',  `)'  and  '<'  for
              globbing  the result of parameter and command substitutions, and
              in some other places where the  shell  accepts  patterns.   This
              option is set by default if zsh is invoked as sh or ksh.

       UNSET (+u, ksh: +u) <K> <S> <Z>
              Treat  unset parameters as if they were empty when substituting.
              Otherwise they are treated as an error.

              Print a warning message when a global parameter is created in  a
              function   by  an  assignment.   This  often  indicates  that  a
              parameter has not been declared local when it should have  been.
              Parameters  explicitly  declared  global  from within a function
              using typeset -g do not cause a warning.  Note that there is  no
              warning  when  a  local  parameter  is  assigned  to in a nested
              function, which may also indicate an error.

              If this is set, zsh sessions will append their history  list  to
              the  history  file,  rather  than  replace  it.  Thus,  multiple
              parallel zsh sessions will all have the new entries  from  their
              history  lists added to the history file, in the order that they
              exit.  The file will still be periodically re-written to trim it
              when the number of lines grows 20% beyond the value specified by
              $SAVEHIST (see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).

       BANG_HIST (+K) <C> <Z>
              Perform  textual  history  expansion,  csh-style,  treating  the
              character `!' specially.

              Save  each  command's  beginning timestamp (in seconds since the
              epoch) and the duration (in seconds) to the history  file.   The
              format of this prefixed data is:

              `:<beginning time>:<elapsed seconds>:<command>'.

              Add  `|'  to  output  redirections  in the history.  This allows
              history references to clobber files even when CLOBBER is  unset.

       HIST_BEEP <D>
              Beep  when  an  attempt  is made to access a history entry which
              isn't there.

              If the internal history needs to be trimmed to add  the  current
              command  line, setting this option will cause the oldest history
              event that has a duplicate to be lost  before  losing  a  unique
              event  from  the  list.   You should be sure to set the value of
              HISTSIZE to a larger number than SAVEHIST in order to  give  you
              some  room for the duplicated events, otherwise this option will
              behave just like HIST_IGNORE_ALL_DUPS once the history fills  up
              with unique events.

              When  writing  out  the history file, by default zsh uses ad-hoc
              file locking to  avoid  known  problems  with  locking  on  some
              operating systems.  With this option locking is done by means of
              the system's fcntl call, where this  method  is  available.   On
              recent operating systems this may provide better performance, in
              particular avoiding history corruption when files are stored  on

              When  searching  for  history entries in the line editor, do not
              display duplicates of a  line  previously  found,  even  if  the
              duplicates are not contiguous.

              If a new command line being added to the history list duplicates
              an older one, the older command is removed from the  list  (even
              if it is not the previous event).

       HIST_IGNORE_DUPS (-h)
              Do  not  enter  command  lines into the history list if they are
              duplicates of the previous event.

              Remove command lines  from  the  history  list  when  the  first
              character  on  the  line is a space, or when one of the expanded
              aliases contains a leading space.  Note that the command lingers
              in the internal history until the next command is entered before
              it vanishes, allowing you to briefly reuse or edit the line.  If
              you  want  to make it vanish right away without entering another
              command, type a space and press return.

              Remove function definitions from the history  list.   Note  that
              the  function  lingers  in  the  internal history until the next
              command is entered before it vanishes, allowing you  to  briefly
              reuse or edit the definition.

              Remove  the  history  (fc -l) command from the history list when
              invoked.  Note that the command lingers in the internal  history
              until  the  next command is entered before it vanishes, allowing
              you to briefly reuse or edit the line.

              Remove superfluous blanks from each command line being added  to
              the history list.

              When  the  history  file  is re-written, we normally write out a
              copy of the file named $ and then rename it over the
              old  one.  However, if this option is unset, we instead truncate
              the old history file and write out the new version in-place.  If
              one  of  the  history-appending  options is enabled, this option
              only has an effect when the enlarged history file  needs  to  be
              re-written  to  trim  it down to size.  Disable this only if you
              have special needs, as  doing  so  makes  it  possible  to  lose
              history entries if zsh gets interrupted during the save.

              When  writing  out a copy of the history file, zsh preserves the
              old file's permissions and group information, but will refuse to
              write  out  a  new  file  if  it would change the history file's

              When writing out the history file, older commands that duplicate
              newer ones are omitted.

