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       ispell,  buildhash,  munchlist,  findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin -
       Interactive spelling checking


       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] {-a|-A}
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-h] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S] [-d file]  [-p
              file] [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix [+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2


       Ispell  is fashioned after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on
       Twenex systems.)  The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In  this
       case,  ispell  will  display  each  word  which  does not appear in the
       dictionary at the top of the screen and allow you  to  change  it.   If
       there are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by only a
       single letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of transposed letters,
       or  a  missing  space  or  hyphen),  then  they  are  also displayed on
       following lines.  As well as "near misses", ispell  may  display  other
       guesses  at  ways  to  make the word from a known root, with each guess
       preceded by question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word  and
       the  previous  line  are  printed at the bottom of the screen.  If your
       terminal can display in reverse video, the word itself is  highlighted.
       You  have  the option of replacing the word completely, or choosing one
       of the suggested words.  Commands  are  single  characters  as  follows
       (case is ignored):

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              Space  Accept the word this time only.

              A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

              I      Accept  the  word,  capitalized as it is in the file, and
                     update private dictionary.

              U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually,  all
                     lower-case) version to the private dictionary.

              0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

              L      Look  up  words  in  system dictionary (controlled by the
                     WORDS compilation option).

              X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring  misspellings,  and
                     start next file.

              Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If  the  -M  switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of
       the screen will summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may
       be  used  to  suppress  the  mini-menu.   (The minimenu is displayed by
       default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but these  two
       switches will always override the default).

       If  the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of
       lines of context to be shown at the bottom of the screen  (The  default
       is  to  calculate  the amount of context as a certain percentage of the
       screen size).  The amount of context is  subject  to  a  system-imposed

       If  the  -V  flag  is  given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI
       printable character set will always be displayed in the style  of  "cat
       -v",  even if ispell thinks that these characters are legal ISO Latin-1
       on your system.  This is useful  when  working  with  older  terminals.
       Without  this  switch,  ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if
       they have been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A options (see  below)  also
       accepts the following "common" flags on the command line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -h     The  input  file is in html format.  (This works well for
                     XML and SGML format, too.)

              -g     The input file is in Debian control file format.   Ispell
                     will ignore everything outside the Description(s).

              -b     Create  a  backup file by appending ".bak" to the name of
                     the input file.

              -x     Don’t keep the backup file  (it  is  still  created  when
                     changes are made).

              -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling

              -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

              -P     Don’t generate extra root/affix combinations.

              -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that aren’t in  the

              -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

              -d file
                     Specify  an  alternate dictionary file.  For example, use
                     -d british to  choose  /usr/lib/ispell/british.{aff|hash}
                     instead of your default ispell dictionary.

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

              -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The -n and -t options select whether ispell runs in nroff/troff (-n) or
       TeX/LaTeX  (-t)  input  mode  (This  does  not work for html (-h) mode.
       However html-mode is assumed for any files with  a  ".html"  or  ".htm"
       extension  unless  nroff/troff  or TeX/LaTeX modes have been explicitly
       defined).   (The  default  mode  is  controlled   by   the   DEFTEXFLAG
       installation option.)  TeX/LaTeX mode is also automatically selected if
       an input file has the extension ".tex", unless  overridden  by  the  -n
       switch.  In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\") is found, ispell
       will skip to the  next  whitespace  or  TeX/LaTeX  delimiter.   Certain
       commands  contain arguments which should not be checked, such as labels
       and reference keys as are  found  in  the  \cite  command,  since  they
       contain   arbitrary,   non-word  arguments.   Spell  checking  is  also
       suppressed when in math mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell will find "Ckapter" but not  "SCH".   The  -t  option  does  not
       recognize  the  TeX  comment character "%", so comments are also spell-
       checked.   It  also  assumes  correct  LaTeX  syntax.    Arguments   to
       infrequently  used  commands  and some optional arguments are sometimes
       checked unnecessarily.  The bibliography will not be checked if  ispell
       was  compiled with IGNOREBIB defined.  Otherwise, the bibliography will
       be checked but the reference key will not.

