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       latexdiff - determine and markup differences between two latex files


       latexdiff [ OPTIONS ] old.tex new.tex > diff.tex


       Briefly, latexdiff is a utility program to aid in the management of
       revisions of latex documents. It compares two valid latex files, here
       called "old.tex" and "new.tex", finds significant differences between
       them (i.e., ignoring the number of white spaces and position of line
       breaks), and adds special commands to highlight the differences.  Where
       visual highlighting is not possible, e.g. for changes in the
       formatting, the differences are nevertheless marked up in the source.

       The program treats the preamble differently from the main document.
       Differences between the preambles are found using line-based
       differencing (similarly to the Unix diff command, but ignoring white
       spaces).  A comment, ""%DIF >"" is appended to each added line, i.e. a
       line present in "new.tex" but not in "old.tex".  Discarded lines
        are deactivated by prepending ""%DIF <"". Changed blocks are preceded
       by comment lines giving information about line numbers in the original
       files.  Where there are insignificant differences, the resulting file
       "diff.tex" will be similar to "new.tex".  At the end of the preamble,
       the definitions for latexdiff markup commands are inserted.  In
       differencing the main body of the text, latexdiff attempts to satisfy
       the following guidelines (in order of priority):

       1. If both "old.tex" and "new.tex" are valid LaTeX, then the resulting
          "diff.tex" should also be valid LateX. (NB If a few plain TeX
          commands are used within "old.tex" or "new.tex" then "diff.tex" is
          not guaranteed to work but usually will).

       2. Significant differences are determined on the level of individual
          words. All significant differences, including differences between
          comments should be clearly marked in the resulting source code

       3. If a changed passage contains text or text-producing commands, then
          running "diff.tex" through LateX should produce output where added
          and discarded passages are highlighted.

       4. Where there are insignificant differences, e.g. in the positioning
          of line breaks, "diff.tex" should follow the formatting of "new.tex"

       For differencing the same algorithm as diff is used but words instead
       of lines are compared.  An attempt is made to recognize blocks which
       are completely changed such that they can be marked up as a unit.
       Comments are differenced line by line but the number of spaces within
       comments is ignored. Commands including all their arguments are
       generally compared as one unit, i.e., no mark-up is inserted into the
       arguments of commands.  However, for a selected number of commands (for
       example, "\caption" and all sectioning commands) the last argument is
       known to be text. This text is split into words and differenced just as
       ordinary text (use options to show and change the list of text
       commands, see below). As the algorithm has no detailed knowledge of
       LaTeX, it assumes all pairs of curly braces immediately following a
       command (i.e. a sequence of letters beginning with a backslash) are
       arguments for that command.  As a restriction to condition 1 above it
       is thus necessary to surround all arguments with curly braces, and to
       not insert extraneous spaces.  For example, write

         \section{\textem{This is an emphasized section title}}

       and not

         \section {\textem{This is an emphasized section title}}


         \section\textem{This is an emphasized section title}

       even though all varieties are the same to LaTeX (but see --allow-spaces
       option which allows the second variety).

       For environments whose content does not conform to standard LaTeX or
       where graphical markup does not make sense all markup commands can be
       removed by setting the PICTUREENV configuration variable, set by
       default to "picture" and "DIFnomarkup" environments; see --config
       option).  The latter environment ("DIFnomarkup") can be used to protect
       parts of the latex file where the markup results in illegal markup. You
       have to surround the offending passage in both the old and new file by
       "\begin{DIFnomarkup}" and "\end{DIFnomarkup}". You must define the
       environment in the preambles of both old and new documents. I prefer to
       define it as a null-environment,


       but the choice is yours.  Any markup within the environment will be
       removed, and generally everything within the environment will just be
       taken from the new file.

       It is also possible to difference files which do not have a preamble.
        In this case, the file is processed in the main document mode, but the
       definitions of the markup commands are not inserted.

       All markup commands inserted by latexdiff begin with ""\DIF"".  Added
       blocks containing words, commands or comments which are in "new.tex"
       but not in "old.tex" are marked by "\DIFaddbegin" and "\DIFaddend".
       Discarded blocks are marked by "\DIFdelbegin" and "\DIFdelend".  Within
       added blocks all text is highlighted with "\DIFadd" like this:
       "\DIFadd{Added text block}" Selected ‘safe’ commands can be contained
       in these text blocks as well (use options to show and change the list
       of safe commands, see below).  All other commands as well as braces "{"
       and "}" are never put within the scope of "\DIFadd".  Added comments
       are marked by prepending ""%DIF > "".

