Man Linux: Main Page and Category List


       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system


       [file ...]


       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  It is functionally  compatible  with
       UNIX  troff,  but  has  many extensions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it
       should be invoked using  the  groff(1)  command  which  will  also  run
       preprocessors  and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.


       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print  a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
                 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
                 line  numbers  given  in  the  backtrace  may  not  always be
                 correct, for troff’s idea of line numbers gets confused by as
                 or am requests.

       -c        Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs      -dname=s Define c or name to be a string s; c must be  a  one
                 letter name.

       -E        Inhibit  all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn’t
                 affect messages output to standard error  by  macro  packages
                 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search   in   directory   (or   directory   path)   dir   for
                 subdirectories devname (name is the name of the  device)  and
                 there  for  the  DESC  file  and  font files.  dir is scanned
                 before all other font directories.

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files  have
                 been processed.

       -Idir     This option may be used to add a directory to the search path
                 for files (both those on the command line and those named  in
                 .psbb  requests).   The  search  path is initialized with the
                 current directory.  This option may be  specified  more  than
                 once;   the  directories  are  then  searched  in  the  order
                 specified (but before the current directory).  If you want to
                 make  the current directory be read before other directories,
                 add -I. at the appropriate place.

                 No directory search is performed for files with  an  absolute
                 file name.

       -mname    Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn’t found, try
                 instead.  It will be first searched for in directories  given
                 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
                 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
                 directory  (only  if  in  unsafe  mode),  the home directory,
                 /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,   /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,   and

       -Mdir     Search  directory  (or  directory  path) dir for macro files.
                 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
                 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
                 between m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n-  means
                 print  every page from n.  troff will exit after printing the
                 last page in the list.

       -rcn      -rname=n Set number register c or name to n; c must be a  one
                 character name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R        Don’t load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare  output  for device name, rather than the default ps;
                 see groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U        Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests:  open,
                 opena,   pso,  sy,  and  pi.   For  security  reasons,  these
                 potentially dangerous requests are  disabled  otherwise.   It
                 will also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
                 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
                 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.


       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the  following
       categories.   The  name  associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the  warn  request,  and  by  the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

                 |Bit   Code   Warning | Bit    Code      Warning   |
                 |  0      1   char    |  10     1024   reg         |
                 |  1      2   number  |  11     2048   tab         |
                 |  2      4   break   |  12     4096   right-brace |
                 |  3      8   delim   |  13     8192   missing     |
                 |  4     16   el      |  14    16384   input       |
                 |  5     32   scale   |  15    32768   escape      |
                 |  6     64   range   |  16    65536   space       |
                 |  7    128   syntax  |  17   131072   font        |
                 |  8    256   di      |  18   262144   ig          |
                 |  9    512   mac     |  19   524288   color       |

       break           4   In fill mode, lines which could not  be  broken  so
                           that  their  length  was less than the line length.
                           This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent  characters.   This  is   enabled   by

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use  of  di or da without an argument when there is
                           no current diversion.

       el             16   Use of the el request with no matching ie  request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized    escape    sequences.     When    an
                           unrecognized escape sequence  is  encountered,  the
                           escape character is ignored.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid   escapes  in  text  ignored  with  the  ig
                           request.  These are conditions that are errors when
                           they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use  of  undefined  strings, macros and diversions.
                           When an undefined string,  macro  or  diversion  is
                           used,  that  string  is  automatically  defined  as
                           empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
                           be given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid  numeric  expressions.   This is enabled by

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use  of  undefined  number  registers.    When   an
                           undefined number register is used, that register is
                           automatically defined to have a value of 0.  So, in
                           most  cases,  at most one warning will be given for
                           use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing space between a request or  macro  and  its
                           argument.   This  warning  will  be  given  when an
                           undefined  name  longer  than  two  characters   is
                           encountered,  and  the  first two characters of the
                           name make a defined name.   The  request  or  macro
                           will  not  be invoked.  When this warning is given,
                           no macro is automatically defined.  This is enabled
                           by  default.   This  warning  will  never  occur in
                           compatibility mode.

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate use of a tab character.   Either  use
                           of  a tab character where a number was expected, or
                           use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All  warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this
              covers all warnings  that  are  useful  with  traditional  macro

       w      All warnings.


              A  colon  separated  list  of directories in which to search for
              macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
              before  these, and in standard directories (current directory if
              in  unsafe  mode,  home   directory,   /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,
              /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,  /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/tmac) after

              Default device.

              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
              devname  directory.  troff will scan directories given in the -F
              option   before   these,    and    in    standard    directories
              (/usr/share/groff/site-font,       /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/font,
              /usr/lib/font) after these.


              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

              /usr/share/groff/1.20.1/tmac/ Macro files

              Device description file for device name.

              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in  the  current
       nor  in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the
       -U  option  is  given).   Use  the  -M  command  line  option  or   the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH  environment  variable  to add these directories to the
       search path if necessary.


       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008,  2009  Free  Software
       Foundation, Inc.

       This  document  is  distributed  under  the  terms of the FDL (GNU Free
       Documentation License) version 1.3 or later.  You should have  received
       a  copy  of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the
       GNU copyleft site This  document  was  written  by  James  Clark,  with
       modifications from Werner Lemberg and Bernd Warken

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.


              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

              A  description  of  the  groff  language,  including a short but
              complete reference of all predefined  requests,  registers,  and
              escapes  of  plain groff.  From the command line, this is called

                     man 7 groff

              The differences of the groff language and  the  classical  troff
              language.   Currently,  this  is the most actual document of the
              groff system.

              An  overview  over  groff  and  other  roff  systems,  including
              pointers to further related documentation.

       The  groff  info  file,  cf.  info(1), presents all groff documentation
       within a single document.