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       KAKASI  -  Kanji  kana  simple  inverter  (between Kanji, both Kana and


       kakasi [options] [jisyo1 [jisyo2 [jisyo1,,]]]


       KAKASI In Japanese sentences are often made up  a  mixture  of  Chinese
       characters  (Kanji),  Kana  (Hiragana  and  Katakana) and Romaji (Latin
       phonetical pronunciation).  This program converts  between  these  four
       different ways of writing Japanese.

       This  program  is  useful  for those whose terminal or desktop does not
       support the native display of Japanese.  Also this is a great tool  for
       those  who  are  learning Japanese (international students and children

       A word can be passed into  the  standard  input  (stdin),  then  it  is
       translated  and  output  to  standard  out  (stdout).  In the following
       example the "bunchu" Kanji is converted into Hiragana.

                 kakasi -JH < document

       Since  version  2.3.0  text  with  spaces  in-between  words  has  been
       supported.   In  the following example the output has spaces in-between
       each word.

                 kakasi -w < document

       Since version 2.3.5 level conversion mode has been supported.   In  the
       following  example,  simple  Kanjis  are  left  them  unconverted,  and
       difficult Kanjis are translated into Hiragana.

                 kakasi -l4 < document

       KAKASI It is possible to convert letters  to  alphabetical  characters.
       Also  Katakana  letters in the JIS x0201 character set and the Hiragana
       in the JIS x0208 character set can be converted between each other.

       KAKASI The following character set in brackets which is displayed.

       ASCII (a) Known as "ascii" character set.

       JISROMAN (j)
                 Known as "jis roman" character set.

       GRAPHIC (g)
                 It is the DEC graphic character set.

       Katakana (k)
                 JIS x0201, defined as part of the GR character set.

                 As a matter of convinience, JIS x0208 is  divided  as  stated

       Kanji (J)
                 JIS x0208 characters included between 16 and 94 sections.

       Hiragana (H)
                 JIS x0208 characters included in section 4 (Hiragana)

       Katakana (K)
                 JIS x0208 characters included in section 5 (Katakana)

       Sign (E)
                 JIS  x0208  characters  included in section 1,2,3,6,7, and 8.
                 (Note that section 9-15 are undefined in JIS x0208.)

       Translation between the following character sets are available.

       ASCII        -> JISROMAN, Sign

       JISROMAN     -> ASCII, Sign

       GRAPHIC      -> ASCII, JISROMAN, Sign

       JISx0201 Katakana
                    -> ASCII, JISROMAN, Kana, Hiragana

       Sign         -> ASCII, JISROMAN

       Katakana     -> ASCII, JISROMAN, JISx0201 Katakana, Hiragana

       Hiragana     -> ASCII, JISROMAN, JISx0201 Katakana, Kana

       Kanji        -> ASCII, JISROMAN, JISx0201 Katakana, Kana, Hiragana

       With conversion of ASCII and the JISROMAN  the  alphabetical  character
       conversion  is  done  from  JISx0201  Katakana,  Katakana, Hiragana and


           1. All kanji characters are converted to Hiragana.

               kakasi -JH

           2. All JIS x0208 characters are converted to JIS X 0201.

               kakasi -Hk -Kk -Jk -Ea

           3. All characters are converted to JIS X 0208.

               kakasi -aE -jE -gE -kK

           4. All characters are converted to ascii and words are separated.

               kakasi -Ha -Ka -Ja -Ea -ka

           5. Exchange between Katakana and Hiragana characters.

               kakasi -HK -KH


       Some  character  sets  are  categorized  by  kakasi  and  indicated  by
       following mnemonics: a, j, g, k, E, H, K, J.

             a --- ASCII characters
             j --- JIS ROMAN ( nearly equal to ASCII, "~" and "
                   different ) defined by JIS x0201
             g --- DEC Graphic Characters
             k --- KATAKANA defined by JIS x0201

       E, H, K, and J are included in JIS x0208 character set.

