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       joe - Joe’s Own Editor


       joe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       jstar [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       jmacs [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       rjoe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       jpico [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...


       JOE  is a powerful ASCII-text screen editor.  It has a "mode-less" user
       interface which is similar to many user-friendly PC editors.  Users  of
       Micro-Pro’s  WordStar or Borland’s "Turbo" languages will feel at home.
       JOE is a full featured UNIX screen-editor though, and has many features
       for editing programs and text.

       JOE also emulates several other editors.  JSTAR is a close imitation of
       WordStar with many "JOE" extensions.  JPICO is a close imitation of the
       Pine  mailing  system’s  PICO  editor,  but  with  many  extensions and
       improvements.  JMACS is a GNU-EMACS imitation.  RJOE  is  a  restricted
       version  of  JOE,  which allows you to edit only the files specified on
       the command line.

       Although JOE is actually five different editors, it still requires only
       one  executable,  but  one  with five different names.  The name of the
       editor with an "rc" appended gives the  name  of  JOE’s  initialization
       file, which determines the personality of the editor.

       JOE is free software;  you can distribute it and/or modify it under the
       terms of the GNU General  Public  License  as  published  by  the  Free
       Software Foundation.  I have no plans for turning JOE into a commercial
       or share-ware  product.   JOE  is  available  over  the  Internet  from


       To  start  the editor, type joe followed by zero or more names of files
       you want to edit.  Each file name may be preceded  by  a  local  option
       setting  (see  the  local  options  table which follows).  Other global
       options, which apply to the editor as a whole, may also  be  placed  on
       the  command line (see the global options table which follows).  If you
       are editing a new file, you can either give the name of  the  new  file
       when  you  invoke  the  editor,  or in the editor when you save the new
       file.  A modified syntax for file names is provided  to  allow  you  to
       edit  program  output,  standard  input/output, or sections of files or
       devices.  See the section Filenames below for details.

       Once you are in the editor, you  can  type  in  text  and  use  special
       control-character  sequences  to  perform other editing tasks.  To find
       out what the control-character sequences are, read the rest of this man
       page or type ^K H for help in the editor.

       Now for some obscure computer-lore:

       The  ^  means  that  you  hold  down the Control key while pressing the
       following key (the same way the Shift key works for uppercase letters).
       A number of control-key sequences are duplicated on other keys, so that
       you don’t need to press the control key: ESC will work in place of  ^[,
       Del  will  work in place of ^?, Backspace will work in place of ^H, Tab
       will work in place of ^I, Return or Enter will work in place of ^M  and
       Linefeed will work in place of ^J.  Some keyboards may give you trouble
       with some control keys.  ^_, ^^ and ^@ can usually be  entered  without
       pressing shift (I.E., try ^-, ^6 and ^2).  Other keyboards may reassign
       these to other keys.  Try: ^., ^, and ^/.  ^SPACE can usually  be  used
       in  place  of  ^@.   ^\  and  ^]  are interpreted by many communication
       programs, including telnet and kermit.  Usually you just  hit  the  key
       twice to get it to pass through the communication program.

       Once  you  have typed ^K H, the first help window appears at the top of
       the screen.  You can continue to enter and edit  text  while  the  help
       window  is on.  To page through other topics, hit ^[, and ^[. (that is,
       ESC , and ESC .).  Use ^K H to dismiss the help window.

       You can customize the keyboard layout, the help screens and a number of
       behavior   defaults  by  copying  JOE’s  initialization  file  (usually
       /etc/joe/joerc) to .joerc in your home directory and then by  modifying
       it.  See the section joerc below.

       To  have  JOE used as your default editor for e-mail and News, you need
       to set the EDITOR  and  VISUAL  environment  variables  in  your  shell
       initialization  file  (.cshrc or .profile) to refer to JOE (joe usually
       resides as /usr/bin/joe).

       There are a number of other obscure  invocation  parameters  which  may
       have to be set, particularly if your terminal screen is not updating as
       you think it should.  See the section Environment variables below.

