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       latex2html - translate LaTeX files to HTML (HyperText Markup Language)


       latex2html [options] [target [target ...]]


       This  manual  page  explains  the  LaTeX2HTML  utility, which is a Perl
       program that translates LaTeX  document  into  HTML  format.  For  each
       source file given as an argument the translator will create a directory
       containing the corresponding HTML  files.  For  details  and  examples,
       please consult the online html documentation, a copy of which should be
       available      in       /usr/share/doc/latex2html/       or


       This documentation has been derived from the TeX manual, and may not be
       up to date.  Please  refer  to  the  online  manual  for  authoritative

Options controlling Titles, File-Names and Sectioning

       -t <top-page-title>
              Same  as  setting: $TITLE = <top-page-title> ; Name the document
              using this title.

              Same as setting: $SHORTEXTN = 1; Use a filename prefix  of  .htm
              for  the  produced  HTML  files. This is particularly useful for
              creating pages to be stored on CD-ROM or other media, to be used
              with operating systems that require a 3-character extension.

       -long_titles <num>
              Same  as  setting: $LONG_TITLES = <num>; Instead of the standard
              names: nod.html, nod.html,... the filenames  for  each  HTML
              page  are  constructed from the first <num> words of the section
              heading for that page, separated by the ‘_’  character.   Commas
              and  common  short words (a an to by of and for the) are omitted
              from both title and word-count.  Warning: Use this  switch  with
              great  caution.  Currently there are no checks for uniqueness of
              names or overall length. Very long names can easily result  from
              using this feature.

              Same  as  setting:  $CUSTOM_TITLES  = 1; Instead of the standard
              names: nod.html, nod.html, ... the filenames for  each  HTML
              page   are   constructed   using   a   Perl   subroutine   named
              custom_title_hook . The user may define his/her own  version  of
              this subroutine, within a .latex2html-init file say, to override
              the default (which uses the  standard  names).  This  subroutine
              takes  the  section-heading  as  a parameter and must return the
              required name, or the empty string (default).

       -dir <output-directory>
              Same as setting: $DESTDIR = <output-directory>  ;  Redirect  the
              output  to the specified directory.  The default behaviour is to
              create (or reuse) a directory having the same name as the prefix
              of the document being processed.

              Same  as setting: $NO_SUBDIR = 1; Place the generated HTML files
              into the current directory. This overrides any $DESTDIR setting.

       -prefix <filename-prefix>
              Same  as  setting:  $PREFIX = <filename-prefix> ; The <filename-
              prefix> will be prepended to  all  .gif,  .pl  and  .html  files
              produced,  except for the top-level .html file; it may include a
              (relative) directory path. This will enable multiple products of
              LaTeX2HTML to peacefully coexist in the same directory. However,
              do not attempt  to  simultaneously  run  multiple  instances  of
              LaTeX2HTML   using  the  same  output  directory,  else  various
              temporary files will overwrite each other.

              Same as setting: $AUTO_PREFIX =  1;  Constructs  the  prefix  as
              ‘<title>-’  to  be  prepended  to  all the files produced, where
              <title> is the name of the LaTeX file  being  processed.   (Note
              the ‘-’ in this prefix.)  This overrides any $PREFIX setting.

              Same  as  setting:  $NO_AUTO_LINK = 1; If $NO_AUTO_LINK is empty
              and variables $LINKPOINT and $LINKNAME are defined appropriately
              (as  is  the default in the latex2html.config file), then a hard
              link to the main HTML page is produced, using the name  supplied
              in  $LINKNAME.   Typically this is index.html; on many systems a
              file of this name will be used, if it  exists,  when  a  browser
              tries  to  view  a  URL  which  points  to a directory. On other
              systems a different value  for  $LINKNAME  may  be  appropriate.
              Typically  $LINKPOINT has value $FILE.html, but this may also be
              changed to match whichever HTML page is to become the target  of
              the  automatic  link.   Use  of the -no_auto_link switch cancels
              this  automatic  linking  facility,  when  not  required  for  a
              particular document.

       -split <num>
              Same  as  setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 8) Stop
              splitting sections into separate files at this depth. Specifying
              -split  0  will put the entire document into a single HTML file.
              See below for the different levels of sectioning. Also  see  the
              next item for how to set a ‘‘relative’’ depth for splitting.

       -split +<num>
              Same  as  setting: $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = -<num>; (default is 8) The
              level  at  which  to  stop  splitting  sections  is   calculated
              ‘‘relative  to’’  the shallowest level of sectioning that occurs
              within the document.  For  example,  if  the  document  contains
              \section  commands,  but  no  \part  or  \chapter commands, then
              -split +1 will cause splitting at each \section but not  at  any
              deeper  level; whereas -split +2 or -split +3 also split down to
              \subsection and \subsubsection commands respectively. Specifying
              -split +0 puts the entire document into a single HTML file.