       Within deleted blocks text is highlighted with "\DIFdel".  Deleted
       comments are marked by prepending ""%DIF < "".  Non-safe command and
       curly braces within deleted blocks are commented out with
       ""%DIFDELCMD < "".


       The following options determine the visual markup style by adding the
       appropriate command definitions to the preamble. See the end of this
       section for a description of available styles.

       --type=markupstyle or -t markupstyle
           Add code to preamble for selected markup style. This option defines
           "\DIFadd" and "\DIFdel" commands.  Available styles:


           [ Default: "UNDERLINE" ]

       --subtype=markstyle or -s markstyle
           Add code to preamble for selected style for bracketing commands
           (e.g. to mark changes in  margin). This option defines
           "\DIFaddbegin", "\DIFaddend", "\DIFdelbegin" and "\DIFdelend"
           commands.  Available styles: "SAFE MARGINAL DVIPSCOL"

           [ Default: "SAFE" ]

       --floattype=markstyle or -f markstyle
           Add code to preamble for selected style which replace standard
           marking and markup commands within floats (e.g., marginal remarks
           cause an error within floats so marginal marking can be disabled
           thus). This option defines all "\DIF...FL" commands.  Available

           [ Default: "FLOATSAFE" ]

       --encoding=enc or -e enc
           Specify encoding of old.tex and new.tex. Typical encodings are
           "ascii", "utf8", "latin1", "latin9".  A list of available encodings
           can be obtained by executing

           "perl -MEncode -e 'print join ("\n",Encode-"encodings( ":all" )) ;’

           [Default encoding is utf8 unless the first few lines of the
           preamble contain an invocation "\usepackage[..]{inputenc}" in which
           case the encoding chosen by this command is asssumed. Note that
           ASCII (standard latex) is a subset of utf8]

       --preamble=file or -p file
           Insert file at end of preamble instead of generating preamble.  The
           preamble must define the following commands "\DIFaddbegin,
           \DIFaddend, \DIFadd{..}, \DIFdelbegin,\DIFdelend,\DIFdel{..}," and
           varieties for use within floats "\DIFaddbeginFL, \DIFaddendFL,
           \DIFaddFL{..}, \DIFdelbeginFL, \DIFdelendFL, \DIFdelFL{..}" (If
           this option is set -t, -s, and -f options are ignored.)

           Tell latexdiff that .tex file is processed with the packages in
           list loaded.  This is normally not necessary if the .tex file
           includes the preamble, as the preamble is automatically scanned for
           "\usepackage" commands.  Use of the --packages option disables
           automatic scanning, so if for any reason package specific parsing
           needs to be switched off, use --packages=none.  The following
           packages trigger special behaviour:

                   Configuration variable amsmath is set to "align*" (Default:

                   Ensure that "\begin{figure}" and "\end{figure}" always
                   appear by themselves on a line.

                   Change name of "\DIFadd" and "\DIFdel" commands to
                   "\DIFaddtex" and "\DIFdeltex" and define new "\DIFadd" and
                   "\DIFdel" commands, which provide a wrapper for these
                   commands, using them for the text but not for the link
                   defining command (where any markup would cause errors).

           [ Default: scan the preamble for "\\usepackage" commands to
             loaded packages.]

           Print generated or included preamble commands to stdout.

       --exclude-safecmd=exclude-file or -A exclude-file or
       --append-safecmd=append-file or -a append-file or
           Exclude from, replace or append to the list of regular expressions
           (RegEx) matching commands which are safe to use within the scope of
           a "\DIFadd" or "\DIFdel" command.  The file must contain one Perl-
           RegEx per line (Comment lines beginning with # or % are ignored).
           Note that the RegEx needs to match the whole of the token, i.e.,
           /^regex$/ is implied and that the initial "\" of the command is not
           included.  The --exclude-safecmd and --append-safecmd options can
           be combined with the ---replace-safecmd option and can be used
           repeatedly to add cumulatively to the lists.
            --exclude-safecmd and --append-safecmd can also take a comma
           separated list as input. If a comma for one of the regex is
           required, escape it thus "\,". In most cases it will be necessary
           to protect the comma-separated list from the shell by putting it in
           quotation marks.

       --exclude-textcmd=exclude-file or -X exclude-file or
       --append-textcmd=append-file or -x append-file or
           Exclude from, replace or append to the list of regular expressions
           matching commands whose last argument is text.  See entry for
           --exclude-safecmd directly above for further details.