       References for the tib(1) bibliography system, that is, text between  a
       ‘‘[.’’  or  ‘‘<.’’  and  ‘‘.]’’  or  ‘‘.>’’  will  always be ignored in
       TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The -b and -x options control whether ispell  leaves  a  backup  (.bak)
       file  for  each  input  file.  The .bak file contains the pre-corrected
       text.  If there are file opening / writing errors, the .bak file may be
       left  for  recovery  purposes even with the -x option.  The default for
       this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The -B and -C options control how ispell  handles  run-together  words,
       such as "notthe" for "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be
       considered as errors, and ispell will list variations with an  inserted
       blank  or  hyphen  as  possible replacements.  If -C is specified, run-
       together words will be considered to be legal  compounds,  so  long  as
       both  components  are in the dictionary, and each component is at least
       as long as a language-dependent minimum  (3  characters,  by  default).
       This  is  useful for languages such as German and Norwegian, where many
       compound words are  formed  by  concatenation.   (Note  that  compounds
       formed  from three or more root words will still be considered errors).
       The default for this option is language-dependent; in  a  multi-lingual
       installation  the  default  may  vary depending on which dictionary you

       The -P and -m  options  control  when  ispell  automatically  generates
       suggested   root/affix  combinations  for  possible  addition  to  your
       personal dictionary.  (These are the entries in the "guess" list  which
       are  preceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such guesses are
       displayed only if ispell cannot generate any possibilities  that  match
       the  current  dictionary.   If -m is specified, such guesses are always
       displayed.  This can be useful if the dictionary  has  a  limited  word
       list, or a word list with few suffixes.  However, you should be careful
       when using this option, as it can generate guesses that produce illegal
       words.   The  default  for  this option is controlled by the dictionary
       file used.

       The -S option suppresses ispell’s normal behavior of sorting  the  list
       of  possible  replacement words.  Some people may prefer this, since it
       somewhat enhances the probability that the correct word  will  be  low-

       The  -d  option is used to specify an alternate hashed dictionary file,
       other than the default.  If the filename does not contain  a  "/",  the
       library directory for the default dictionary file is prefixed; thus, to
       use a dictionary in the local directory "-d ./xxx.hash" must  be  used.
       This  is  useful to allow dictionaries for alternate languages.  Unlike
       previous versions of ispell, a  dictionary  of  /dev/null  is  illegal,
       because  the  dictionary  contains  the  affix  table.   If you need an
       effectively empty dictionary, create a one-entry list with an  unlikely
       string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.
       If the file name does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the
       shell  variable  WORDLIST  may  be  set,  which  renames  the  personal
       dictionary in the same manner.  The command line overrides any WORDLIST
       setting.   If  neither  the  -p  switch  nor  the  WORDLIST environment
       variable is given, ispell will search for a personal dictionary in both
       the  current  directory  and  $HOME,  creating  one in $HOME if none is
       found.  The preferred name is constructed by  appending  ".ispell_"  to
       the  base  name  of the hash file.  For example, if you use the English
       dictionary, your personal dictionary would be named  ".ispell_english".
       However,  if  the  file  ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the
       personal dictionary regardless of the language hash file chosen.   This
       feature is included primarily for backwards compatibility.

       If  the  -p  option  is  not  specified,  ispell will look for personal
       dictionaries in both the current directory and the home directory.   If
       dictionaries  exist  in both places, they will be merged.  If any words
       are added to the personal dictionary,  they  will  be  written  to  the
       current  directory  if  a  dictionary  already  existed  in that place;
       otherwise they will be written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The  -w option may be used to specify characters other than alphabetics
       which may also appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T"
       to  be  picked up.  Underscores are useful in many technical documents.
       There is an  admittedly  crude  provision  in  this  option  for  8-bit
       international  characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified in
       the usual way by inserting a backslash followed by the octal  character
       code;  e.g.,  "\014" for a form feed.  Alternatively, if "n" appears in
       the character string, the (up to)  three  characters  following  are  a
       DECIMAL code 0 - 255, for the character.  For example, to include bells
       and form feeds in your words (an admittedly  silly  thing  to  do,  but
       aren’t most pedagogical examples):


       Numeric  digits  other  than the three following "n" are simply numeric
       characters.  Use of "n" does not conflict with anything because  actual
       alphabetics have no meaning - alphabetics are already accepted.  Ispell
       will typically be used with input from a file, meaning that  preserving
       parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.  If you
       specify the -l option, and actually type text from the  terminal,  this
       may create problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

       The  -W  option  may  be used to change the length of words that ispell
       always accepts as legal.  Normally, ispell will accept all  1-character
       words as legal, which is equivalent to specifying "-W 1."  (The default
       for this switch is actually  controlled  by  the  MINWORD  installation
       option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to
       be checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want
       to specify "-W 0."  On the other hand, if your document specifies a lot
       of three-letter acronyms, you would specify "-W 3" to accept all  words
       of  three  letters  or less.  Regardless of the setting of this option,
       ispell will only generate words that are in the dictionary as suggested
       replacements  for words; this prevents the list from becoming too long.
       Obviously, this option can be very dangerous, since short  misspellings
       may  be missed.  If you use this option a lot, you should probably make
       a last pass without it before you publish  your  document,  to  protect
       yourself against errors.

