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       proj - forward cartographic projection filter
       invproj - inverse cartographic projection filter


       proj [ -bceEfiIlmorsStTvVwW [ args ] ] [ +args ] file[s]
       invproj [ -bceEfiIlmorsStTwW [ args ] ] [ +args ] file[s]


       Proj  and invproj perform respective forward and inverse transformation
       of cartographic data to or from cartesian data with  a  wide  range  of
       selectable projection functions.

       The following control parameters can appear in any order:

       -b     Special  option  for  binary  coordinate  data  input and output
              through standard input and standard output.  Data is assumed  to
              be  in  system type double floating point words.  This option is
              to be used when proj is  a  son  process  and  allows  bypassing
              formatting operations.

       -i     Selects binary input only (see -b option).

       -I     alternate  method to specify inverse projection.  Redundant when
              used with invproj.

       -o     Selects binary output only (see -b option).

       -ta    A specifies a character  employed  as  the  first  character  to
              denote  a  control line to be passed through without processing.
              This option applicable to ascii input only.  (# is  the  default

       -e string
              String  is  an  arbitrary  string  to  be  output if an error is
              detected during data transformations.   The  default  value  is:
              *\t*.   Note  that  if the -b, -i or -o options are employed, an
              error is returned as HUGE_VAL value for both return values.

       -E     causes the input coordinates to be copied  to  the  output  line
              prior to printing the converted values.

              List  projection identifiers with -l, -lp or -lP (expanded) that
              can be selected with +proj.  -l=id gives expanded description of
              projection id.  List ellipsoid identifiers with -le, that can be
              selected with +ellps, -lu list of cartesian to meter  conversion
              factors  that  can be selected with +units or -ld list of datums
              that can be selected with +datum.

       -r     This options reverses the  order  of  the  expected  input  from
              longitude-latitude or x-y to latitude-longitude or y-x.

       -s     This  options  reverses  the  order  of  the  output from x-y or
              longitude-latitude to y-x or latitude-longitude.

       -S     Causes estimation of meridinal and parallel scale factors,  area
              scale  factor  and  angular  distortion, and maximum and minimum
              scale factors to be listed between <> for each input point.  For
              conformal projections meridinal and parallel scales factors will
              be equal and angular distortion zero.   Equal  area  projections
              will have an area factor of 1.

       -m mult
              The  cartesian  data  may be scaled by the mult parameter.  When
              processing data in  a  forward  projection  mode  the  cartesian
              output  values  are  multiplied  by  mult  otherwise  the  input
              cartesian values are divided by mult before inverse  projection.
              If  the  first  two  characters  of  mult  are 1/ or 1: then the
              reciprocal value of mult is employed.

       -f format
              Format is a printf format string to  control  the  form  of  the
              output  values.   For inverse projections, the output will be in
              degrees when this option is employed.   The  default  format  is
              "%.2f" for forward projection and DMS for inverse.

              N  is  the number of significant fractional digits to employ for
              seconds output  (when  the  option  is  not  specified,  -w3  is
              assumed).  When -W is employed the fields will be constant width
              and with leading zeroes.

       -v     causes a listing of cartographic control parameters  tested  for
              and  used  by  the  program  to  be printed prior to input data.
              Should not be used with the -T option.

       -V     This  option  causes  an  expanded  annotated  listing  of   the
              characteristics of the projected point.  -v is implied with this

       -T ulow,uhi,vlow,vhi,res[,umax,vmax]
              This option creates a  set  of  bivariate  Chebyshev  polynomial
              coefficients   that   approximate   the   selected  cartographic
              projection on stdout.  The values low and hi denote the range of
              the  input  where  the  u  or  v  prefixes  apply  to respective
              longitude-x or latitude-y depending upon whether  a  forward  or
              inverse  projection  is  selected.   Res  is  an  integer number
              specifying the power of 10 precision of the approximation.   For
              example, a res of -3 specifies an approximation with an accuracy
              better than .001.  Umax, and vmax specify maximum degree of  the
              polynomials (default: 15).  See also: fproj(1).

       The   +args   run-line   arguments  are  associated  with  cartographic
       parameters  and  usage  varies  with  projection  and  for  a  complete
       description   see  Cartographic  Projection  Procedures  for  the  UNIX
       EnvironmentA Users  Manual  )  and  supplementary  documentation  for
       Release 4.

       Additional  projection  control  parameters  may  be  contained  in two
       auxiliary control files: the first is optionally  referenced  with  the
       +init=file:id  and the second is always processed after the name of the
       projection has  been  established  from  either  the  run-line  or  the
       contents of +init file.  The environment parameter PROJ_LIB establishes
       the default directory for a file reference without  an  absolute  path.
       This is also used for supporting files like datum shift files.

       One or more files (processed in left to right order) specify the source
       of data to be transformed.  A - will specify the location of processing
       standard  input.  If no files are specified, the input is assumed to be
       from stdin.  For ASCII input data the two data values must  be  in  the
       first  two  white space separated fields and when both input and output
       are ASCII all trailing portions of the input line are appended  to  the
       output line.

       Input  geographic  data  (longitude and latitude) must be in DMS format
       and input cartesian data must be in units consistent with the ellipsoid
       major  axis or sphere radius units.  Output geographic coordinates will
       be in DMS (if the -w switch is not employed) and precise to 0.001" with
       trailing, zero-valued minute-second fields deleted.


       The following script
             proj +proj=utm +lon_0=112w +ellps=clrk66 -r <<EOF
             45d15’33.1"   111.5W
             45d15.551666667N   -111d30
             +45.25919444444    111d30’000w
       will  perform  UTM  forward  projection  with  a  standard  UTM central
       meridian nearest  longitude  112°W.   The  geographic  values  of  this
       example  are  equivalent  and meant as examples of various forms of DMS
       input.  The x-y output data will appear as three lines of:
             460769.27     5011648.45


       The proj program  is  limited  to  converting  between  geographic  and
       projection coordinates within one datum.

       The  cs2cs  program  operates similarly, but allows translation between
       any pair of definable coordinate systems, including support  for  datum

       The  nad2nad  program  provides for translation between NAD27 and NAD83
       (also available in cs2cs) in a convenient manner.

       The geod program  provides  the  ability  to  compute  geodesic  (Great
       Circle) computations.


       cs2cs(1U), nad2nad(1U), geod(1U), pj_init(3U),
       Cartographic  Projection  Procedures  for the UNIX EnvironmentA Users
       Manual, (Evenden, 1990, Open-file report 90-284).
       Map Projections Used by the U. S. Geological Survey (Snyder, 1984, USGS
       Bulletin 1532).
       Map ProjectionsA Working Manual (Snyder, 1988, USGS Prof. Paper 1395).
       An Album of Map Projections (Snyder & Voxland, 1989, USGS  Prof.  Paper


                              2000/03/21 Rel. 4.4                      PROJ(1)