       --append-context1cmd=append-file or =item
           Replace or append to the list of regex matching commands whose last
           argument is text but which require a particular context to work,
           e.g. \caption will only work within a figure or table.  These
           commands behave like text commands, except when they occur in a
           deleted section, when they are disabled, but their argument is
           shown as deleted text.

       --append-context2cmd=append-file or =item
       --append-context2cmd="cmd1,cmd2,..." As corresponding commands for
       context1.  The only difference is that context2 commands are completely
       disabled in deleted sections, including their arguments.
       --config var1=val1,var2=val2,... or -c var1=val1,..
       -c configfile
           Set configuration variables.  The option can be repeated to set
           different variables (as an alternative to the comma-separated
           list).  Available variables (see below for further explanations):

           "MINWORDSBLOCK" (integer)

           "FLOATENV" (RegEx)

           "PICTUREENV" (RegEx)

           "MATHENV" (RegEx)

           "MATHREPL" (String)

           "MATHARRENV" (RegEx)

           "MATHARRREPL" (String)

           "ARRENV" (RegEx)

           "COUNTERCMD" (RegEx)

           Print list of RegEx matching and excluding safe commands.

           Print list of RegEx matching and excluding commands with text

           Show values of configuration variables.

           Combine all --show commands.

           NB For all --show commands, no "old.tex" or "new.tex" file needs to
           be specified, and no differencing takes place.

       --verbose or -V
           Output various status information to stderr during processing.
           Default is to work silently.

           Suppress warnings about inconsistencies in length between input and
           parsed strings and missing characters.  These warning messages are
           often related to non-standard latex or latex constructions with a
           syntax unknown to "latexdiff" but the resulting difference argument
           is often fully functional anyway, particularly if the non-standard
           latex only occurs in parts of the text which have not changed.

           Allow spaces between bracketed or braced arguments to commands.
           Note that this option might have undesirable side effects
           (unrelated scope might get lumpeded with preceding commands) so
           should only be used if the default produces erroneous results.
           (Default requires arguments to directly follow each other without
           intervening spaces).

           Replace "\input" and "\include" commands within body by the content
           of the files in their argument.  If "\includeonly" is present in
           the preamble, only those files are expanded into the document.
           However, no recursion is done, i.e. "\input" and "\include"
           commands within included sections are not expanded.  The included
           files are assumed to
            be located in the same directories as the old and new master
           files, respectively, making it possible to organise files into old
           and new directories.

           Use of this option is not recommended primarily the processing time
           for the large documents is prohibitive, and the resulting
           difference document no longer reflects the structure of the input

       --help or -h
           Show help text

           Show version number

   Predefined styles
   Major types
       The major type determine the markup of plain text and some selected
       latex commands outside floats by defining the markup commands
       "\DIFadd{...}" and "\DIFdel{...}" .

                 Added text is wavy-underlined and blue, discarded text is
                 struck out and red (Requires color and ulem packages).
                 Overstriking does not work in displayed math equations such
                 that deleted parts of equation are underlined, not struck out
                 (this is a shortcoming inherent to the ulem package).

                 Added text is blue and set in sans-serif, and a red footnote
                 is created for each discarded piece of text. (Requires color

                 Like "CTRADITIONAL" but without the use of color.

       "CFONT"   Added text is blue and set in sans-serif, and discarded text
                 is red and very small size.

                 Added tex is set in sans-serif, discarded text small and
                 struck out

                 Added text is blue, and discarded text is red.  Additionally,
                 the changed text is marked with a bar in the margin (Requires
                 color and changebar packages).

                 Like "CFONT" but with additional changebars (Requires color
                 and changebar packages).

                 Like "UNDERLINE" but with additional changebars (Requires
                 color, ulem and changebar packages).

                 No mark up of text, but mark margins with changebars
                 (Requires changebar package).

                 No visible markup (but generic markup commands will still be

       The subtype defines the commands that are inserted at the begin and end
       of added or discarded blocks, irrespectively of whether these blocks
       contain text or commands (Defined commands: "\DIFaddbegin, \DIFaddend,
       \DIFdelbegin, \DIFdelend")

       "SAFE"    No additional markup (Recommended choice)

       "MARGIN"  Mark beginning and end of changed blocks with symbols in the
                 margin nearby (using the standard "\marginpar" command - note
                 that this sometimes moves somewhat from the intended

                 An alternative way of marking added passages in blue, and
                 deleted ones in red. Note that "DVIPSCOL" only works with the
                 dvips converter, e.g. not pdflatex.  (it is recommeneded to
                 use instead the main types to effect colored markup, although
                 in some cases coloring with dvipscol can be more complete).

