lamboot - Start a LAM multicomputer.
lamboot [-b] [-d] [-h] [-H] [-l] [-s] [-v] [-V] [-x] [-nn] [-np] [-c
<conf file>] [-prefix </lam/install/path/>] [-sessionprefix
<value>] [-sessionsuffix <value>] [-withlamprefixpath <value>]
[-ssi <key> <value>] [<bhost>]
-b Assume local and remote shell are the same. This means that
only one remote shell invocation is used to each node. If -b
is not used, two remote shell invocations are used to each
-d Turn on debugging output. This implies -v.
-h Print the command help menu.
-l Delay hostname-to-IP-address resolution.
-prefix Use the LAM installation specified in </lam/install/path/>.
Not compatible with LAM/MPI versions prior to 7.1.
-s Close stdio on the local node.
-ssi <key> <value>
Send arguments to various SSI modules. See the "SSI" section,
-v Be verbose.
-x Run in fault tolerant mode.
-H Do not display the command header.
-nn Don't add "-n" to the remote agent command line
-np Do not force the execution of $HOME/.profile on remote hosts
Set the session prefix, overriding LAM_MPI_SESSION_PREFIX.
Set the session suffix, overriding LAM_MPI_SESSION_SUFFIX.
Override the internal installation path. For internal use
only, do not use unless you know what you are doing.
It is possible to change the session directory used by
LAM/MPI, normally of the form:
<tmpdir> will be set to LAM_MPI_SESSION_PREFIX if set. Otherwise, it
will fall back to the value of TMPDIR. If neither of these
are set, the default is /tmp.
<suffix> can be overridden by the LAM_MPI_SESSION_SUFFIX environment
variable. If LAM_MPI_SESSION_SUFFIX is not set and LAM is
running under a supported batch scheduling system, $suffix
will be a value unique to the currently running job.
The lamboot tool starts the LAM software on each of the machines
specified in the boot schema, <bhost>. The boot schema specifies the
hostnames of nodes to be used in the run-time MPI environment, and
optionally lists how may CPUs LAM may used on each node. The user may
wish to first run the recon(1) tool to verify that LAM can be started.
Starting LAM is a three step procedure. In the first step, hboot(1) is
invoked on each of the specified machines. Then each machine allocates
a dynamic port and communicates it back to lamboot which collects them.
In the third step, lamboot gives each machine the list of
machines/ports in order to form a fully connected topology. If any
machine was not able to start, or if a timeout period expires before
the first step completes, lamboot invokes lamwipe(1) to terminate LAM
and reports the error.
The <bhost> file is a LAM boot schema written in the host file syntax.
See bhost(5). Instead of the command line, a boot schema can be
specified in the LAMBHOST environment variable. Otherwise a default
file, lam-bhost.def, is used. LAM searches for <bhost> first in the
local directory and then in the installation directory under etc/.
In addition, lamboot uses a process schema for the individual LAM
nodes. A process schema (see conf(5)) is a description of the
processes which constitute the operating system on a node. In general,
the system administrator maintains this file -- LAM/MPI users will
generally not need to change this file. It is also possible for the
user to customize the LAM software with a private process schema.
The bhost file
The format of the <bhost> file is documented in the bhost(5) man page.
lamboot will resolve all names in <bhost> on the node in which lamboot
was invoked (the origin node). After that, LAM will only use IP
addresses, not names. Specifically, the name resolution configuration
on all other nodes is not used. Hence, the the origin node must be
able to resolve all the names in <bhost> to addresses that are
reachable by all other nodes.
A common mistake is to list localhost (or any name that resolves to the
special address 127.0.0.1 -- the loopback TCP/IP device) in a <bhost>
file that contains other nodes. In this case, the address 127.0.0.1
would be sent to each of the other nodes as the address of the origin
node. If the other nodes try to use 127.0.0.1 to contact the origin
node, they will actually be contacting themselves, and would eventually
timeout and fail.
The IP addresses obtained from <bhost> are used for LAM's meta
messages: startup and shutdown of jobs, out-of-band messages used for
coordination, etc. The amount of traffic is fairly low (unless using
the "lamd" mode of MPI message passing, in which case all MPI traffic
will also utilize LAM's meta messages for transport -- see mpirun(1)).
When using the TCP RPI, these IP addresses are also used for MPI
message passing via direct sockets between each pair of nodes.
A common case is where a "master" node has multiple network interface
cards (NICs) -- one that is connected to a public network, and one that
is connected to a private network where parallel jobs are to be run.
To include the master node in a <bhost> file, the IP name (or address)
of the NIC on the private network should be listed in <bhost>. This
ensures that all the other nodes can reach the master node on the
As another example, some configurations have multiple TCP/IP NICs in
each node of a parallel job. One NIC is considered "slow" (e.g.,
10Mbps), while the other is considered "fast" (e.g., 100Mbps). It is
desirable to allow LAM to take advantage of the higher bandwidth on the
"fast" network for MPI messages. As such, <bhost> should list the IP
names (or addresses) of all the "fast" NICs. However, if the LAM RPI
does not use TCP/IP (e.g., the Myrinet/GM RPI), the <bhost> file should
probably list the "slow" NICs so that LAM's meta message traffic does
not cause overhead and potentially detract from performance on the
"fast" network from other high-performance applications.