       The  -T  option  is used to specify a default formatter type for use in
       generating string characters.  This switch overrides the  default  type
       determined  from the file name.  The type argument may be either one of
       the unique names defined in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or  a
       file  suffix  including  the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no -T option appears
       and no type can be determined from the file name,  the  default  string
       character type declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The  -l  or  "list"  option  to  ispell  is  used  to produce a list of
       misspelled words from the standard input.

       The -a option is intended to be used  from  other  programs  through  a
       pipe.   In  this  mode, ispell prints a one-line version identification
       message, and then begins reading lines of input.  For each input  line,
       a  single  line is written to the standard output for each word checked
       for spelling  on  the  line.   If  the  word  was  found  in  the  main
       dictionary,  or your personal dictionary, then the line contains only a
       ’*’.  If the word was  found  through  affix  removal,  then  the  line
       contains  a  ’+’,  a  space,  and the root word.  If the word was found
       through compound formation (concatenation of two words,  controlled  by
       the -C option), then the line contains only a ’-’.

       If  the  word is not in the dictionary, but there are near misses, then
       the line contains an ’&’, a space, the misspelled word,  a  space,  the
       number  of  near misses, the number of characters between the beginning
       of the line and the beginning of the misspelled word, a colon,  another
       space,  and  a  list of the near misses separated by commas and spaces.
       Following the near misses (and identified only by  the  count  of  near
       misses),  if  the word could be formed by adding (illegal) affixes to a
       known root, is a list of  suggested  derivations,  again  separated  by
       commas and spaces.  If there are no near misses at all, the line format
       is the same, except that the ’&’ is replaced by ’?’ (and the  near-miss
       count  is  always  zero).  The suggested derivations following the near
       misses are in the form:

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each optional pfx and sfx
       is  a string.  Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the same as
       the input word unless such capitalization is  illegal;  in  the  latter
       case   each  near  miss  is  capitalized  correctly  according  to  the

       Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary, and  there  are
       no  near  misses, then the line contains a ’#’, a space, the misspelled
       word, a space, and the character offset from the beginning of the line.
       Each  sentence  of  text  input  is terminated with an additional blank
       line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  &  <original>  <count>  <offset>:  <miss>,  <miss>,  ...,
                     <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For  example,  a  dummy dictionary containing the words "fray", "Frey",
       "fry", and "refried"  might  produce  the  following  response  to  the
       command "echo ’frqy refries | ispell -a -m -d ./test.hash":
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This  mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to figure
       out the spelling of a single word.

       The -A option works just like -a, except that if a line begins with the
       string "&Include_File&", the rest of the line is taken as the name of a
       file to read for further words.  Input returns  to  the  original  file
       when the include file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to five
       deep.  The key string may be  changed  with  the  environment  variable
       INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When  in  the  -a  mode,  ispell will also accept lines of single words
       prefixed with any of ’*’, ’&’, ’@’, ’+’, ’-’, ’~’, ’#’,  ’!’,  ’%’,  or
       ’^’.  A line starting with ’*’ tells ispell to insert the word into the
       user’s dictionary (similar to the I command).  A line starting with ’&’
       tells  ispell  to  insert an all-lowercase version of the word into the
       user’s dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with ’@’
       causes  ispell  to  accept  this  word  in the future (similar to the A
       command).  A line starting with ’+’, followed  immediately  by  tex  or
       nroff  will  cause ispell to parse future input according the syntax of
       that formatter.  A line consisting solely of a ’+’ will place ispell in
       TeX/LaTeX  mode  (similar  to  the -t option) and ’-’ returns ispell to
       nroff/troff mode (but these commands are  obsolete).   However,  string
       character type is not changed; the ’~’ command must be used to do this.
       A line starting with ’~’ causes ispell to set internal  parameters  (in
       particular,  the  default  string character type) based on the filename
       given in the rest of the line.  (A file suffix is sufficient,  but  the
       period  must  be  included.  Instead of a file name or suffix, a unique
       name, as  listed  in  the  language  affix  file,  may  be  specified.)
       However, the formatter parsing is not changed;  the ’+’ command must be
       used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with ’#’ will cause  the
       personal dictionary to be saved.  A line prefixed with ’!’ will turn on
       terse mode (see below), and a line prefixed with ’%’ will return ispell
       to  normal (non-terse) mode.  Any input following the prefix characters
       ’+’, ’-’, ’#’, ’!’, or ’%’ is ignored, as is any  input  following  the
       filename  on  a  ’~’  line.  To allow spell-checking of lines beginning
       with these characters, a line starting  with  ’^’  has  that  character
       removed  before  it  is  passed  to  the  spell-checking  code.   It is
       recommended that programmatic interfaces prefix every data line with an
       uparrow to protect themselves against future changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In  terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with ’*’, ’+’, or
       ’-’, all of which indicate correct words.  This significantly  improves
       running speed when the driving program is going to ignore correct words