       -link <num>
              Same  as  setting:  $MAX_LINK_DEPTH  = <num>; (default is 4) For
              each node, create links to child nodes down to this much  deeper
              than  the node’s sectioning-level.  Specifying -link 0 will show
              no links to child nodes from that page, -link 1 will  show  only
              the immediate descendants, etc.  A value at least as big as that
              of the -split <num> depth will produce a mini  table-of-contents
              (when  not empty) on each page, for the tree structure rooted at
              that node.  When the page has a sectioning-level less  than  the
              -split  depth, so that the a mini table-of-contents has links to
              other HTML pages, this table is located at  the  bottom  of  the
              page,  unless  placed  elsewhere  using  the  \tableofchildlinks
              command.  On pages having a sectioning-level just less than  the
              -split  depth  the  mini  table-of-contents  contains  links  to
              subsections etc. occurring on the same HTML page. Now the  table
              is  located  at  the  top  of this page, unless placed elsewhere
              using the \tableofchildlinks command.

       -toc_depth <num>
              Same as setting: $TOC_DEPTH = <num>; (default is  4)  Sectioning
              levels  down  to  <num>  are to be included within the Table-of-
              Contents tree.

              Same as setting: $TOC_STARS =  1;  Sections  created  using  the
              starred-form  of  sectioning  commands  are  included within the
              Table-of-Contents. As with LaTeX, normally such sections are not

              Same   as  setting:  $SHOW_SECTION_NUMBERS  =  1;  Show  section
              numbers. By default section numbers are  not  shown,  so  as  to
              encourage   the   use  of  particular  sections  as  stand-alone
              documents.  In order to be shown, section titles must be  unique
              and must not contain inlined graphics.

              Same as setting: $UNSEGMENT = 1; Treat a segmented document (see
              the section  about  document  segmentation)  like  it  were  not
              segmented.  This  will  cause  the translator to concatenate all
              segments and process them as a whole. You might find this useful
              to   check  a  segmented  document  for  consistency.   For  all
              documents the sectioning levels referred to above are:
               0  document
               1  part
               2  chapter
               3  section
               4  subsection
               5  subsubsection
               6  paragraph
               7  subparagraph
               8  subsubparagraph

       These levels apply even when the document contains  no  sectioning  for
       the  shallower  levels;  e.g.  no  \part  or  \chapter commands is most
       common, especially when using LaTeXs article document-class.

Options controlling Extensions and Special Features

       The switches described here govern the type of HTML code  that  can  be
       generated,  and  how to choose between the available options when there
       are alternative strategies for implementing portions of LaTeX code.

       -html_version (2.0|3.0|3.2)[,(math|i18n|table)]*
              Same as setting: $HTML_VERSION = ...  ; This specifies both  the
              HTML  version  to  generate,  and  any extra (non-standard) HTML
              features that may be required.  The version  number  corresponds
              to  a published DTD for an HTML standard (although 3.0 was never
              accepted and subsequently withdrawn). A corresponding Perl  file
              in  the  versions/ subdirectory is loaded; these files are named
              ‘html<num>.pl’.  Following the version number, a comma-separated
              list  of  extensions  can  be  given. Each corresponds to a file
              ‘<name>.pl’ also located in  the  versions/  subdirectory.  When
              such  a  file is loaded the resulting HTML code can no longer be
              expected to validate with the specified  DTD.  An  exception  is
              math  when  the -no_math switch is also used, which should still
              validate.  Currently, versions 2.0, 3.2 and 4.0  are  available.
              (and  also  2.1,  2.2, 3.0 and 3.1, for historical reasons). The
              extensions i18n, tables, math correspond roughly to what used to
              be called versions ‘2.1’, ‘2.2’, ‘3.1’ respectively, in releases
              of LaTeX2HTML up to 1996. Now these  extensions  can  be  loaded
              with  any  of  ‘2.0’,  ‘3.2’ or ‘4.0’ as the specified standard.
              The  default  version  is  usually  set  to  be  ‘3.2’,   within

              Same  as  setting: $TEXDEFS = 0; (default is 1) When $TEXDEFS is
              set (default) the file texdefs.perl will be read. This  provides
              code  to allow common TEX commands like \def, \newbox, \newdimen
              and others, to be recognised,  especially  within  the  document
              preamble.  In the case of \def, the definition may even be fully
              interpreted, but this requires the pattern-matching  to  be  not
              too complicated.  If $TEXDEFS is ‘0’ or empty, then texdefs.perl
              will not be loaded; the  translator  will  make  no  attempt  to
              interpret  any  raw  TEX  commands.  This feature is intended to
              enable sophisticated authors the ability to insert arbitrary TEX
              commands  in  environments  that are destined to be processed by
              LaTeX anyway; e.g. figures, theorems,  pictures,  etc.   However
              this should rarely be needed, as now there is better support for
              these types of environment.  There  are  now  other  methods  to
              specify  which  chunks  of  code  are  to be passed to LaTeX for
              explicit image-generation; see the discussion of  the  makeimage

       -external_file <filename>
              Same  as  setting:  $EXTERNAL_FILE  = <filename> ; Specifies the
              prefix of the .aux file that this  document  should  read.   The
              .aux  extension  will  be  appended  to  this  prefix to get the
              complete filename, with directory path  if  needed.   This  file
              could contain necessary information regarding citations, figure,
              table  and  section  numbers  from  LaTeX  and   perhaps   other
              information  also.  Use  of  this  switch  is vital for document
              segments, processed  separately  and  linked  to  appear  as  if
              generated from a single LaTeX document.