Command Line Options

       The following global options may be specified on the command line:

       -asis  Characters with codes above 127 will be sent to the terminal as-
              is,  instead  of as inverse of the corresponding character below
              128.  If this does not work, check your terminal server.

       -backpath path
              If this option is given, backup files  will  be  stored  in  the
              specified   directory   instead   of  in  each  file’s  original

       -baud nnn
              Set  the  baud  rate  for  the  purposes  of   terminal   screen
              optimization.   Joe  inserts  delays for baud rates below 19200,
              which bypasses tty buffering so that  typeahead  will  interrupt
              the  screen  output.   Scrolling  commands  will not be used for
              38400 baud.  This is useful for X-terms and other  console  ttys
              which really aren’t going over a serial line.

       -beep  Joe  will  beep  on command errors and when the cursor goes past

       -columns nnn
              Sets the number of screen columns.

              Continued search mode: a search immediately following  a  search
              will  repeat  the  previous  search instead of prompting for new
              string.  This is useful for the the ^[S and ^[R commands and for
              when joe is trying to be emacs.

              Joe  usually  assumes  that  there  is some kind of flow control
              between it and the tty.  If there isn’t, this option  will  make
              joe  output  extra  ^@s  to  the tty as specified by the termcap
              entry.  The extra ^@s allow the terminal to catch up after  long
              terminal commands.

       -exask This  option  makes  ^KX verify the file name that it’s about to

       -force This option makes sure that the last line  of  the  file  has  a
              line-feed which it’s saved.

       -help  The  editor will start with the help screen on if this option is

              Normally the column number and control-key prefix fields of  the
              status   lines   are  on  a  one  second  delay  to  reduce  CPU
              consumption, but with this option they are  updated  after  each

              The  block  highlighting will go away after any block command if
              this option is given.

       -lines nnn
              Sets the number of screen lines.

              Text between  ^KB  and  the  cursor  is  highlighted  (use  with
              -lightoff  and  a  modified joerc file to have drop-anchor style
              block selection).

       -mid   If this option is set and the cursor moves off the  window,  the
              window  will  be  scrolled  so that the cursor is in the center.
              This option  is  forced  on  slow  terminals  which  don’t  have
              scrolling commands.

              This option prevents backup files.

              This  option  prevent  the copyright notice from being displayed
              when the editor starts.

       -nosta This option eliminates the top-most status line.  It’s nice  for
              when  you  only want to see your text on the screen or if you’re
              using a vt52.

       -noxon Attempt to turn off ^S/^Q processing.  This is useful  for  when
              joe is trying to be WordStar or EMACS.

              When this option is active, extra files on the command line will
              be placed in orphaned buffers instead of in extra windows.  This
              is useful for when joe is trying to be emacs.

       -pg nnn
              This  specifies  the  number  of  lines  to keep after PgUp/PgDn
              (^U/^V).  If -1 is given, half the window is kept.

       -skiptop nnn
              Don’t use the top nnn lines of the screen.  Useful for when  joe
              is used as a BBS editor.

       Each  of  these options may be specified in the joerc file as well.  In
       addition, the NOXON, BAUD, LINES, COLUMNS and DOPADDING options may  be
       specified with environment variables.

       The  JOETERM  environment  variable  may be set to override the regular
       TERM environment variable for specifying your terminal type.

       The following options may be specified  before  each  filename  on  the
       command line:

       +nnn   The cursor starts on the specified line.

       -crlf  Joe  uses  CR-LF as the end of line sequence instead of just LF.
              This is for editing MS-DOS or VMS files.

              Joe wraps the previous word when you type past the right margin.

              When  you  hit  Return  on  an indented line, the indentation is
              duplicated onto the new line.

              Typing  overwrites  existing  characters  instead  of  inserting
              before them.

       -lmargin nnn
              Sets the left margin.

       -rmargin nnn
              Sets the right margin.

       -tab nnn
              Sets the tab width.

       -indentc nnn
              Sets  the indentation character for ^K, and ^K. (32 for SPACE, 9
              for TAB).

       -istep nnn
              Sets the indentation step for ^K, and ^K..