             J --- KANJI characters of JIS x0208.
             H --- HIRAGANA characters of JIS x0208.
             K --- KATAKANA characters of JIS x0208.
             E --- Rest of above characters of JIS x0208 which includes
                   alphabets, numbers, symbols and so on.

       -(from)(to)  means  conversion  from character set (from) to (to).  For
       example, -JK option causes KANJI characters are converted to  HIRAGANA.
       Combinations  in  the  following  table  are  available.  (You must not
       remember it, because the -h shows same information)

             toom|    a    j    k    E    H     K    J    g
                a   |    -    o    o1   o    o1    o1   o12  o
                j   |    o    -    o1   o    o1    o1   o12  o
                k   |              -         o     o    o2
                E   |    o    o         -                    o
                H   |              o         -     o    o2
                K   |              o         o     -

             o  -- converted.
             1  -- converted to Romaji.
             2  -- Kanji -> Kana conversion.


       Unfortunately, several coding systems are used in Japan and  JIS  x0208
       standard  are  changed  at  1983.  Therefore,  KAKASI can automatically
       distinguish the coding system and coding revision and then use the same
       output  coding  system  if  the  document  does  not  include JIS x0201
       KATAKANA.  If JIS x0201 KATAKANA is included  or  you  wish  to  change
       kanji coding system, you may use the next options.

             -i : input coding
             -o : output coding

             jis -- Widely used on the internet. (Ex: fj, jp, .. newsgroups)
                    Derived from ISO-2022 coding manner.
                    newjis: JISx0208 (1983) invoked by ESC-$-B.
                    oldjis: JISx0208 (1978) invoked by ESC-$-@.
             euc,dec -- Often used in UNIX like computers. JISx0208 is
                    assigned to GR ( MSB is 1 ). The major difference between
                    euc and dec is assignment of JISx0201 KATAKANA and
                    the DEC graphic character.
             sjis -- Defined by Microsoft Corp. Widely used on the personal
                    computers ( MSDOS, Mac, .. )


       Kanji kana conversion options. Used with -J? option.  There are 2 types
       of Romaji writing.  The first is the Kunrei method defined by  Japanese
       government,  and  the  second  is  the Hepburn method.  I think Hepburn
       method sounds naturally to foreigners.

             -rhepburn : Hepburn Method (default)
             -rkunrei  : Kunrei Method


             -p: List all possible readings. If there exist two or more
                 possible readings, KAKASI shows them in braces {aaa,bbb}.
             -s: Insert a separate character between words.
             -f: Furigana mode. Shows the original kanji word with reading.
             -c: Skip characters within word. ( default TAB CR LF BLANK )
             -C: Capitalize Romaji word (with -Ja or -Jj option)
             -U: Upcase romaji word (with -Ja or -Jj option)
             -u: Call fflush().
             -w: wakatigaki mode. ’wakatigaki’ is word segmentation for
                 Japanese sentences.


       KAKASI can accept additional dictionary to the system dictionary.   The
       acceptable  format  of  additional  dictionary  is  SKK format, and Wnn
       format, and so on.  Namely, each record is one line  with  two  fields,
       Yomi (reading) and Jukugo(idiom).  Fields are separated with commas (or
       TAB, or blank).  The kanji code is  restricted  to  JIS  or  EUC.   See
       another document named JISYO for more details.


       The behavior is affected by the following environment variables.

              Specifies  a  path  of kanwadict (full-path including filename).
              Default value is $prefix/share/kakasi/kanwadict.

              Specifies a path of itaijidict (full-path  including  filename).
              Default value is $prefix/share/kakasi/itaijidict.


       Hironobu Takahasi <>


              It  is  a  binary  dictionary  of  KAKASI.   It is automatically
              converted  from  kakasidict  by  mkkanwa  when  the  package  is




       Return status except 0 when there is any trouble.


       Report  bugs  to KAKASI Project <>.  Please DO NOT
       CONTACT to the originator (Takahasi-san).


       The content of English manual is not exactly same as that  of  Japanese