       -font_size <size>
              Same  as  setting:  $FONT_SIZE  =  <size> ; This option provides
              better control over the font  size  of  environments  made  into
              images  using  LaTeX.  <size> must be one of the font sizes that
              LaTeX recognizes; i.e. ‘10pt’, ‘11pt’, ‘12pt’, etc.  Default  is
              ‘10pt’,  or  whatever  option  may  have  been  specified on the
              \documentclass  or  \documentstyle  line.   Whatever   size   is
              selected,  it  will  be  magnified by the installation variables
              as  appropriate.  Note: This switch provides no control over the
              size of text on the HTML pages. Such control is subject entirely
              to the user’s choices of settings for the browser windows.

              Same as setting: $SCALABLE_FONTS = 1; This is used when scalable
              fonts, such  as  PostScript  versions  of  the  TEX  fonts,  are
              available  for  image-generation.   It has the effect of setting
              $PK_GENERATION to ‘1’, and $DVIPS_MODE to be  empty,  overriding
              any previous settings for these variables.

              Same   as   setting:  $NO_SIMPLE_MATH  =  1;  Ordinarily  simple
              mathematical expressions are set using the ordinary  text  font,
              but   italicized.  When  part  of  the  expression  can  not  be
              represented this way, an image is made  of  the  whole  formula.
              This  is  called  ‘‘simple  math’’. When $NO_SIMPLE_MATH is set,
              then all mathematics is made into images, whether simple or not.
              However,   if   the   math   extension   is  loaded,  using  the
              -html_version switch described earlier, then specifying -no_math
              produces  a quite different effect. Now it is the special <MATH>
              tags  and  entities  which  are  canceled.  In  their  place   a
              sophisticated  scheme  for  parsing  mathematical expressions is
              used. Images are made of those  sub-parts  of  a  formula  which
              cannot   be   adequately   expressed   using  (italicized)  text
              characters and <SUB> and  <SUP>  tags.  See  the  subsection  on
              mathematics for more details.

              Same  as  setting: $LOCAL_ICONS = 1; A copy of each of the icons
              actually used within the document is  placed  in  the  directory
              along  with the HTML files and generated images. This allows the
              whole  document  to  be  fully   self-contained,   within   this
              directory; otherwise the icons must be retrieved from a (perhaps
              remote)  server.   The  icons  are  normally   copied   from   a
              subdirectory of the

               set  within  latex2html.config. An alternative set of icons can
              be  used  by  specifying  a   (relative)   directory   path   in
              $ALTERNATIVE_ICONS  to where the customised images can be found.

       -init_file <file>
              Load the specified initialisation file. This Perl file  will  be
              loaded after loading $HOME/.latex2html-init, or .latex2html-init
              in the local directory, if either file exists. It is read at the
              time  the  switch  is processed, so the contents of the file may
              change any of the values of  any  of  the  variables  that  were
              previously  established,  as  well  as any default options. More
              than  one  initialisation  file  can  be  read  in   this   way.

              Same  as  setting: $NOFORK = 1; When set this disables a feature
              in the  early  part  of  the  processing  whereby  some  memory-
              intensive  operations are performed by ‘forked’ child processes.
              Some single-task operating systems, such as DOS, do not  support
              this  feature.  Having $NOFORK set then ensures that unnecessary
              file-handles that are needed with the forked processes, are  not
              consumed unnecessarily, perhaps resulting in a fatal Perl error.

       -iso_language <type>
              This enables you to specify a different language type than  ’EN’
              to  be  used  in  the  DTD  entries  of  the HTML document, e.g.
              ’EN.US’.  [change_end] 98.1

              Same  as  setting:  $SHORT_INDEX  =  1;  Creates  shorter  Index
              listings,  using  codified  links; this is fully compatible with
              the makeidx package.

              Same as setting: $NO_FOOTNODE = 1; Suppresses use of a  separate
              file  for  footnotes;  instead these are placed at the bottom of
              the HTML pages where the references occur.  When this option  is
              used,  it  is  frequently  desirable  to change the style of the
              marker used to indicate the presence of a footnote. This is done
              as     in     LaTeX,     using    code    such    as    follows.
              \renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\arabic{footnote}}  All  the  styles
              \arabic,   \alph,   \roman,  \Alph  and  \Roman  are  available.

              Same as setting: $NUMBERED_FOOTNOTES = 1; If  this  is  set  you
              will  get  every  footnote  applied with a subsequent number, to
              ease readability.  [change_end] 98.1

       -address <author-address>
              Same as setting: $ADDRESS = <author-address> ;  Sign  each  page
              with  this  address.  See latex2html.config for an example using
              Perl code to automatically include  the  date.   A  user-defined
              Perl  subroutine  called &custom_address can be used instead, if
              defined; it takes the value of $ADDRESS as  a  parameter,  which
              may  be  used  or  ignored  as  desired.  At  the time when this
              subroutine will be called, variables named $depth, $title, $file
              hold  the  sectioning-level, title and filename of the HTML page
              being produced; $FILE holds the name of  the  filename  for  the
              title-page of the whole document.