              Line numbers are displayed before each line.

              The file is read only.

       -keymap name
              Use an alternate section of the joerc file for the key  sequence

       These options can also be specified in the joerc file.  They can be set
       depending  on  the  file-name  extension.   Programs  (.c,  .h  or   .p
       extension)  usually  have  autoindent  enabled.  Wordwrap is enabled on
       other files, but rc files have it disabled.

Editing Tasks

   Basic Editing
       When you type characters into the editor, they  are  normally  inserted
       into the file being edited (or appended to the file if the cursor is at
       the end of the file).  This is the normal operating mode of the editor.
       If  you  want to replace some existing text, you have to delete the old
       text before or after you type in the replacement text.   The  Backspace
       key  can  be used for deleting text: move the cursor to right after the
       text you want to delete and hit Backspace a number of times.

       Hit the Enter or Return key to insert a line-break.   For  example,  if
       the  cursor  was  in  the middle of a line and you hit Return, the line
       would be split  into  two  lines  with  the  cursor  appearing  at  the
       beginning of the second line.  Hit Backspace at the beginning of a line
       to eliminate a line-break.

       Use the arrow keys to move around the file.  If your  keyboard  doesn’t
       have arrow keys (or if they don’t work for some reason), use ^F to move
       forwards (right), ^B to move  backwards  (left),  ^P  to  move  to  the
       previous  line (up), and ^N to move to the next line (down).  The right
       and left arrow keys simply move forwards or backwards one character  at
       a  time  through the text: if you’re at the beginning of a line and you
       press left-arrow, you will end up at the end of the previous line.  The
       up and down arrow keys move forwards and backwards by enough characters
       so that the cursor appears in the same column that it  was  in  on  the
       original line.

       If  you  want  to  indent  the text you enter, you can use the TAB key.
       This inserts a special control character  which  makes  the  characters
       which  follow  it begin at the next TAB STOP.  TAB STOPS normally occur
       every 8 columns, but this can be changed with the ^T D command.  PASCAL
       and C programmers often set TAB STOPS on every 4 columns.

       If for some reason your terminal screen gets messed up (for example, if
       you receive a mail notice from biff), you can have the  editor  refresh
       the screen by hitting ^R.

       There are many other keys for deleting text and moving around the file.
       For example, hit ^D to delete the character the cursor is on instead of
       deleting backwards like Backspace.  ^D will also delete a line-break if
       the cursor is at the end of a line.  Type ^Y to delete the entire  line
       the cursor is on or ^J to delete just from the cursor to the end of the

       Hit ^A to move the cursor to the beginning of the line it’s on.  Hit ^E
       to  move the cursor to the end of the line.  Hit ^U or ^V for scrolling
       the cursor up or down 1/2 a screen’s worth.  "Scrolling" means that the
       text  on  the  screen  moves,  but  the  cursor stays at the same place
       relative to the screen.  Hit ^K U or ^K V to move  the  cursor  to  the
       beginning  or  the  end  of  the file.  Look at the help screens in the
       editor to find even more delete and movement commands.

       If you make a mistake, you can hit ^_ to "undo" it.  On most  keyboards
       you  hit just ^- to get ^_, but on some you might have to hold both the
       Shift and Control keys down at the same time to get it.  If you  "undo"
       too  much, you can "redo" the changes back into existence by hitting ^^
       (type this with just ^6 on most keyboards).

       If you were editing  in  one  place  within  the  file,  and  you  then
       temporarily  had  to look or edit some other place within the file, you
       can get back to the original place  by  hitting  ^K  -.   This  command
       actually  returns  you to the last place you made a change in the file.
       You can step through a history of places with ^K - and  ^K  =,  in  the
       same  way  you  can step through the history of changes with the "undo"
       and "redo" commands.

       When you are done editing the file, hit ^K X to exit the  editor.   You
       will  be  prompted for a file name if you hadn’t already named the file
       you were editing.

       When you edit a file, you actually edit only a copy of the file.  So if
       you  decide that you don’t want the changes you made to a file during a
       particular edit session, you can hit ^C  to  exit  the  editor  without
       saving them.