              Whenever  the  user  enters a line with history expansion, don't
              execute the line directly; instead,  perform  history  expansion
              and reload the line into the editing buffer.

              This  options  works like APPEND_HISTORY except that new history
              lines are added to the $HISTFILE incrementally (as soon as  they
              are  entered),  rather  than waiting until the shell exits.  The
              file will still be periodically re-written to trim it  when  the
              number  of  lines  grows  20%  beyond  the  value  specified  by
              $SAVEHIST (see also the HIST_SAVE_BY_COPY option).


              This option both imports new commands from the history file, and
              also  causes  your  typed commands to be appended to the history
              file (the latter is like  specifying  INC_APPEND_HISTORY).   The
              history    lines   are   also   output   with   timestamps   ala
              EXTENDED_HISTORY (which makes it easier to find the  spot  where
              we left off reading the file after it gets re-written).

              By  default,  history movement commands visit the imported lines
              as well as the local lines, but you can toggle this on  and  off
              with  the set-local-history zle binding.  It is also possible to
              create a zle widget that will make some commands ignore imported
              commands, and some include them.

              If  you  find  that you want more control over when commands get
              imported,   you   may   wish   to   turn   SHARE_HISTORY    off,
              INC_APPEND_HISTORY   on,   and  then  manually  import  commands
              whenever you need them using `fc -RI'.

       ALL_EXPORT (-a, ksh: -a)
              All parameters subsequently defined are automatically  exported.

       GLOBAL_EXPORT (<Z>)
              If  this  option  is  set,  passing  the -x flag to the builtins
              declare, float, integer, readonly and typeset  (but  not  local)
              will  also  set  the  -g flag;  hence parameters exported to the
              environment will not be made local to  the  enclosing  function,
              unless they were already or the flag +g is given explicitly.  If
              the option is unset, exported parameters will be made  local  in
              just the same way as any other parameter.

              This  option is set by default for backward compatibility; it is
              not recommended that its behaviour be relied  upon.   Note  that
              the  builtin  export  always  sets both the -x and -g flags, and
              hence its effect extends  beyond  the  scope  of  the  enclosing
              function;  this  is  the  most  portable  way  to  achieve  this

       GLOBAL_RCS (-d) <D>
              If this option is unset, the  startup  files  /etc/zsh/zprofile,
              /etc/zsh/zshrc, /etc/zsh/zlogin and /etc/zsh/zlogout will not be
              run.  It can be disabled and re-enabled at any  time,  including
              inside local startup files (.zshrc, etc.).

       RCS (+f) <D>
              After /etc/zsh/zshenv is sourced on startup, source the .zshenv,
              /etc/zsh/zprofile,    .zprofile,     /etc/zsh/zshrc,     .zshrc,
              /etc/zsh/zlogin,  .zlogin,  and  .zlogout files, as described in
              the  section  `Files'.    If   this   option   is   unset,   the
              /etc/zsh/zshenv  file  is  still  sourced, but any of the others
              will not be; it can be set at any time to prevent the  remaining
              startup  files  after  the  currently  executing  one from being

       ALIASES <D>
              Expand aliases.

       CLOBBER (+C, ksh: +C) <D>
              Allows `>' redirection to truncate existing files, and  `>>'  to
              create files.  Otherwise `>!' or `>|' must be used to truncate a
              file, and `>>!' or `>>|' to create a file.

       CORRECT (-0)
              Try to correct the spelling of commands.  Note  that,  when  the
              HASH_LIST_ALL  option is not set or when some directories in the
              path are not readable, this may falsely report  spelling  errors
              the first time some commands are used.

              The  shell  variable  CORRECT_IGNORE  may be set to a pattern to
              match words that will never be offered as corrections.

       CORRECT_ALL (-O)
              Try to correct the spelling of all arguments in a line.

       DVORAK Use the Dvorak keyboard instead of the standard qwerty  keyboard
              as  a  basis for examining spelling mistakes for the CORRECT and
              CORRECT_ALL options and the spell-word editor command.

              If this option is unset,  output  flow  control  via  start/stop
              characters  (usually  assigned  to  ^S/^Q)  is  disabled  in the
              shell's editor.