       -info <string>
              Same  as  setting:  $INFO  =  <string>  ; Generate a new section
              ‘‘About  this  document’’  containing  information   about   the
              document  being  translated.  The  default is to generate such a
              section with information on the original document, the date, the
              user  and  the  translator.  An  empty string (or the value ‘0’)
              disables the creation of this extra  section.   If  a  non-empty
              string  is  given,  it  will  be  placed  as the contents of the
              ‘‘About this document’’ page instead of the default information.

Switches controlling Image Generation

       These  switches  affect  whether images are created at all, whether old
       images are reused on subsequent runs or new ones  created  afresh,  and
       whether anti-aliasing effects are used within the images themselves.

              Same  as  setting:  $ASCII_MODE = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use only
              ASCII characters and do not include  any  images  in  the  final
              output.  With  -ascii_mode  the  output of the translator can be
              used on character-based browsers, such as  lynx,  which  do  not
              support inlined images (via the <IMG> tag).

              Same as setting: $NOLATEX = 1; Disable the mechanism for passing
              unknown environments  to  LaTeX  for  processing.  This  can  be
              thought  of as ‘‘draft mode’’ which allows faster translation of
              the basic document structure and text,  without  fancy  figures,
              equations  or  tables.   (This option has been superseded by the
              -no_images option, see below.)

              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Instead of including  any
              generated  images  inside  the  document, leave them outside the
              document and provide hypertext links to them.

              Same as setting: $PS_IMAGES = $EXTERNAL_IMAGES = 1; Use links to
              external  PostScript  files  rather  than  inlined images in the
              chosen graphics format.

              Same as setting: $DISCARD_PS = 1; The temporary PostScript files
              are  discarded  immediately  after they have been used to create
              the image in the desired graphics format.

              Same as setting: $NO_IMAGES = 1; Do not attempt to  produce  any
              inlined images. The missing images can be generated ‘‘off-line’’
              by restarting LaTeX2HTML with the option -images_only .

              Same as setting: $IMAGES_ONLY = 1; Try to  convert  any  inlined
              images that were left over from previous runs of LaTeX2HTML.

       -reuse <reuse_option>
              Same  as setting: $REUSE = <reuse_option>; This switch specifies
              the extent to which image files are to be  shared  or  recycled.
              There  are  three  valid  options:  [*]  0  Do not ever share or
              recycle image files.  This choice also  invokes  an  interactive
              session prompting the user about what to do about a pre-existing
              HTML directory, if it exists.  [*] 1 Recycle image files from  a
              previous  run  if they are available, but do not share identical
              images that must be created in this run.  [*]  2  Recycle  image
              files  from  a previous run and share identical images from this
              run.  This is the default.  A later section provides  additional
              information about image-reuse.

              Same  as  setting:  $REUSE  =  0; Do not share or recycle images
              generated during previous translations.  This is  equivalent  to
              -reuse  0  .  (This  will enable the initial interactive session
              during which  the  user  is  asked  whether  to  reuse  the  old
              directory, delete its contents or quit.)

              Same  as  setting:  $ANTI_ALIAS  = 1; (Default is 0.)  Generated
              images of figure  environments  and  external  PostScript  files
              should  use  anti-aliasing. By default anti-aliasing is not used
              with these images, since this may interfere with the contents of
              the images themselves.

              Same   as   setting:  $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT  =  1;  (Default  is  1.)
              Generated images of typeset material such as text,  mathematical
              formulas,  tables  and  the  content  of makeimage environments,
              should use anti-aliasing effects.  The default  is  normally  to
              use  anti-aliasing for text, since the resulting images are much
              clearer on-screen. However the default  may  have  been  changed

              Same  as  setting:  $ANTI_ALIAS  = 0; (Default is 0.)  Generated
              images of figure  environments  and  external  PostScript  files
              should  not  use  anti-aliasing  with  images,  though the local
              default may have been changed to use it.

              Same  as  setting:  $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT  =  0;  (Default   is   1.)
              Generated  images  of  typeset  material  should  not  use anti-
              aliasing  effects.  Although  on-screen  images  of   text   are
              definitely  improved  using anti-aliasing, printed images can be
              badly blurred, even at 300dpi. Higher resolution printers  do  a
              much   better   job   with   the  resulting  grey-scale  images.

       -white Same as setting: $WHITE_BACKGROUND = 1; (Default is 1.)  Ensures
              that  images  of  figure  environments  have a white background.
              Otherwise transparency effects may not work correctly.