       The -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or  -A  options,
       and only on BSD-derived systems.  If specified, ispell will stop itself
       with a SIGTSTP signal after each line of input.  It will not read  more
       input  until  it  receives  a  SIGCONT  signal.  This may be useful for
       handshaking with certain text editors.

       The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or  -A  options.
       If  -f  is  specified, ispell will write its results to the given file,
       rather than to standard output.

       The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification
       on the standard output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will
       also print the options that it was compiled with.

       The -c, -e[1-4], and -D options of ispell, are primarily  intended  for
       use  by  the  munchlist  shell  script.  The -c switch causes a list of
       words to be read from the standard input.  For each  word,  a  list  of
       possible root words and affixes will be written to the standard output.
       Some of the root words will be illegal and must be  filtered  from  the
       output  by other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an example,
       the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce a
       list of words.  For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An  optional expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1 (-e1)
       is the same as -e alone.  A level of 2 causes the  original  root/affix
       combination to be prepended to the line:

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A level of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
       word, with the original root/affix combination followed by the word  it

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A  level  of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to each of
       the level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the length of the root  and
       the total length of all generated words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       Finally,  the  -D flag causes the affix tables from the dictionary file
       to be dumped to standard output.

       Unless your system administrator has suppressed  the  feature  to  save
       space,  ispell  is aware of the correct capitalizations of words in the
       dictionary and in your personal dictionary.   As  well  as  recognizing
       words  that  must  be capitalized (e.g., George) and words that must be
       all-capitals (e.g., NASA), it can  also  handle  words  with  "unusual"
       capitalization  (e.g.,  "ITCorp"  or  "TeX").  If a word is capitalized
       incorrectly, the list of  possibilities  will  include  all  acceptable
       capitalizations.   (More than one capitalization may be acceptable; for
       example, my dictionary lists both "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)

       Normally, this feature will not cause you surprises, but there  is  one
       circumstance  you need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word to
       your dictionary that is at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., the first
       word  of  this  paragraph if "normally" were not in the dictionary), it
       will be marked as "capitalization required".   A  subsequent  usage  of
       this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous
       sentence) will be considered a  misspelling  by  ispell,  and  it  will
       suggest  the  capitalized  version.   You  must then compare the actual
       spellings by eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to
       your  personal  dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using "U" to
       add the original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any word that is in the dictionary  in  all-lowercase  form  may
              appear  either  in lowercase or capitalized (as at the beginning
              of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both
              cases  and  there  is  an uppercase character besides the first)
              must appear exactly as in the dictionary, except as permitted by
              rule  (1).   If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase, it must
              appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The buildhash program builds hashed dictionary files for later  use  by
       ispell.   The  raw  word list (with affix flags) is given in dict-file,
       and the the affix flags are defined by affix-file.  The  hashed  output
       is  written  to  hash-file.   The  formats  of  the two input files are
       described in ispell(5).  The -s (silent) option  suppresses  the  usual
       status messages that are written to the standard error device.

       The  munchlist  shell  script  is used to reduce the size of dictionary
       files, primarily personal dictionary files.   It  is  also  capable  of
       combining  dictionaries from various sources.  The given files are read
       (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to a minimal set of
       roots  and  affixes that will match the same list of words, and written
       to standard output.