       IGNORE_EOF (-7)
              Do not exit on end-of-file.  Require the use of exit  or  logout
              instead.   However, ten consecutive EOFs will cause the shell to
              exit anyway, to avoid the shell hanging if its tty goes away.

              Also, if this option is set and the Zsh  Line  Editor  is  used,
              widgets  implemented  by  shell  functions  can  be bound to EOF
              (normally  Control-D)  without  printing  the   normal   warning
              message.  This works only for normal widgets, not for completion

              Allow comments even in interactive shells.

       HASH_CMDS <D>
              Note the location of each command the first time it is executed.
              Subsequent  invocations  of  the same command will use the saved
              location, avoiding a path search.  If this option is  unset,  no
              path  hashing  is  done  at  all.  However, when CORRECT is set,
              commands whose names do not appear in the functions  or  aliases
              hash  tables  are  hashed  in  order  to avoid reporting them as
              spelling errors.

       HASH_DIRS <D>
              Whenever a command name is hashed, hash the directory containing
              it,  as  well as all directories that occur earlier in the path.
              Has no effect if neither HASH_CMDS nor CORRECT is set.

       MAIL_WARNING (-U)
              Print a warning message if a mail file has been  accessed  since
              the shell last checked.

       PATH_DIRS (-Q)
              Perform  a  path  search  even  on command names with slashes in
              them.  Thus if `/usr/local/bin' is in the user's path, and he or
              she  types  `X11/xinit',  the command `/usr/local/bin/X11/xinit'
              will be executed  (assuming  it  exists).   Commands  explicitly
              beginning  with  `/',  `./' or `../' are not subject to the path
              search.  This also applies to the `.' builtin.

              Note that subdirectories of the  current  directory  are  always
              searched  for  executables  specified  in this form.  This takes
              place before any search indicated by this option, and regardless
              of  whether  `.'  or the current directory appear in the command
              search path.

              Print eight bit characters literally in completion  lists,  etc.
              This  option  is  not necessary if your system correctly returns
              the printability of eight bit characters (see ctype(3)).

       PRINT_EXIT_VALUE (-1)
              Print the exit value of programs with non-zero exit status.

              Allow the character sequence `'''  to  signify  a  single  quote
              within  singly  quoted  strings.   Note  this  does not apply in
              quoted strings using the  format  $'...',  where  a  backslashed
              single quote can be used.

       RM_STAR_SILENT (-H) <K> <S>
              Do not query the user before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*'.

              If  querying  the  user  before executing `rm *' or `rm path/*',
              first wait ten seconds and ignore anything typed in  that  time.
              This  avoids  the  problem of reflexively answering `yes' to the
              query when one didn't really mean it.  The wait  and  query  can
              always be avoided by expanding the `*' in ZLE (with tab).

       SHORT_LOOPS <C> <Z>
              Allow  the  short forms of for, repeat, select, if, and function

              If a line ends with a backquote, and there are an odd number  of
              backquotes  on the line, ignore the trailing backquote.  This is
              useful on some keyboards where the return key is too small,  and
              the backquote key lies annoyingly close to it.

   Job Control
              With this option set, stopped jobs that are removed from the job
              table with the disown builtin command are automatically  sent  a
              CONT signal to make them running.

       AUTO_RESUME (-W)
              Treat   single  word  simple  commands  without  redirection  as
              candidates for resumption of an existing job.

       BG_NICE (-6) <C> <Z>
              Run all background jobs at a lower priority.  This option is set
              by default.

       CHECK_JOBS <Z>
              Report  the  status  of  background  and  suspended  jobs before
              exiting a shell with job control; a second attempt to  exit  the
              shell   will  succeed.   NO_CHECK_JOBS  is  best  used  only  in
              combination  with  NO_HUP,  else  such  jobs  will   be   killed

              The  check  is  omitted  if  the  commands run from the previous
              command line included a `jobs' command, since it is assumed  the
              user  is  aware  that there are background or suspended jobs.  A
              `jobs' command run from one of the hook functions defined in the
              section  SPECIAL FUNCTIONS in zshmisc(1) is not counted for this

       HUP <Z>
              Send the HUP signal to running jobs when the shell exits.

       LONG_LIST_JOBS (-R)
              List jobs in the long format by default.