       If  you  edit a file and save the changes, a "backup" copy of that file
       is created in the current directory, with a ~  appended  to  the  name,
       which contains the original version of the file.

   Word wrap and formatting
       If you type past the right edge of the screen in a C language or PASCAL
       file, the screen will scroll to the right to follow the cursor.  If you
       type past the right edge of the screen in a normal file (one whose name
       doesn’t end in .c, .h or .p), JOE will automatically wrap the last word
       onto  the  next  line  so  that  you don’t have to hit Return.  This is
       called word-wrap mode.  Word-wrap can be turned on or off with the ^T W
       command.  JOE’s initialization file is usually set up so that this mode
       is automatically turned on for all non-program files.  See the  section
       below on the joerc file to change this and other defaults.

       Aside  for  Word-wrap  mode, JOE does not automatically keep paragraphs
       formatted like some word-processors.  Instead, if you need a  paragraph
       to  be  reformatted,  hit  ^K J.  This command "fills in" the paragraph
       that the cursor is in, fitting as many words in a line as is  possible.
       A paragraph, in this case, is a block of text separated above and below
       by a blank line.

       The margins which JOE uses for paragraph formatting and  word-wrap  can
       be set with the ^T L and ^T R commands.  If the left margin is set to a
       value other than 1, then when you start typing at the  beginning  of  a
       line, the cursor will immediately jump to the left margin.

       If  you want to center a line within the margins, use the ^K A command.

   Over-type mode
       Sometimes it’s tiresome to have to delete old text before or after  you
       insert  new  text.   This happens, for example, when you are changing a
       table and you want to maintain the column position of the right side of
       the  table.  When this occurs, you can put the editor in over-type mode
       with ^T T.  When the editor is in this mode, the characters you type in
       replace  existing characters, in the way an idealized typewriter would.
       Also, Backspace simply moves left instead of deleting the character  to
       the  left,  when it’s not at the end or beginning of a line.  Over-type
       mode is not the natural way of dealing with text electronically, so you
       should go back to insert-mode as soon as possible by typing ^T T again.

       If you need to insert while you’re in over-type  mode,  hit  ^@.   This
       inserts a single SPACE into the text.

   Control and Meta characters
       Each character is represented by a number.  For example, the number for
       ’A’ is 65 and the number for ’1’ is 49.  All of  the  characters  which
       you normally see have numbers in the range of 32 - 126 (this particular
       arbitrary assignment between characters and numbers is called the ASCII
       character  set).   The  numbers  outside  of this range, from 0 to 255,
       aren’t usually displayed, but sometimes have  other  special  meanings.
       The number 10, for example, is used for the line-breaks.  You can enter
       these special, non-displayed control characters by first hitting ‘  and
       then  hitting  a  character in the range @ A B C ... X Y Z [ ^ ] \ _ to
       get the number 0 - 31, and ? to get 127.  For example, if you hit ‘  J,
       you’ll  insert a line-break character, or if you hit ‘ I, you’ll insert
       a TAB character (which does the same thing the TAB key does).  A useful
       control  character  to enter is 12 (‘ L), which causes most printers to
       advance to the top of the page.  You’ll notice that JOE  displays  this
       character  as an underlined L.  You can enter the characters above 127,
       the meta characters, by first hitting ^\.  This adds 128  to  the  next
       (possibly  control)  character  entered.  JOE displays characters above
       128 in inverse-video.  Some foreign languages, which have more  letters
       than  English,  use the meta characters for the rest of their alphabet.
       You have to put the editor in ASIS mode (described later) to have these
       passed untranslated to the terminal.

       If  you  hit  TAB at any file name prompt, joe will attempt to complete
       the name you entered as much as possible.  If it couldn’t complete  the
       entire  name, because there are more than one possible completions, joe
       beeps.  If you hit TAB again, joe list the completions.   You  can  use
       the  arrow  keys to move around this directory menu and press RETURN or
       SPACE to select an item.  If you press the first letter of one  of  the
       directory  entries,  it will be selected, or if more than one entry has
       the same first letter, the cursor will jump between those entries.   If
       you  select a subdirectory or .., the directory name is appended to the
       prompt and the new directory is loaded into  the  menu.   You  can  hit
       Backspace to go back to the previous directory.