   Float Types
       Some of the markup used in the main text might cause problems when used
       within floats (e.g. figures or tables).  For this reason alternative
       versions of all markup commands are used within floats. The float type
       defines these alternative commands.

                 Use identical markup for text as in the main body, but set
                 all commands marking the begin and end of changed blocks to
                 null-commands.  You have to choose this float type if your
                 subtype is "MARGIN" as "\marginpar" does not work properly
                 within floats.

                 Mark additions the same way as in the main text.  Deleted
                 environments are marked by angular brackets \[ and \] and the
                 deleted text is set in scriptscript size. This float type
                 should always be used with the "TRADITIONAL" and
                 "CTRADITIONAL" markup types as the \footnote command does not
                 work properly in floating environments.

                 Make no difference between the main text and floats.

   Configuration Variables
                 Minimum number of tokens required to form an independent
                 block. This value is used in the algorithm to detect changes
                 of complete blocks by merging identical text parts of less
                 than "MINWORDSBLOCK" to the preceding added and discarded

                 [ Default: 3 ]

                 Environments whose name matches the regular expression in
                 "FLOATENV" are considered floats.  Within these environments,
                 the latexdiff markup commands are replaced by their FL

                 [ Default: "(?:figure|table|plate)[\w\d*@]*" ]

                 Within environments whose name matches the regular expression
                 in "PICTUREENV" all latexdiff markup is removed (in
                 pathologic cases this might lead to
                  inconsistent markup but this situation should be rare).

                 [ Default: "(?:picture|DIFnomarkup)[\w\d*@]*" ]

                 If both \begin and \end for a math environment (environment
                 name matching "MATHENV" or \[ and \]) are within the same
                 deleted block, they are replaced by a \begin and \end
                 commands for "MATHREPL" rather than being commented out.

                 [ Default: "MATHENV"="(?:displaymath|equation)" ,
                 "MATHREPL"="displaymath" ]

                 as "MATHENV","MATHREPL" but for equation arrays

                 [ Default: "MATHARRENV"="eqnarray\*?" ,
                 "MATHREPL"="eqnarray" ]

       "ARRENV"  If a match to "ARRENV" is found within an inline math
                 environment within a deleted or added block, then the inlined
                 math is surrounded by "\mbox{"..."}".  This is necessary as
                 underlining does not work within inlined array environments.

                 [ Default: "ARRENV"="(?:array|[pbvBV]matrix)".ie n .IP
                 """COUNTERCMD""" 10 If a command in a deleted block which is
                 also in the textcmd list matches "COUNTERCMD" then an
                 additional command "\addtocounter{"cntcmd"}{-1}", where
                 cntcmd is the matching command, is appended in the diff file
                 such that the numbering in the diff file remains synchronized
                 with the numbering in the new file.

                 [ Default: "COUNTERCMD"="(?:footnote|part|section|subsection"

                 "|subsubsection|paragraph|subparagraph)"  ]


       UTF-8 support requires a relatively new version of perl (5.8.0 is
       sufficient but 5.6.2 up would work OK, too).

       Option allow-spaces not implemented entirely consistently. It breaks
       the rules that number and type of white space does not matter, as
       different numbers of inter-argument spaces are treated as significant.

       Please send bug reports to  Include the serial
       number of latexdiff (from comments at the top of the source or use
       --version).  If you come across latex files that are error-free and
       conform to the specifications set out above, and whose differencing
       still does not result in error-free latex, please send me those files,
       ideally edited to only contain the offending passage as long as that
       still reproduces the problem.




       latexdiff does not make use of external commands and thus should run on
       any platform  supporting Perl 5.6 or higher.  If files with encodings
       other than ASCII or UTF-8 are processed, Perl 5.8 or higher is

       The standard version of latexdiff requires installation of the Perl
       package "Algorithm::Diff" (available from - but a stand-alone
       version, latexdiff-so, which has this package inlined, is available,
       too.  latexdiff-fast requires the diff command to be present.


       Copyright (C) 2004-2007 Frederik Tilmann

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License Version 2

       Contributors of fixes and additions: V. Kuhlmann, J. Paisley, N.
       Becker, T. Doerges, K. Huebner Thanks to everyone who send in bug