       MONITOR (-m, ksh: -m)
              Allow job control.  Set by default in interactive shells.

       NOTIFY (-5, ksh: -b) <Z>
              Report the status of background jobs  immediately,  rather  than
              waiting until just before printing a prompt.

       PROMPT_BANG <K>
              If  set,  `!'  is  treated  specially  in prompt expansion.  See
              EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_CR (+V) <D>
              Print a carriage return just before printing  a  prompt  in  the
              line  editor.   This  is  on by default as multi-line editing is
              only possible if the editor knows where the start  of  the  line

       PROMPT_SP <D>
              Attempt to preserve a partial line (i.e. a line that did not end
              with a newline) that  would  otherwise  be  covered  up  by  the
              command  prompt  due  to  the  PROMPT_CR  option.  This works by
              outputting some cursor-control characters, including a series of
              spaces, that should make the terminal wrap to the next line when
              a partial line is present (note that this is only successful  if
              your terminal has automatic margins, which is typical).

              When  a  partial  line  is preserved, by default you will see an
              inverse+bold character at the end of the partial  line:   a  "%"
              for  a  normal  user  or  a  "#"  for  root.   If set, the shell
              parameter PROMPT_EOL_MARK can be used to customize how  the  end
              of partial lines are shown.

              NOTE:  if  the PROMPT_CR option is not set, enabling this option
              will have no effect.  This option is on by default.

              If set, `%' is  treated  specially  in  prompt  expansion.   See
              EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).

       PROMPT_SUBST <K> <S>
              If set, parameter expansion, command substitution and arithmetic
              expansion  are  performed  in  prompts.   Substitutions   within
              prompts do not affect the command status.

              Remove  any  right  prompt from display when accepting a command
              line.  This may be useful with terminals  with  other  cut/paste

   Scripts and Functions
              Output hexadecimal numbers in the standard C format, for example
              `0xFF' instead of the usual `16#FF'.  If the option OCTAL_ZEROES
              is  also  set  (it  is  not  by  default), octal numbers will be
              treated similarly and hence appear as `077' instead  of  `8#77'.
              This  option has no effect on the choice of the output base, nor
              on the output of bases other than hexadecimal and  octal.   Note
              that  these  formats will be understood on input irrespective of
              the setting of C_BASES.

              This alters the precedence of arithmetic operators  to  be  more
              like  C  and other programming languages; the section ARITHMETIC
              EVALUATION in zshmisc(1) has an explicit list.

              Run the DEBUG trap before each  command;  otherwise  it  is  run
              after each command.  Setting this option mimics the behaviour of
              ksh 93; with the option unset the behaviour is that of ksh 88.

       ERR_EXIT (-e, ksh: -e)
              If a command has a non-zero exit status, execute the ZERR  trap,
              if set, and exit.  This is disabled while running initialization

              The behaviour is also disabled inside DEBUG traps.  In this case
              the  option  is  handled  specially: it is unset on entry to the
              trap.  If the option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD  is  set,  as  it  is  by
              default,  and  the  option ERR_EXIT is found to have been set on
              exit, then the  command  for  which  the  DEBUG  trap  is  being
              executed  is  skipped.   The  option  is restored after the trap

              If a command has a non-zero exit status, return immediately from
              the  enclosing  function.   The  logic  is identical to that for
              ERR_EXIT, except that an implicit return statement  is  executed
              instead  of an exit.  This will trigger an exit at the outermost
              level of a non-interactive script.

       EVAL_LINENO <Z>
              If set, line numbers of expressions evaluated using the  builtin
              eval  are tracked separately of the enclosing environment.  This
              applies both to the parameter LINENO and the line number  output
              by  the  prompt  escape  %i.   If  the option is set, the prompt
              escape %N will output the string `(eval)' instead of the  script
              or function name as an indication.   (The two prompt escapes are
              typically used in the parameter PS4 to be output when the option
              XTRACE is set.)  If EVAL_LINENO is unset, the line number of the
              surrounding  script  or  function   is   retained   during   the

       EXEC (+n, ksh: +n) <D>
              Do execute commands.  Without this option, commands are read and
              checked for syntax errors, but not executed.  This option cannot
              be  turned  off  in  an  interactive  shell, except when `-n' is
              supplied to the shell at startup.