       Most  prompts record a history of the responses you give them.  You can
       hit up and down arrow to step through these histories.

       Prompts are actually single line windows with no status  line,  so  you
       can  use  any  editing command that you normally use on text within the
       prompts.  The prompt history is actually just other lines of  the  same
       "prompt  file".   Thus  you  can can search backwards though the prompt
       history with the normal ^K F command if you want.

       Since prompts are windows, you can also switch out of them  with  ^K  P
       and ^K N.

   Where am I?
       Hit  ^K  SPACE  to  have JOE report the line number, column number, and
       byte number on the last line of the screen.  The number associated with
       the character the cursor is on (its ASCII code) is also shown.  You can
       have the line number and/or  column  number  always  displayed  on  the
       status  line by setting placing the appropriate escape sequences in the
       status line setup strings.  Edit the joerc file for details.

   File operations
       You can hit ^K D to save the current file (possibly under  a  different
       name  from  what  the  file  was called originally).  After the file is
       saved, you can hit ^K E to edit a different file.

       If you want to save only a  selected  section  of  the  file,  see  the
       section on Blocks below.

       If  you want to include another file in the file you’re editing, use ^K
       R to insert it.

   Temporarily suspending the editor
       If you need to temporarily stop the editor and go back  to  the  shell,
       hit  ^K  Z.   You might want to do this to stop whatever you’re editing
       and answer an e-mail message or read this man page, for  example.   You
       have  to  type  fg  or exit (you’ll be told which when you hit ^K Z) to
       return to the editor.

   Searching for text
       Hit ^K F to have the editor search forwards or  backwards  for  a  text
       fragment (string) for you.  You will be prompted for the text to search
       for.  After you hit Return, you are prompted to enter options.  You can
       just  hit  Return  again to have the editor immediately search forwards
       for the text, or you can enter one or more of these options:

       b      Search backwards instead of forwards.

       i      Treat  uppercase  and  lower  case  letters  as  the  same  when
              searching.    Normally   uppercase  and  lowercase  letters  are
              considered to be different.

       nnn    (where nnn is a number) If you enter a number, JOE searches  for
              the  Nth  occurrence  of  the text.  This is useful for going to
              specific places in files structured in some regular manner.

       r      Replace text.  If you enter the  r  option,  then  you  will  be
              further  prompted  for  replacement  text.  Each time the editor
              finds the search text, you will be prompted as  to  whether  you
              want to replace the found search text with the replacement text.
              You  hit:  y  to  replace  the  text  and  then  find  the  next
              occurrence,  n  to  not  replace this text, but to then find the
              next occurrence, r to replace all of the  remaining  occurrences
              of  the  search text in the remainder of the file without asking
              for confirmation (subject to the nnn option  above),  or  ^C  to
              stop searching and replacing.

       You can hit ^L to repeat the previous search.

   Regular Expressions
       A number of special character sequences may be entered as search text:

       \*     This  finds  zero  or more characters.  For example, if you give
              A\*B as the search text, JOE will try to find an A  followed  by
              any number of characters and then a B.

       \?     This finds exactly one character.  For example, if you give A\?B
              as the search text, JOE will find AXB, but not AB or AXXB.

       \^ \$  These match the beginning and end of a line.   For  example,  if
              you  give \^test\$, then JOE with find test on a line by itself.

       \< \>  These match the beginning and end of a word.   For  example,  if
              you  give  \<\*is\*\>, then joe will find whole words which have
              the sub-string is within them.

       \[...] This matches any  single  character  which  appears  within  the
              brackets.   For  example,  if  \[Tt]his is entered as the search
              string, then JOE finds both This and this.  Ranges of characters
              can  be  entered within the brackets.  For example, \[A-Z] finds
              any uppercase letter.  If  the  first  character  given  in  the
              brackets is ^, then JOE tries to find any character not given in
              the the brackets.