              Same  as  setting:  $WHITE_BACKGROUND  =  ;  (Default  is  1.)
              Cancels  the  requirement  that figure environments have a white

       -ldump Same as setting: $LATEX_DUMP = 1; (Default is 0.)  Use  this  if
              you  want  to  speed  up  image  processing  during  the 2nd and
              subsequent  runs  of  LaTeX2HTML  on  the  same  document.   The
              translator  now  produces a LaTeX format-dump of the preamble to
              images.tex which is used on subsequent runs. This  significantly
              reduces  the  startup  time when LaTeX reads the images.tex file
              for image-generation.  This process actually consumes additional
              time  on  the  first run, since LaTeX is called twice -- once to
              create the format-dump, then again to load and use it. The  pay-
              off   comes   with   the  faster  loading  on  subsequent  runs.
              Approximately 1 Meg of disk space is consumed by the dump  file.
              [change_end] 98.1

Switches controlling Navigation Panels

       The following switches govern whether to include one or more navigation
       panels on each HTML page, also which buttons to include within  such  a

              Same  as  setting: $NO_NAVIGATION = 1; Disable the mechanism for
              putting navigation links  in  each  page.   This  overrides  any
              settings   of   the   $TOP_NAVIGATION,   $BOTTOM_NAVIGATION  and
              $AUTO_NAVIGATION variables.

              Same as setting: $TOP_NAVIGATION = 1; Put  navigation  links  at
              the top of each page.

              Same as setting: $BOTTOM_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation links at
              the bottom of each page as well as the top.

              Same as setting: $AUTO_NAVIGATION = 1; Put navigation  links  at
              the top of each page. Also put one at the bottom of the page, if
              the page exceeds $WORDS_IN_PAGE number of words (default = 450).

              Same as setting: $NEXT_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the
              next logical page in the navigation panel.

              Same as setting: $PREVIOUS_PAGE_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to
              the previous logical page in the navigation panel.

              Same  as setting: $CONTENTS_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put a link to the
              table-of-contents in the navigation panel if there is one.

              Same as setting: $INDEX_IN_NAVIGATION = 1; Put  a  link  to  the
              index-page in the navigation panel if there is an index.

Switches for Linking to other documents

       When  processing  a single stand-alone document, the switches described
       in this section should not be needed at all,  since  the  automatically
       generated  navigation  panels,  described  on  the previous page should
       generate all the required navigation links. However if a document is to
       be  regarded  as  part  of  a much larger document, then links from its
       first and final pages, to  locations  in  other  parts  of  the  larger
       (virtual)  document,  need  to  be  provided explicitly for some of the
       buttons in the navigation panel.  The following switches allow for such
       links to other documents, by providing the title and URL for navigation
       panel hyperlinks. In particular, the ‘‘Document Segmentation’’  feature
       necessarily makes great use of these switches. It is usual for the text
       and targets  of  these  navigation  hyperlinks  to  be  recorded  in  a
       Makefile,  to  avoid  tedious  typing of long command-lines having many

       -up_url <URL>
              Same  as  setting:  $EXTERNAL_UP_LINK  =  <URL>  ;  Specifies  a
              universal  resource  locator  (URL) to associate with the ‘‘UP’’
              button in the navigation panel(s).

       -up_title <string>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_UP_TITLE =  <string>  ;  Specifies  a
              title associated with this URL.

       -prev_url <URL>
              Same  as  setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies a URL
              to associate with the  ‘‘PREVIOUS’’  button  in  the  navigation

       -prev_title <string>
              Same  as  setting: $EXTERNAL_PREV_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a
              title associated with this URL.

       -down_url <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_LINK = <URL> ; Specifies  a  URL
              for the ‘‘NEXT’’ button in the navigation panel(s).

       -down_title <string>
              Same  as  setting: $EXTERNAL_DOWN_TITLE = <string> ; Specifies a
              title associated with this URL.

       -contents <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_CONTENTS = <URL> ;  Specifies  a  URL
              for  the  ‘‘CONTENTS’’  button, for document segments that would
              not otherwise have one.

       -index <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_INDEX = <URL> ; Specifies a  URL  for
              the ‘‘INDEX’’ button, for document segments that otherwise would
              not have an index.

       -biblio <URL>
              Same as setting: $EXTERNAL_BIBLIO = <URL> ;  Specifies  the  URL
              for  the  bibliography page to be used, when not explicitly part
              of  the  document  itself.   Warning:  On  some  systems  it  is
              difficult   to   give  text-strings  <string>  containing  space
              characters, on the command-line or via a Makefile.  One  way  to
              overcome  this is to use the corresponding variable. Another way
              is to replace the spaces with underscores (_).

Switches for Help and Tracing

       The first two of the  following  switches  are  self-explanatory.  When
       problems  arise  in  processing  a  document,  the  switches -debug and
       -verbosity will each cause LaTeX2HTML to generate more  output  to  the
       screen.  These  extra  messages  should help to locate the cause of the

       -tmp <path>
              Define a temporary directory to use  for  image  generation.  If
              <path> is 0, the standard temporary directory /tmp is used.

              Print out the list of all command-line options.

       -v     Print the current version of LaTeX2HTML.

       -debug Same  as  setting:  $DEBUG  =  1;  Run in debug-mode, displaying
              messages and/or diagnostic information  about  files  read,  and
              utilities  called by LaTeX2HTML.  Shows any messages produced by
              these  calls.   More  extensive  diagnostics,  from   the   Perl
              debugger,  can  be obtained by appending the string ‘-w-’ to the
              1st line of the latex2html (and other) Perl script(s).