              When executing a shell function or sourcing  a  script,  set  $0
              temporarily to the name of the function/script.

              If  this  option  is  set  at  the  point of return from a shell
              function, most options (including this one) which were in  force
              upon  entry  to  the function are restored; options that are not
              restored are PRIVILEGED and RESTRICTED.   Otherwise,  only  this
              option and the XTRACE and PRINT_EXIT_VALUE options are restored.
              Hence if this is explicitly unset by a shell function the  other
              options in force at the point of return will remain so.  A shell
              function can also guarantee itself a known  shell  configuration
              with  a  formulation  like  `emulate  -L  zsh'; the -L activates

       LOCAL_TRAPS <K>
              If this option is set  when  a  signal  trap  is  set  inside  a
              function,  then  the previous status of the trap for that signal
              will be restored when the function exits.  Note that this option
              must  be set prior to altering the trap behaviour in a function;
              unlike LOCAL_OPTIONS, the value on exit  from  the  function  is
              irrelevant.   However,  it  does  not  need to be set before any
              global trap for that to be correctly  restored  by  a  function.
              For example,

                     unsetopt localtraps
                     trap - INT
                     fn() { setopt localtraps; trap '' INT; sleep 3; }

              will  restore  normally  handling  of  SIGINT after the function

              Allow definitions of multiple functions at once in the form `fn1
              fn2...()';  if the option is not set, this causes a parse error.
              Definition of multiple functions with the  function  keyword  is
              always  allowed.   Multiple  function  definitions are not often
              used and can cause obscure errors.

       MULTIOS <Z>
              Perform implicit tees or cats  when  multiple  redirections  are
              attempted (see the section `Redirection').

              Interpret  any integer constant beginning with a 0 as octal, per
              IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (ISO 9945-2:1993).  This is not enabled  by
              default as it causes problems with parsing of, for example, date
              and time strings with leading zeroes.

              Sequences of digits indicating a numeric base such as  the  `08'
              component   in   `08#77'  are  always  interpreted  as  decimal,
              regardless of leading zeroes.

              If this is unset, executing  any  of  the  `typeset'  family  of
              commands  with  no options and a list of parameters that have no
              values to be assigned but already exist will display  the  value
              of the parameter.  If the option is set, they will only be shown
              when parameters are selected with the `-m' option.   The  option
              `-p' is available whether or not the option is set.

       VERBOSE (-v, ksh: -v)
              Print shell input lines as they are read.

       XTRACE (-x, ksh: -x)
              Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.

   Shell Emulation
              When  set,  matches  performed with the =~ operator will set the
              BASH_REMATCH array variable, instead of the  default  MATCH  and
              match  variables.   The  first element of the BASH_REMATCH array
              will contain the entire matched  text  and  subsequent  elements
              will contain extracted substrings.  This option makes more sense
              when KSH_ARRAYS is also set, so that the entire matched  portion
              is  stored  at  index  0  and the first substring is at index 1.
              Without this option, the  MATCH  variable  contains  the  entire
              matched text and the match array variable contains substrings.

       BSD_ECHO <S>
              Make  the  echo builtin compatible with the BSD echo(1) command.
              This disables  backslashed  escape  sequences  in  echo  strings
              unless the -e option is specified.

              A history reference without an event specifier will always refer
              to the previous command.  Without this option,  such  a  history
              reference  refers  to  the  same  event  as the previous history
              reference, defaulting to the previous command.

              Allow loop bodies to take the form `list; end'  instead  of  `do
              list; done'.

              Changes  the  rules  for single- and double-quoted text to match
              that of csh.  These require that embedded newlines  be  preceded
              by  a backslash; unescaped newlines will cause an error message.
              In double-quoted strings, it is made impossible to  escape  `$',
              ``'  or  `"' (and `\' itself no longer needs escaping).  Command
              substitutions are only expanded once, and cannot be nested.

       CSH_NULLCMD <C>
              Do not use the values of NULLCMD and  READNULLCMD  when  running
              redirections  with no command.  This make such redirections fail
              (see the section `Redirection').

       KSH_ARRAYS <K> <S>
              Emulate ksh array handling as  closely  as  possible.   If  this
              option  is  set, array elements are numbered from zero, an array
              parameter without subscript refers to the first element  instead
              of  the  whole  array,  and  braces  are  required  to delimit a
              subscript (`${path[2]}' rather than just `$path[2]').