       Input for munchlist contains of  raw  words  (e.g  from  your  personal
       dictionary files) or root and affix combinations (probably generated in
       earlier munchlist runs).  Each word or root/affix combination  must  be
       on a separate line.

       The  -D  (debug)  option  leaves  temporary files around under standard
       names instead of deleting them, so that the  script  can  be  debugged.
       Warning:  this  option  can eat up an enormous amount of temporary file

       The -v (verbose) option causes progress  messages  to  be  reported  to
       stderr so you won’t get nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If  the -s (strip) option is specified, words that are in the specified
       hash-file are removed from the word list.   This  can  be  useful  with
       personal dictionaries.

       The  -l  option  can  be  used  to  specify an alternate affix-file for
       munching dictionaries in languages other than English.

       The -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that were built  with
       an   older   affix  file,  without  risk  of  accidentally  introducing
       unintended affix combinations into the dictionary.

       The -T option allows  dictionaries  to  be  converted  to  a  canonical
       string-character  format.   The  suffix  specified  is looked up in the
       affix file (-l switch) to determine the  string-character  format  used
       for  the  input  file;  the  output  always  uses the canonical string-
       character format.  For example, a dictionary collected from TeX  source
       files might be converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The  findaffix  shell  script  is  an  aid  to  writers of new language
       descriptions in choosing affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard
       input if none are given) are examined for possible prefixes (-p switch)
       or suffixes (-s switch, the default).  Each commonly-occurring affix is
       presented  along  with a count of the number of times it appears and an
       estimate of the number of bytes that would be  saved  in  a  dictionary
       hash  file  if  it were added to the language table.  Only affixes that
       generate legal roots (found in the original input) are listed.

       If the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the  following


       where  strip  is  the  string  that should be stripped from a root word
       before adding the affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count
       of  the  number  of  times that this strip/add combination appears, and
       bytes is an estimate of the number of bytes that might be saved in  the
       raw  dictionary  file  if  this combination is added to the affix file.
       The field separator in the output will be the tab  character  specified
       by the -t switch;  the default is a slash ("/").

       If  the  -c  ("clean  output")  option  is given, the appearance of the
       output is  made  visually  cleaner  (but  harder  to  post-process)  by
       changing it to:


       where  strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and <tab> represents
       the ASCII tab character.

       The method used to generate possible affixes will also generate  longer
       affixes  which  have  common headers or trailers.  For example, the two
       words  "moth"  and  "mother"  will  generate  not  only   the   obvious
       substitution  "+er" but also "-h+her" and "-th+ther" (and possibly even
       longer ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the
       output  with  such  affixes, any affix pair that shares a common header
       (or, for prefixes, trailer) string longer than elim characters (default
       1)  will  be suppressed.  You may want to set "elim" to a value greater
       than 1 if your language has string characters;  usually  the  need  for
       this  parameter will become obvious when you examine the output of your
       findaffix run.

       Normally, the affixes are sorted according to  the  estimate  of  bytes
       saved.   The -f switch may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted by
       frequency of appearance.

       To save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times  are
       eliminated;  this  limit  may  be  changed  with the -l switch.  The -M
       switch specifies a maximum affix length (default  8).   Affixes  longer
       than  this  will  not be reported.  (This saves on temporary disk space
       and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are  suppressed.
       (A stem is the word after the strip string has been removed, and before
       the add string has been added.)  This reduces both the running time and
       the  size  of  the  output file.  This limit may be changed with the -m
       switch.  The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have  a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds
       of megabytes).

       The findaffix script requires a non-blank field-separator character for
       internal  use.   Normally,  this character is a slash ("/"), but if the
       slash appears as a character  in  the  input  word  list,  a  different
       character can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell  dictionaries  should be expanded before being fed to findaffix;
       in addition, characters that are not in the English alphabet  (if  any)
       should be translated to lowercase.

       The  tryaffix  shell  script is used to estimate the effectiveness of a
       proposed prefix (-p switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default)  with  a
       given  expanded-file.   Only one affix can be tried with each execution
       of tryaffix, although  multiple  arguments  can  be  used  to  describe
       varying  forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can
       add either D or ED  depending  on  whether  a  trailing  E  is  already
       present).   Each  word in the expanded dictionary that ends (or begins)
       with the chosen suffix (or prefix) has that  suffix  (prefix)  removed;
       the  dictionary is then searched for root words that match the stripped
       word.  Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but
       if  the  -c  (count)  flag  is given, only a statistical summary of the
       results is written.  The statistics given are  a  count  of  words  the
       affix  potentially  applies  to  and  an  estimate  of  the  number  of
       dictionary bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The  estimate
       will  be  high if the flag generates words that are currently generated
       by other affix flags (e.g., in English, bathers  can  be  generated  by
       either bath/X or bather/S).