Delaying hostname lookups
Normally, name resolution of hostnames is done on the machines where
lamboot is invoked. This is done for optimization reasons, so that the
list of hostnames only needs to be resolved once (potentially
minimizing the amount of DNS or other hostname-lookup network traffic).
However, in some non-uniform networking environments, this is not
sufficient because each host may have a different IP address on each of
its peers. For example, host A may have address Z on host B, but have
address Y on host C.
The -l option to lamboot will cause LAM to distribute hostnames to each
node rather than a fully resolved set of IP addresses. Hence, each
node where LAM is booted will do its own name resolution on the list of
SSI (System Services Interface)
The -ssi switch allows the passing of parameters to various SSI
modules. LAM's SSI modules are described in detail in lamssi(7). SSI
modules have direct impact on MPI programs because they allow tunable
parameters to be set at run time (such as which boot device driver to
use, what parameters to pass to that driver, etc.).
The -ssi switch takes two arguments: <key> and <value>. The <key>
argument generally specifies which SSI module will receive the value.
For example, the <key> "boot" is used to select which RPI to be used
for starting processes on remote nodes. The <value> argument is the
value that is passed. For example:
lamboot -ssi boot tm
Tells LAM to use the "tm" boot module for native launching in
PBSPro / OpenPBS environments (the tm boot module does not require
a boot schema).
lamboot -ssi boot rsh -ssi rsh_agent "ssh -x" boot_schema
Tells LAM to use the "rsh" boot module, and tells the rsh module to
use "ssh -x" as the specific agent to launch executables on remote
And so on. LAM's boot SSI modules are described in lamssi_boot(7).
This page should be consulted for specific actions that are taken by,
and how to tweak the run-time behavior of each boot module.
The -ssi switch can be used multiple times to specify different <key>
and/or <value> arguments. If the same <key> is specified more than
once, the <value>s are concatenated with a comma (",") separating them.
Note that the -ssi switch is simply a shortcut for setting environment
variables. The same effect may be accomplished by setting
corresponding environment variables before running lamboot. The form
of the environment variables that LAM sets are:
Note that the -ssi switch overrides any previously set environment
variables. Also note that unknown <key> arguments are still set as
environment variable -- they are not checked (by lamwipe) for
correctness. Illegal or incorrect <value> arguments may or may not be
reported -- it depends on the specific SSI module.
Remote Executable Invocation
All tweakable aspects of launching executables on remote nodes during
lamboot are discussed in lamssi(7) and lamssi_boot(7). Topics include
(but are not limited to): discovery of remote shell, run-time overrides
of the agent use to launch remote executables (e.g., rsh and ssh), etc.
The stdio of each LAM daemon on a remote host that is launched by
lamboot is closed by default. Normally, the stdio of the LAM daemon
launched on the local host is left open so that the internal LAM
tstdio(3) package works properly. However, it is sometimes desirable
to close the stdio of the local LAM daemon as well. For example:
rsh somenode lamboot -s hostfile
This is because rsh waits for two conditions before exiting: lamboot to
exit, and stdout / stderr to be closed. Without -s, stdout / stderr
would not be closed, and rsh (and ssh) will hang even though lamboot
had completed. -s causes the stdout / stderr of the local LAM daemon
to be closed upon invocation, which will allow rsh to complete. Using
-s will not affect lamboot in any other way, but it will prevent the
tstdio(3) package from working properly.
If the -x option is given, LAM runs in fault tolerant mode. In this
mode, nodes exchange ``heart beat'' messages periodically to make sure
all nodes are running and the links connecting them are operational.
When a node's heart beats stop, it is declared ``dead'' and all LAM
nodes (and processes) are notified. This allows users to write fault
tolerant applications that can degrade gracefully, or fully recover by
replacing the defunct node with another (see lamgrow(1)). Since this
mode introduces a performance penalty, it is not activated by default.
Start LAM on the machines described in the default boot schema.
Report about important steps as they are done.
lamboot -d hostfile
Start LAM on the machines described in file hostfile. Provide
incredibly detailed reports on what is happening at each stage in
the boot process.
Start LAM on the machines described in the boot schema mynodes.
laminstalldir/etc/lam-bhost.def default boot schema file, where
"laminstalldir" is the directory
where LAM/MPI was installed
laminstalldir/etc/lam-conf.lamd default process schema file for LAM
recon(1), lamwipe(1), hboot(1), tstdio(3), bhost(5), conf(5), lam-
helpfile(5), lamssi(7), lamssi_boot(7)