       KSH_AUTOLOAD <K> <S>
              Emulate ksh  function  autoloading.   This  means  that  when  a
              function   is  autoloaded,  the  corresponding  file  is  merely
              executed, and must define the function itself.  (By default, the
              function  is  defined to the contents of the file.  However, the
              most common ksh-style case -  of  the  file  containing  only  a
              simple  definition  of  the  function - is always handled in the
              ksh-compatible manner.)

              Alters the way options settings are printed: instead of separate
              lists  of  set  and unset options, all options are shown, marked
              `on' if they are in the non-default state, `off' otherwise.

       KSH_TYPESET <K>
              Alters the way arguments to  the  typeset  family  of  commands,
              including  declare,  export, float, integer, local and readonly,
              are processed.  Without this option,  zsh  will  perform  normal
              word   splitting   after  command  and  parameter  expansion  in
              arguments of an assignment; with it,  word  splitting  does  not
              take place in those cases.

              Treat  use  of  a  subscript  of  value  zero in array or string
              expressions as a  reference  to  the  first  element,  i.e.  the
              element that usually has the subscript 1.  Ignored if KSH_ARRAYS
              is also set.

              If neither this option nor KSH_ARRAYS is  set,  accesses  to  an
              element  of  an  array  or  string with subscript zero return an
              empty element or string, while attempts to set element  zero  of
              an  array  or string are treated as an error.  However, attempts
              to set an otherwise valid subscript  range  that  includes  zero
              will succeed.  For example, if KSH_ZERO_SUBSCRIPT is not set,


              is an error, while


              is not and will replace the first element of the array.

              This  option  is  for  compatibility  with older versions of the
              shell and is not recommended in new code.

       POSIX_ALIASES <K> <S>
              When this option is set, reserved words are not  candidates  for
              alias expansion:  it is still possible to declare any of them as
              an alias, but the alias will never be expanded.  Reserved  words
              are described in the section RESERVED WORDS in zshmisc(1).

              Alias expansion takes place while text is being read; hence when
              this option is set it does not take effect until the end of  any
              function  or other piece of shell code parsed as one unit.  Note
              this may cause differences  from  other  shells  even  when  the
              option  is  in effect.  For example, when running a command with
              `zsh -c', or even `zsh -o posixaliases -c', the  entire  command
              argument  is  parsed  as one unit, so aliases defined within the
              argument are not available even in later lines.   If  in  doubt,
              avoid use of aliases in non-interactive code.

              When  this  option  is  set  the  command builtin can be used to
              execute shell builtin commands.  Parameter assignments specified
              before  shell  functions and special builtins are kept after the
              command completes unless the special builtin  is  prefixed  with
              the   command  builtin.   Special  builtins  are  .,  :,  break,
              continue, declare, eval, exit, export, integer, local, readonly,
              return, set, shift, source, times, trap and unset.

              When  this option is set, only the ASCII characters a to z, A to
              Z, 0 to 9 and _ may be  used  in  identifiers  (names  of  shell
              parameters and modules).

              When  the  option  is  unset  and multibyte character support is
              enabled (i.e. it is compiled in  and  the  option  MULTIBYTE  is
              set), then additionally any alphanumeric characters in the local
              character set may be used in identifiers.  Note that scripts and
              functions  written  with this feature are not portable, and also
              that both options must be set before the script or  function  is
              parsed;  setting  them during execution is not sufficient as the
              syntax variable=value has  already  been  parsed  as  a  command
              rather than an assignment.

              If  multibyte  character  support is not compiled into the shell
              this option is ignored; all octets with the top bit set  may  be
              used   in   identifiers.    This  is  non-standard  but  is  the
              traditional zsh behaviour.

              Perform filename expansion (e.g., ~ expansion) before  parameter
              expansion,  command substitution, arithmetic expansion and brace
              expansion.  If this option is unset, it is performed after brace
              expansion, so things like `~$USERNAME' and `~{pfalstad,rc}' will

       SH_NULLCMD <K> <S>
              Do not use the values of  NULLCMD  and  READNULLCMD  when  doing
              redirections, use `:' instead (see the section `Redirection').