       -verbosity <num>
              Same as setting: $VERBOSITY = <num>; Display messages  revealing
              certain aspects of the processing performed by LaTeX2HTML on the
              provided input file(s). The <num> parameter can be an integer in
              the  range  0  to  8.  Each  higher  value  adds to the messages

       0.     No special tracing; as  for  versions  of  LaTeX2HTML  prior  to

       1.     (This   is   the   default.)   Show   section-headings  and  the
              corresponding HTML file names, and indicators that major  stages
              in the processing have been completed.

       2.     Print environment names and identifier numbers, and new theorem-
              types. Show warnings as they  occur,  and  indicators  for  more
              stages of processing. Print names of files for storing auxiliary
              data arrays.

       3.     Print command names as they are encountered and processed;  also
              any  unknown  commands  encountered  while  pre-processing. Show
              names of new  commands,  environments,  theorems,  counters  and
              counter-dependencies, for each document partition.

       4.     Indicate   command-substitution   the   pre-process   of   math-
              environments. Print the contents  of  unknown  environments  for
              processing  in  LaTeX,  both before and after reverting to LaTeX
              source. Show all operations affecting the  values  of  counters.
              Also  show  links,  labels and sectioning keys, at the stages of

       5.     Detail  the  processing   in   the   document   preamble.   Show
              substitutions  of  new  environments.  Show  the contents of all
              recognised environments, both before and after processing.  Show
              the  cached/encoded information for the image keys, allowing two
              images to be tested for equality.

       6.     Show replacements of new commands, accents and wrapped commands.

       7.     Trace  the  processing of commands in math mode; both before and

       8.     Trace the processing of all commands,  both  before  and  after.
              The  command-line  option  sets  an  initial  value only. During
              processing the value of $VERBOSITY can be set dynamically  using
              the  \htmltracing{...}  command,  whose  argument is the desired
              value, or by using the more general \HTMLset command as follows:

Other Configuration Variables, without switches

       The  configuration  variables  described  here  do not warrant having a
       command-line switch to assign values. Either they represent aspects  of
       LaTeX2HTML  that  are  specific  to  the  local  site,  or  they govern
       properties that should apply to all documents,  rather  than  something
       that  typically  would  change  for  the  different  documents within a
       particular sub-directory.  Normally these variables  have  their  value
       set  within  the  latex2html.config  file. In the following listing the
       defaults are shown, as the lines of Perl code used to  establish  these
       values.  If  a  different value is required, then these can be assigned
       from a local .latex2html-init initialisation  file,  without  affecting
       the  defaults  for  other  users,  or  documents  processed  from other

       $dd    holds  the  string  to  be  used  in   file-names   to   delimit
              directories;  it  is  set internally to ‘/’, unless the variable
              has already been given a value within latex2html.config .  Note:
              This   value   cannot   be   set   within   a   .latex2html-init
              initialisation file, since its value needs to be known in  order
              to find such a file.

              Read  by  the  install-test  script  from latex2html.config, its
              value is inserted into the latex2html Perl script as part of the
              installation process.

              Read  from the latex2html.config file by install-test, its value
              is checked to locate the styles/ directory.

              The   value   of   this   variable   should   be   set    within
              latex2html.config  to  specify  the  directory  path  where  the
              version and extension files can be found.

              This may contain the (relative)  directory  path  to  a  set  of
              customised icons to be used in conjunction with the -local_icons

       $TEXEXPAND = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/texexpand ;
              Read by the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its
              value is used to locate the texexpand Perl script.

       $PSTOIMG = $LATEX2HTMLDIR/pstoimg ;
              Read by the install-test Perl script from latex2html.config, its
              value is used to locate the pstoimg Perl script.

       $IMAGE_TYPE =<image-type>;
              Set in latex2html.config, the currently supported  <image-type>s
              are: gif and png.

       $DVIPS =dvips;
              Read  from  latex2html.config  by  install-test,  its  value  is
              checked to locate the dvips program or script.  There  could  be
              several reasons to change the value here:

                     add   a   switch   -P<printer>   to   load   a   specific
                     configuration-file;  e.g.  to  use  a  specific  set   of
                     PostScript fonts, for improved image-generation.

                     to  prepend  a  path to a different version of dvips than
                     normally  available  as  the  system  default  (e.g.  the
                     printing requirements are different).

                     to  append  debugging  switches,  in case of poor quality
                     images; one can see which paths are  being  searched  for
                     fonts and other resources.

                     to prepend commands for setting path variables that dvips
                     may need in order to locate fonts or other resources.

              If automatic generation of fonts is  required,  using  Metafont,
              the following configuration variables are important.

              $PK_GENERATION = 1;
                     This  variable  must be set, to initiate font-generation;
                     otherwise fonts will be scaled from existing resources on
                     the  local  system.  In particular this variable must not
                     be set, if one wishes to use PostScript  fonts  or  other
                     scalable font resources (see the -scalable_fonts switch).