       \c     This  works  like  \*,  but  matches   a   balanced   C-language
              expression.  For example, if you search for malloc(\c), then JOE
              will find all function calls to malloc, even if there  was  a  )
              within the parenthesis.

       \+     This  finds  zero  or  more  of  the character which immediately
              follows the \+.  For example, if you give \[ ]\+\[ ], where  the
              characters  within the brackets are both SPACE and TAB, then JOE
              will find whitespace.

       \\     Matches a single \.

       \n     This finds the special end-of-line or line-break character.

       A number of special character  sequences  may  also  be  given  in  the
       replacement string:

       \&     This  gets replaced by the text which matched the search string.
              For example, if the search  string  was  \<\*\>,  which  matches
              words,  and  you give "\&", then joe will put quote marks around

       \0 - \9
              These get replaced with the text which matched the Nth  \*,  \?,
              \+, \c, \+, or \[...] in the search string.

       \\     Use this if you need to put a \ in the replacement string.

       \n     Use  this  if  you  need  to put a line-break in the replacement

       Some examples:

       Suppose you have a list of addresses, each on a  separate  line,  which
       starts  with "Address:" and has each element separated by commas.  Like

       Address: S. Holmes, 221b Baker St., London, England

       If you wanted to rearrange the list, to get the country first, then the
       city, then the person’s name, and then the address, you could do this:

       Type ^K F to start the search, and type:


       to  match  "Address:",  the four comma-separated elements, and then the
       end of the line.  When asked for options, you would type r  to  replace
       the string, and then type:


       To  shuffle  the information the way you want it. After hitting return,
       the search would begin, and the sample line would be changed to:

       Address: England, London, S. Holmes, 221b Baker St.

       If you want to move, copy, save or delete a specific section  of  text,
       you  can  do it with highlighted blocks.  First, move the cursor to the
       start of the section of text you want to work on, and press ^K B.  Then
       move  the  cursor  to  the character just after the end of the text you
       want to affect and press ^K K.  The text between the  ^K  B  and  ^K  K
       should  become  highlighted.  Now you can move your cursor to someplace
       else in your document and press ^K  M  to  move  the  highlighted  text
       there.   You  can press ^K C to make a copy of the highlighted text and
       insert it to where the cursor is  positioned.   ^K  Y  to  deletes  the
       highlighted text.  ^K W, writes the highlighted text to a file.

       A  very useful command is ^K /, which filters a block of text through a
       unix command.  For example, if you select a list of words with ^K B and
       ^K  K,  and  then  type  ^K  /  sort, the list of words will be sorted.
       Another useful unix command for ^K /, is tr.  If you type ^K /  tr  a-z
       A-Z, then all of the letters in the highlighted block will be converted
       to uppercase.

       After you are finished with some block operations, you can  just  leave
       the  highlighting on if you don’t mind it (of course, if you accidently
       hit ^K Y without noticing...).  If it really bothers you, however, just
       hit ^K B ^K K, to turn the highlighting off.

   Indenting program blocks
       Auto-indent  mode toggled with the ^T I command.  The joerc is normally
       set up so that files with names ending with .p, .c  or  .h  have  auto-
       indent  mode  enabled.   When  auto-indent  mode is enabled and you hit
       Return, the cursor will be placed in the same  column  that  the  first
       non-SPACE/TAB character was in on the original line.

       You  can use the ^K , and ^K . commands to shift a block of text to the
       left or right.  If no highlighting is set when you give these commands,
       the  program  block the cursor is located in will be selected, and will
       be moved by subsequent ^K , and ^K . commands.  The number  of  columns
       these commands shift by can be set through a ^T option.

       You  can  edit  more than one file at the same time or edit two or more
       different places of the same file.  To do this, hit ^K O, to split  the
       screen  into two windows.  Use ^K P or ^K N to move the cursor into the
       top window or the lower window.  Use ^K E to edit a new file in one  of
       the windows.  A window will go away when you save the file with ^K X or
       abort the file with ^C.  If you  abort  a  file  which  exists  in  two
       windows, one of the window goes away, not the file.