       The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be expanded (using the
       -e switch of ispell) and sorted, and things will usually work  best  if
       uppercase has been folded to lower with ’tr’.

       The  affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary file
       to produce trial roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix)  are
       examples.   The  addition  parts of the argument are letters that would
       have been stripped off the root before adding the affix.  For  example,
       in  English  the  affix  ing normally strips e for words ending in that
       letter (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

              tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All of the shell scripts contain documentation  as  commentary  at  the
       beginning;  sometimes  these comments contain useful information beyond
       the scope of this manual page.

       It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII
       range text if desired.

       The  icombine  program  is  a helper for munchlist.  It reads a list of
       words in dictionary format (roots plus flags) from the standard  input,
       and  produces  a  reduced list on standard output which combines common
       roots found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which have  differing
       flags  will  have  their flags combined, and roots which have differing
       capitalizations  will  be  combined  in  a  way  which  only  preserves
       important  capitalization information.  The optional aff-file specifies
       a language file which defines the character sets used and the  meanings
       of  the  various  flags.   The  -T  switch  can be used to select among
       alternative string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be
       found in an altstringtype statement.

       The  ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles long
       lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s switch specifies that the
       sort(1)  program  used  to  prepare  the  input  to  ijoin  uses signed
       comparisons on 8-bit characters; the -u switch specifies  that  sort(1)
       uses  unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of join(1)
       are duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page,  except
       that  ijoin  will  not  handle  newline  as a field separator.  See the
       join(1) manual page for more information.


              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist’s temporary files


              Hashed dictionary (may be found in some other  local  directory,
              depending on the system).

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

       /usr/share/dict/web2 or /usr/share/dict/words
              For  the  Lookup  function  (depending  on the WORDS compilation

              User’s private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary


       spell(1),  egrep(1),  look(1),  join(1),  sort(1),   sq(1L),   tib(1L),
       ispell(5L), english(5L)


       It  takes several to many seconds for ispell to read in the hash table,
       depending on size.

       When all options are  enabled,  ispell  may  take  several  seconds  to
       generate  all  the  guesses  at  corrections  for a misspelled word; on
       slower machines this time is long enough to be annoying.

       The hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger) array, so  a
       PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.

       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently
       with contractions.

       Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written
       out,  the order of capitalizations of the same word is somewhat random.

       When the -x flag is specified, ispell will  unlink  any  existing  .bak

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       Munchlist does not deal very gracefully with dictionaries which contain
       "non-word" characters.  Such characters ought to be  deleted  from  the
       dictionary with a warning message.

       Findaffix  and  munchlist  require tremendous amounts of temporary file
       space for large dictionaries.  They do respect the  TMPDIR  environment
       variable,  so  this  space  can  be  redirected.  However, a lot of the
       temporary space needed is for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a partial help
       on systems with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative" is defined as
       accepting the undocumented -T switch).  At its  peak  usage,  munchlist
       takes 10 to 40 times the original dictionary’s size in Kb.  (The larger
       ratio is for dictionaries that already have heavy affix  use,  such  as
       the  one  distributed  with  ispell).   Munchlist  is  also  very slow;
       munching a normal-sized dictionary  (15K  roots,  45K  expanded  words)
       takes  around  an  hour  on a small workstation.  (Most of this time is
       spent in sort(1), and munchlist can run much faster  on  machines  that
       have  a  more modern sort that makes better use of the memory available
       to it.)  Findaffix is  even  worse;  the  smallest  English  dictionary
       cannot  be processed with this script in a mere 50Kb of free space, and
       even after specifying switches to reduce the temporary space  required,
       the script will run for over 24 hours on a small workstation.


       Pace  Willisson  (pace@mit-vax),  1983,  based  on  the PDP-10 assembly
       version.  That version was written by R. E. Gorin in  1971,  and  later
       revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W. B. Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A complete list of contributors is too  large  to  list  here,  but  is
       distributed with the ispell sources in the file "Contributors".


       The  version  of  ispell described by this manual page is International
       Ispell Version 3.1.00, 10/08/93.