              $DVIPS_MODE =toshiba;
                     The mode given here must be  available  in  the
                     file,  located  with the Metafont resource files, perhaps
                     in the misc/ subdirectory.

              $METAFONT_DPI = 180;
                     The required  resolution,  in  dots-per-inch,  should  be
                     listed  specifically  within the MakeTeXPK script, called
                     by dvips to invoke Metafont with the  correct  parameters
                     for the required fonts.

       $LATEX =latex;
              Read  from  latex2html.config  by  install-test,  its  value  is
              checked to locate the latex program  or  script.   If  LaTeX  is
              having  trouble  finding  style-files  and/or packages, then the
              default command can be prepended  with  other  commands  to  set
              environment  variables  intended  to resolve these difficulties;
              e.g.  $LATEX = setenv TEXINPUTS <path to  search>  ;  latex  .
              There  are several variables to help control exactly which files
              are read by LaTeX2HTML and by LaTeX when processing images:

                     This is normally set from the environment variable of the
                     same  name.  If  difficulties  occur  so  that styles and
                     packages are not being found, then  extra  paths  can  be
                     specified here, to resolve these difficulties.

                     This  provides  a list of filenames and extensions to not
                     include, even if requested to  do  so  by  an  \input  or
                     \include  command.   (Consult  latex2html.config  for the
                     default list.)

              $DO_INCLUDE = ’’;
                     List of exceptions within the $DONT_INCLUDE  list.  These
                     files  are  to  be  read  if  requested  by  an \input or
                     \include command.

       $ICONSERVER =<URL>;
              This is used to specify a URL to find  the  standard  icons,  as
              used  for the navigation buttons.  Names for the specific images
              size,  as  well  as  size   information,   can   be   found   in
              latex2html.config.  The  icons  themselves  can  be  replaced by
              customised versions,  provided  this  information  is  correctly
              updated  and  the location of the customised images specified as
              the value of $ICONSERVER.  When the -local_icons switch is used,
              so  that  a  copy of the icons is placed with the HTML files and
              other generated images, the value of $ICONSERVER is  not  needed
              within  the  HTML files themselves. However it is needed to find
              the original icons to be copied to the local directory.

       $NAV_BORDER = <num>;
              The value given here results in a border,  measured  in  points,
              around  each icon.  A value of ‘0’ is common, to maintain strict
              alignment of inactive and active buttons in the control  panels.

       $LINKNAME ="index.$EXTN";
              This  is used when the $NO_AUTO_LINK variable is empty, to allow
              a URL to the working directory to be  sufficient  to  reach  the
              main  page  of  the completed document. It specifies the name of
              the  HTML  file  which  will  be  automatically  linked  to  the
              directory  name.   The value of $EXTN is .html unless $SHORTEXTN
              is set, in which case it is .htm .

              This specifies the name of the HTML file to  be  duplicated,  or
              symbolically  linked,  with the name specified in $LINKNAME.  At
              the appropriate time the value of $FILE is  the  document  name,
              which  usually coincides with the name of the working directory.

       $CHARSET =iso_8859_1;
              This specifies the character set  used  within  the  HTML  pages
              produced  by  LaTeX2HTML.  If no value is set in a configuration
              or initialisation file, the default value will be  assumed.  The
              lowercase   form  $charset  is  also  recognised,  but  this  is
              overridden by the uppercase form.

       $ACCENT_IMAGES =large;
              Accented characters that are not part of the ISO-Latin fonts can
              be  generated  by  making  an  image using LaTeX.  This variable
              contains a (comma-separated) list of LaTeX commands for  setting
              the style to be used when these images are made. If the value of
              this variable is empty then the accent is simply ignored,  using
              an un-accented font character (not an image) instead.

       Within  the color.perl package, the following two variables are used to
       identify the names of files containing specifications for named colors.
       Files  having  these  names  are  provided,  in  the  $LATEX2HTMLSTYLES
       directory,  but  they  could  be  moved  elsewhere,  or   replaced   by
       alternative files having different names.  In such a case the values of
       these variables should be altered accordingly.

       $RGBCOLORFILE =rgb.txt;

       $CRAYOLAFILE =crayola.txt;

       The following variables may well be altered from the  system  defaults,
       but  this  is  best  done using a local .latex2html-init initialisation
       file, for overall consistency of style within documents located at  the
       same site, or sites in close proximity.

       $default_language =english;
              This  establishes which language code is to be placed within the
              <!DOCTYPE ... > tag that may appear at the beginning of the HTML
              pages  produced.  Loading  a package for an alternative language
              can be expected to change the value of this variable.  See  also
              the $TITLES_LANGUAGE variable, described next.

       $TITLES_LANGUAGE =english;
              This  variable  is  used  to specify the actual strings used for
              standard    document    sections,    such    as    ‘‘Contents’’,
              ‘‘References’’,  ‘‘Table of Contents’’, etc.  Support for French
              and  German  titles  is  available  in  corresponding  packages.
              Loading  such  a  package  will normally alter the value of this
              variable, as well as the  $default_language  variable  described

              Specifies  how many words to use from section titles, within the
              textual hyperlinks which accompany the navigation buttons.