              If this option is set the shell tries to interpret single letter
              options (which are used with set  and  setopt)  like  ksh  does.
              This also affects the value of the - special parameter.

       SH_WORD_SPLIT (-y) <K> <S>
              Causes  field  splitting  to  be performed on unquoted parameter
              expansions.  Note that this option has nothing to do  with  word
              splitting.  (See the section `Parameter Expansion'.)

              While  waiting  for  a  program  to exit, handle signals and run
              traps immediately.  Otherwise the trap  is  run  after  a  child
              process  has  exited.   Note  this  does not affect the point at
              which traps are run for any case other than when  the  shell  is
              waiting for a child process.

   Shell State
       INTERACTIVE (-i, ksh: -i)
              This   is  an  interactive  shell.   This  option  is  set  upon
              initialisation if the standard input is a tty and  commands  are
              being   read  from  standard  input.   (See  the  discussion  of
              SHIN_STDIN.)  This heuristic may be overridden by  specifying  a
              state  for  this  option on the command line.  The value of this
              option can only be changed via flags supplied at  invocation  of
              the shell.  It cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       LOGIN (-l, ksh: -l)
              This  is  a  login shell.  If this option is not explicitly set,
              the shell is a login shell if the first character of the argv[0]
              passed to the shell is a `-'.

       PRIVILEGED (-p, ksh: -p)
              Turn  on  privileged  mode.  This  is  enabled  automatically on
              startup if the effective user (group) ID is  not  equal  to  the
              real  user  (group)  ID.   Turning  this  option  off causes the
              effective user and group IDs to be set  to  the  real  user  and
              group IDs. This option disables sourcing user startup files.  If
              zsh  is  invoked  as  `sh'  or  `ksh'  with  this  option   set,
              /etc/suid_profile  is sourced (after /etc/profile on interactive
              shells). Sourcing ~/.profile is disabled and the contents of the
              ENV variable is ignored. This option cannot be changed using the
              -m option of setopt and  unsetopt,  and  changing  it  inside  a
              function   always   changes   it   globally  regardless  of  the
              LOCAL_OPTIONS option.

       RESTRICTED (-r)
              Enables restricted mode.  This option cannot  be  changed  using
              unsetopt,  and  setting  it  inside a function always changes it
              globally  regardless  of  the  LOCAL_OPTIONS  option.   See  the
              section `Restricted Shell'.

       SHIN_STDIN (-s, ksh: -s)
              Commands  are  being read from the standard input.  Commands are
              read from standard input if no command is specified with -c  and
              no  file  of  commands  is  specified.   If  SHIN_STDIN  is  set
              explicitly  on  the  command  line,  any  argument  that   would
              otherwise  have  been  taken  as  a  file to run will instead be
              treated as a normal positional parameter.  Note that setting  or
              unsetting  this  option on the command line does not necessarily
              affect the state the option will have while the shell is running
              -  that  is  purely  an indicator of whether on not commands are
              actually being read from standard  input.   The  value  of  this
              option  can  only be changed via flags supplied at invocation of
              the shell.  It cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       SINGLE_COMMAND (-t, ksh: -t)
              If the shell is reading from standard input, it  exits  after  a
              single  command  has  been  executed.  This also makes the shell
              non-interactive, unless the INTERACTIVE option is explicitly set
              on  the  command  line.   The  value  of this option can only be
              changed via flags supplied  at  invocation  of  the  shell.   It
              cannot be changed once zsh is running.

       BEEP (+B) <D>
              Beep on error in ZLE.

              Assume   that   the   terminal   displays  combining  characters
              correctly.  Specifically, if a base  alphanumeric  character  is
              followed  by  one  or  more  zero-width  punctuation characters,
              assume that the  zero-width  characters  will  be  displayed  as
              modifications  to the base character within the same width.  Not
              all  terminals  handle  this.   If  this  option  is  not   set,
              zero-width  characters  are  displayed  separately  with special

              If this option is set, the pattern  test  [[:WORD:]]  matches  a
              zero-width  punctuation character on the assumption that it will
              be used as part of a word in combination with a word  character.
              Otherwise  the  base  shell does not handle combining characters

       EMACS  If ZLE is loaded, turning on  this  option  has  the  equivalent
              effect  of  `bindkey  -e'.  In addition, the VI option is unset.
              Turning it off  has  no  effect.   The  option  setting  is  not
              guaranteed  to  reflect  the  current  keymap.   This  option is
              provided  for  compatibility;   bindkey   is   the   recommended

              Start up the line editor in overstrike mode.

