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       link-parser - parses natural language sentences


       link-parser       [language]      [-pp      pp_knowledge_file]      [-c
       constituent_knowledge_file] [-a affix_file]  [-ppoff]  [-coff]  [-aoff]
       [-batch] [-<special "!" command>]


       In  Selator,  D. and Temperly, D. "Parsing English with a Link Grammar"
       (1991), the authors defined a new formal grammatical  system  called  a
       "link  grammar".  A  sequence  of  words  is  in the language of a link
       grammar if there is a way to draw "links" between words in such  a  way
       that  the  local  requirements of each word are satisfied, the links do
       not cross, and the words form a consistent connected graph. The authors
       encoded  English  grammar  into such a system, and wrote link-parser to
       parse English using this grammar.

       This package  can  be  used  for  linguistic  parsing  for  information
       retrieval  or  extraction from natural language documents. Abiword also
       uses it as a grammar checker.


       -pp pp_knowledge_file

       -c constituent_knowledge_file

       -a affix_file





       -<special ! command>


       link-parser, when invoked manually, will take control of the  terminal;
       link-parser  will  then  attempt  to  analyze the grammar of all input,
       unless escaped with an exclamation mark, according  to  the  dictionary
       file  provided as an argument. If escaped, the input will be treated as
       a "special command"; "!help" lists all special commands available.

       link-parser depends on a link-grammar dictionary which  contains  lists
       of  words and associated metadata about their grammatical properties in
       order to analyze sentences. A link-grammar dictionary provided  by  the
       authors  of  link-grammar  is  usually  included  with the link-grammar
       package,   and    can    often    be    found    somewhere    in    the
       /usr/share/link-grammar/  hierarchy.  When  this  is the case, only the
       two-letter language code needs to be  specified  on  the  command-line.
       Alternatively,  a user can provide their own dictionary as an argument,
       in which case the dictionary’s directory should  be  specified.  Hence,
       either of the commands

       link-parser en

       link-parser /usr/share/link-grammar/en
              will  run link-parser using the english dictionary included with
              the parser.

       While in a link-parser session, some example output could be:

              linkparser> Reading a man page is informative.

              ++++Time                                           0.00  seconds
              (0.01 total)

              Found 1 linkage (1 had no P.P. violations)
                Unique linkage, cost vector = (UNUSED=0 DIS=0 AND=0 LEN=12)

                  |         +---------Ss*g---------+                |
                  |         +-------Os-------+     |                |
                  |         |     +----Ds----+     |                |
                  +----Wd---+     |   +--AN--+     +---Pa---+       |
                  |         |     |   |      |     |        |       |

              LEFT-WALL reading.g a man.n page.n is.v informative.a .

       A  P.P.  violation is a post-processing violation; it is a post-linkage
       step used to reject invalid parses. The link types shown  are  specific
       to English; other langauges will have different link types.

       link-parser can also be used non-interactively, either through its API,
       or  via  the  -batch  option.   When  used  with  the  -batch   option,
       link-parser  passively receives input from standard input, and when the
       stream finishes, it then outputs its analysis. So one  could  construct
       an  ad-hoc  grammar  checker  by piping text through link-parser with a
       batch option, and seeing what sentences fail to parse as valid:
              cat thesis.txt | link-parser /usr/share/link-grammar/en/4.0.dict


       Information  on  the  shared-library API and the link types used in the
       parse    is    avavailable    at     the     Abiword     website     at
       Peer-reviewed  papers  explaining  link-parser  can  be  found  at  the
       original CMU site at


       link-parser  was  written  by Daniel Sleator <>, Davy
       Temperley   <>,   and    John    Lafferty

       This  manual  page was written by Ken Bloom <>, for the
       Debian project (but may be used by others).

                                April 18, 2008                 LINK-GRAMMAR(1)