       You  can  hit ^K O within a window to create even more windows.  If you
       have too many windows on the screen, but you don’t  want  to  eliminate
       them,  you  can hit ^K I.  This will show only the window the cursor is
       in, or if there was only one window on the screen to begin with, try to
       fit  all  hidden windows on the screen.  If there are more windows than
       can fit on the screen, you can hit ^K N on the bottom-most window or ^K
       P on the top-most window to get to them.

       If  you  gave  more than one file name to JOE on the command line, each
       file will be placed in a different window.

       You can change the height of the  windows  with  the  ^K  G  and  ^K  T

   Keyboard macros
       Macros  allow you to record a series of keystrokes and replay them with
       the press of two keys.  This is useful to  automate  repetitive  tasks.
       To  start a macro recording, hit ^K [ followed by a number from 0 to 9.
       The status line will display (Macro n recording...).  Now, type in  the
       series  of keystrokes that you want to be able to repeat.  The commands
       you type will have their usual effect. Hit ^K ] to stop  recording  the
       macro.   Hit  ^K  followed  by  the number you recorded the macro in to
       execute one iteration of the key-strokes.

       For example, if you want to put "**" in front of a number of lines, you
       can type:

       ^K [ ^A ** <down arrow> ^K ]

       Which  starts the macro recording, moves the cursor to the beginning of
       the line, inserts "**", moves the cursor down one line, and  then  ends
       the recording. Since we included the key-strokes needed to position the
       cursor on the next line, we  can  repeatedly  use  this  macro  without
       having  to  move the cursor ourselves, something you should always keep
       in mind when recording a macro.

       If you find that the macro you are recording itself has a repeated  set
       of  key-strokes in it, you can record a macro within the macro, as long
       as you use a different macro number.  Also you can  execute  previously
       recorded macros from within new macros.

       You  can  use the repeat command, ^K \, to repeat a macro, or any other
       edit command or even a normal character, a specified number  of  times.
       Hit ^K \, type in the number of times you want the command repeated and
       press Return.  The next edit command you now give will be repeated that
       many times.

       For example, to delete the next 20 lines of text, type:

       ^K \ 20<return>^Y

   Rectangle mode
       Type  ^T  X  to have ^K B and ^K K select rectangular blocks instead of
       stream-of-text blocks.   This  mode  is  useful  for  moving,  copying,
       deleting  or  saving  columns  of text.  You can also filter columns of
       text with the ^K / command- if you want to sort a column, for  example.
       The insert file command, ^K R is also effected.

       When  rectangle mode is selected, over-type mode is also useful (^T T).
       When over-type mode is selected, rectangles will replace existing  text
       instead  of  getting inserted before it.  Also the delete block command
       (^K Y) will clear the selected rectangle with SPACEs and  TABs  instead
       of  deleting  it.   Over-type  mode is especially useful for the filter
       block command (^K /), since it will maintain the original width of  the
       selected column.

   Tag search
       If  you  are  editing a large C program with many source files, you can
       use the ctags program to generate a tags file.  This  file  contains  a
       list  of  program symbols and the files and positions where the symbols
       are defined.  The  ^K  ;  command  can  be  used  to  lookup  a  symbol
       (functions, defined constants, etc.), load the file where the symbol is
       defined into the current window and position the cursor  to  where  the
       symbol  is defined.  ^K ; prompts you for the symbol you want, but uses
       the symbol the cursor was on as  a  default.   Since  ^K  ;  loads  the
       definition file into the current window, you probably want to split the
       window first with ^K  O,  to  have  both  the  original  file  and  the
       definition file loaded.

   Shell windows
       Hit  ^K  ’  to  run  a command shell in one of JOE’s windows.  When the
       cursor is at the end of a shell window (use ^K V if it’s not), whatever
       you type is passed to the shell instead of the window.  Any output from
       the shell or from commands executed in the shell  is  appended  to  the
       shell  window (the cursor will follow this output if it’s at the end of
       the shell window).  This command is useful for recording the results of
       shell  commands- for example the output of make, the result of grepping
       a set of files for a string, or directory listings from  FTP  sessions.
       Besides typeable characters, the keys ^C, Backspace, DEL, Return and ^D
       are passed to the shell.  Type the shell exit command to stop recording
       shell  output.   If  you press ^C in a shell window, when the cursor is
       not at the end of the window, the shell is killed.