       $WORDS_IN_PAGE = 450;
              Specifies the minimum page length required before  a  navigation
              panel   is   placed   at   the   bottom  of  a  page,  when  the
              $AUTO_NAVIGATION variable is set.

       $CHILDLINE = "<BR><HR>\n";
              This gives the HTML code to be placed  between  the  child-links
              table  and the ordinary contents of the page on which it occurs.

       $NETSCAPE_HTML = 0;
              When set, this variable specifies that HTML code may be  present
              which  does not conform to any official standard. This restricts
              the contents of any <!DOCTYPE ... > tag which may be  placed  at
              the beginning of the HTML pages produced.

       $BODYTEXT = ’’;
              The  value  of this variable is used within the <BODY ... > tag;
              e.g. to set  text  and/or  background  colors.   It’s  value  is
              overridden  by  the  \bodytext  command,  and can be added-to or
              parts  changed  using  the  \htmlbody  command  or  \color   and
              \pagecolor from the color package.

       $INTERLACE = 1;
              When  set,  interlaced images should be produced.  This requires
              graphics utilities to be available to  perform  the  interlacing

              When  set,  the background of images should be made transparent;
              otherwise it is white.  This requires graphics utilities  to  be
              available which can specify the color to be made transparent.

       $FIGURE_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
              Scale   factor  applied  to  all  images  of  figure  and  other
              environments, when being made into an  image.   Note  that  this
              does  not  apply  to  recognised mathematics environments, which
              instead   use   the   contents   of    $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR    and
              $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR to specify scaling.

       $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.6;
              Scale  factor  applied to all images of mathematics, both inline
              and displayed. A value of 1.4 is a good alternative, with  anti-
              aliased images.

       $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR = 1;
              Extra   scale   factor  applied  to  images  of  displayed  math
              environments.     When    set,     this     value     multiplies
              $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR  to  give the total scaling. A value of ‘1.2’
              is a good choice to accompany $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR = 1.4;.

              This may hold an extra scale factor that can be applied  to  all
              generated  images.   When  set,  it  specifies that a scaling of
              $EXTRA_IMAGE_SCALE be applied when images are  created,  but  to
              have their height and width recorded as the un-scaled size. This
              is to coax browsers into scaling the (usually larger) images  to
              fit  the  desired  size;  when  printed  a better quality can be
              obtained. Values of ‘1.5’ and ‘2’ give  good  print  quality  at

       $PAPERSIZE =a5;
              Specifies  the  size  of  a  page  for  typesetting  figures  or
              displayed math, when an image is to be generated.  This  affects
              the lengths of lines of text within images. Since images of text
              or mathematics should use larger sizes than when  printed,  else
              clarity is lost at screen resolutions, then a smaller paper-size
              is generally advisable.  This  is  especially  so  if  both  the
              $MATH_SCALE_FACTOR  and  $DISP_SCALE_FACTOR  scaling factors are
              being used, else  some  images  may  become  excessively  large,
              including a lot of blank space.

       $LINE_WIDTH = 500;
              Formerly specified the width of an image, when the contents were
              to be right- or center-justified. (No longer used.)

       The following variables are  used  to  access  the  utilities  required
       during image-generation. File and program locations on the local system
       are established by the configure-pstoimg Perl script and stored  within
       $LATEX2HTMLDIR/  as  Perl  code,  to  be  read  by pstoimg when
       required.  After running the configure-pstoimg Perl  script  it  should
       not  be  necessary  to alter the values obtained. Those shown below are
       what happens on the author’s system; they are for illustration only and
       do not represent default values.

        $GS_LIB = ’/usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.02’;
        $PNMCAT = ’/usr/local/bin/pnmcat’;
        $PPMQUANT = ’/usr/local/bin/ppmquant’;
        $PNMFLIP = ’/usr/local/bin/pnmflip’;
        $PPMTOGIF = ’/usr/local/bin/ppmtogif’;
        $HOWTO_TRANSPARENT_GIF = ’netpbm’;
        $GS_DEVICE = ’pnmraw’;
        $GS = ’/usr/local/bin/gs’;
        $PNMFILE = ’/usr/local/bin/pnmfile’;
        $HOWTO_INTERLACE_GIF = ’netpbm’;
        $PBMMAKE = ’/usr/local/bin/pbmmake’;
        $PNMCROP = ’/usr/local/bin/pnmcrop’;
        $TMP  =  ’/usr/var/tmp’; The following variables are no longer needed,
       having been replaced by the more specific  information  obtained  using
       the Perl script configure-pstoimg.
        $USENETPBM = 1;
        $PBMPLUSDIR = ’/usr/local/bin’;




       Nikos  Drakos,   Computer  Based  Learning  Unit,  University  of Leeds
       <>. Several people have  contributed  suggestions,
       ideas, solutions, support and encouragement.  The current maintainer is
       Ross  Moore.   This  manual  page  was  written  by  Manoj   Srivastava
       <>,  for  the  Debian GNU/Linux system, based on the
       LaTeX documentation accompanying the program.