       SINGLE_LINE_ZLE (-M) <K>
              Use single-line command line editing instead of multi-line.

              Note  that  although  this  is on by default in ksh emulation it
              only provides superficial compatibility with the ksh line editor
              and reduces the effectiveness of the zsh line editor.  As it has
              no effect on shell syntax, many users may wish to  disable  this
              option when using ksh emulation interactively.

       VI     If  ZLE  is  loaded,  turning  on this option has the equivalent
              effect of `bindkey -v'.  In addition, the EMACS option is unset.
              Turning  it  off  has  no  effect.   The  option  setting is not
              guaranteed to  reflect  the  current  keymap.   This  option  is
              provided   for   compatibility;   bindkey   is  the  recommended

       ZLE (-Z)
              Use the zsh line editor.  Set by default in  interactive  shells
              connected to a terminal.


       Some  options have alternative names.  These aliases are never used for
       output, but can be used just like normal option names  when  specifying
       options to the shell.

              NO_IGNORE_BRACES (ksh and bash compatibility)

              GLOB_DOTS (bash compatibility)

              HASH_CMDS (bash compatibility)

              APPEND_HISTORY (bash compatibility)

              BANG_HIST (bash compatibility)

       LOG    NO_HIST_NO_FUNCTIONS (ksh compatibility)

              MAIL_WARNING (bash compatibility)

              SINGLE_COMMAND (bash compatibility)

              CHASE_LINKS (ksh and bash compatibility)

              PROMPT_SUBST (bash compatibility)

       STDIN  SHIN_STDIN (ksh compatibility)

              HASH_CMDS (ksh compatibility)


   Default set
       -0     CORRECT
       -1     PRINT_EXIT_VALUE
       -2     NO_BAD_PATTERN
       -3     NO_NOMATCH
       -4     GLOB_DOTS
       -5     NOTIFY
       -6     BG_NICE
       -7     IGNORE_EOF
       -8     MARK_DIRS
       -9     AUTO_LIST
       -B     NO_BEEP
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -D     PUSHD_TO_HOME
       -E     PUSHD_SILENT
       -F     NO_GLOB
       -G     NULL_GLOB
       -H     RM_STAR_SILENT
       -I     IGNORE_BRACES
       -J     AUTO_CD
       -K     NO_BANG_HIST
       -M     SINGLE_LINE_ZLE
       -N     AUTO_PUSHD
       -O     CORRECT_ALL
       -P     RC_EXPAND_PARAM
       -Q     PATH_DIRS
       -R     LONG_LIST_JOBS
       -S     REC_EXACT
       -T     CDABLE_VARS
       -U     MAIL_WARNING
       -V     NO_PROMPT_CR
       -W     AUTO_RESUME
       -X     LIST_TYPES
       -Y     MENU_COMPLETE
       -Z     ZLE
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_RCS
       -g     HIST_IGNORE_SPACE
       -h     HIST_IGNORE_DUPS
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -w     CHASE_LINKS
       -x     XTRACE
       -y     SH_WORD_SPLIT

   sh/ksh emulation set
       -C     NO_CLOBBER
       -T     TRAPS_ASYNC
       -X     MARK_DIRS
       -a     ALL_EXPORT
       -b     NOTIFY
       -e     ERR_EXIT
       -f     NO_GLOB
       -i     INTERACTIVE
       -l     LOGIN
       -m     MONITOR
       -n     NO_EXEC
       -p     PRIVILEGED
       -r     RESTRICTED
       -s     SHIN_STDIN
       -t     SINGLE_COMMAND
       -u     NO_UNSET
       -v     VERBOSE
       -x     XTRACE

   Also note
       -A     Used by set for setting arrays
       -b     Used on the command line to specify end of option processing
       -c     Used on the command line to specify a single command
       -m     Used by setopt for pattern-matching option setting
       -o     Used in all places to allow use of long option names
       -s     Used by set to sort positional parameters