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       tail - output the last part of files


       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...


       Print  the  last  10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file  name.   With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options

       -c, --bytes=K
              output the last K bytes; alternatively,  use  -c  +K  to  output
              bytes starting with the Kth of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output  appended  data  as  the  file  grows;  -f, --follow, and
              --follow=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=K
              output the last K lines, instead of the last 10; or use -n +K to
              output lines starting with the Kth

              with  --follow=name,  reopen  a  FILE which has not changed size
              after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or
              renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files)

              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

              keep  trying  to  open  a  file  even  when  it  is  or  becomes
              inaccessible;  useful  when  following  by  name,   i.e.,   with

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       If the first character of K (the number of bytes or lines)  is  a  ‘+’,
       print  beginning  with  the  Kth  item  from  the  start  of each file,
       otherwise, print the last K items in the file.  K may have a multiplier
       suffix:  b  512,  kB  1000,  K  1024,  MB  1000*1000,  M  1024*1024, GB
       1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to  following  the  file  descriptor,
       which  means that even if a tail’ed file is renamed, tail will continue
       to track its end.  This default behavior  is  not  desirable  when  you
       really  want  to  track  the  actual  name  of  the  file, not the file
       descriptor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That
       causes  tail  to  track  the  named  file  in  a  way that accommodates
       renaming, removal and creation.


       Written by Paul Rubin, David  MacKenzie,  Ian  Lance  Taylor,  and  Jim


       Report tail bugs to
       GNU coreutils home page: <>
       General help using GNU software: <>
       Report tail translation bugs to <>


       Copyright  ©  2010  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redistribute  it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


       The  full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and tail programs are properly installed  at  your  site,  the

              info coreutils 'tail invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.