Environment variables

       For JOE to operate correctly, a number of  other  environment  settings
       must  be correct.  The throughput (baud rate) of the connection between
       the computer and your terminal must be set correctly for JOE to  update
       the  screen  smoothly  and  allow typeahead to defer the screen update.
       Use the stty nnn command to set this.  You want to set it as  close  as
       possible  to  actual throughput of the connection.  For example, if you
       are connected via a 1200 baud modem, you want to  use  this  value  for
       stty.   If  you  are connected via 14.4k modem, but the terminal server
       you are connected to connects to the computer a 9600 baud, you want  to
       set your speed as 9600 baud.  The special baud rate of 38400 or extb is
       used to indicate that you have a very-high speed connection, such as  a
       memory  mapped  console or an X-window terminal emulator.  If you can’t
       use stty to set the actual  throughput  (perhaps  because  of  a  modem
       communicating   with  the  computer  at  a  different  rate  than  it’s
       communicating over the phone line), you can put a numeric value in  the
       BAUD  environment  variable  instead  (use  setenv BAUD 9600 for csh or
       BAUD=9600; export BAUD for sh).

       The TERM environment variable must be  set  to  the  type  of  terminal
       you’re  using.   If the size (number of lines/columns) of your terminal
       is different from what is reported in the TERMCAP  or  TERMINFO  entry,
       you  can  set this with the stty rows nn cols nn command, or by setting
       the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.

       JOE normally expects that flow control between the  computer  and  your
       terminal  to  use  ^S/^Q  handshaking (I.E., if the computer is sending
       characters too fast for your terminal, your terminal sends ^S  to  stop
       the output and ^Q to restart it).  If the flow control uses out-of-band
       or hardware handshaking or if your terminal is fast  enough  to  always
       keep  up  with  the  computer  output and you wish to map ^S/^Q to edit
       commands, you can set  the  environment  variable  NOXON  to  have  JOE
       attempt  to  turn off ^S/^Q handshaking.  If the connection between the
       computer and your terminal uses no handshaking and your terminal is not
       fast enough to keep up with the output of the computer, you can set the
       environment variable DOPADDING to have JOE  slow  down  the  output  by
       interspersing   PAD  characters  between  the  terminal  screen  update


       Wherever JOE expects you to enter a file name, whether on  the  command
       line or in prompts within the editor, you may also type:

              Read or write data to or from a shell command.  For example, use
              joe!ls’ to get a copy of your directory  listing  to  edit  or
              from  within  the editor use ^K D !mail to
              send the file being edited to me.

              Use this to have JOE append the edited text to the  end  of  the
              file "filename."

              Use  this  to access a fixed section of a file or device.  START
              and SIZE may be entered in decimal (ex.: 123) octal (ex.:  0777)
              or hexadecimal (ex.: 0xFF).  For example, use joe /dev/fd0,508,2
              to edit bytes 508 and 509 of the first floppy drive in Linux.

       -      Use this to get input from the standard input or to write output
              to  the standard output.  For example, you can put joe in a pipe
              of commands: quota -v | joe -  |  mail  root,  if  you  want  to
              complain about your low quota.

The joerc file

       ^T  options,  the  help  screens and the key-sequence to editor command
       bindings are all defined in JOE’s initialization file.  If you  make  a
       copy  of  this  file  (which  normally  resides  in  /etc/joe/joerc) to
       $HOME/.joerc, you can customize these  setting  to  your  liking.   The
       syntax  of  the  initialization file should be fairly obvious and there
       are further instruction in it.


       JOE was written by Joseph  H.  Allen.   If  you  have  bug  reports  or
       questions,   e-mail   them   to   Larry  Foard
       ( and Gary Gray ( also helped
       with the creation of JOE.